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Rachel Chen
Oligosaccharides, in either free or bound forms, play crucial roles in a wide range of biological processes. Increasing appreciation of their roles in cellular communication, interaction, pathogenesis, and prebiotic functions has stimulated tremendous interests in their synthesis. Pure and structurally defined oligosaccharides are essential for fundamental studies. On the other hand, for those with near term medical and nutraceutical applications, their large-scale synthesis is necessary. Unfortunately, oligosaccharides are notoriously difficult in their synthesis, and their enormous diverse structures leave a vast gap between what have been synthesized in laboratory and those present in various biological systems...
February 23, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sehrish Zehra, Ibrahim Khambati, Megan Vierhout, M Firoz Mian, Rachael Buck, Paul Forsythe
There has been increased interest in the use of dietary ingredients, including prebiotics such as human-milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), as therapeutic strategies for food allergy. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of HMOs is important to realizing their therapeutic potential. Here we demonstrate that the HMO, 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL) inhibited chemokine (IL-8 and CCL20) release from T-84 and HT-29 cells stimulated with antigen-antibody complex, TNFα or PGE2 ; an effect that was PPARγ dependent and associated with decreased activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Maria Wiese, Bekzod Khakimov, Sebastian Nielsen, Helena Sørensen, Frans van den Berg, Dennis Sandris Nielsen
Driven by the growing recognition of the influence of the gut microbiota (GM) on human health and disease, there is a rapidly increasing interest in understanding how dietary components, pharmaceuticals and pre- and probiotics influence GM. In vitro colon models represent an attractive tool for this purpose. With the dual objective of facilitating the investigation of rare and expensive compounds, as well as an increased throughput, we have developed a prototype in vitro parallel gut microbial fermentation screening tool with a working volume of only 5 ml consisting of five parallel reactor units that can be expanded with multiples of five to increase throughput...
2018: PeerJ
Silvia Arboleya, Francesca Bottacini, Mary O'Connell-Motherway, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross, Douwe van Sinderen, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium longum is a common member of the human gut microbiota and is frequently present at high numbers in the gut microbiota of humans throughout life, thus indicative of a close symbiotic host-microbe relationship. Different mechanisms may be responsible for the high competitiveness of this taxon in its human host to allow stable establishment in the complex and dynamic intestinal microbiota environment. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic and metabolic diversity in a set of 20 B...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
Birgitte Zeuner, Jan Muschiol, Jesper Holck, Mateusz Lezyk, Mattias Raae Gedde, Carsten Jers, Jørn Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Anne S Meyer
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) constitute a unique family of bioactive lactose-based molecules present in human breast milk. HMOs are of major importance for infant health and development but also virtually absent from bovine milk used for infant formula. Among the HMOs, the fucosylated species are the most abundant. Transfucosylation catalysed by retaining α-l-fucosidases is a new route for manufacturing biomimetic HMOs. Seven α-l-fucosidases from glycosyl hydrolase family 29 were expressed, characterized in terms of substrate specificity and thermal stability, and shown to be able to catalyse transfucosylation...
March 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
Amanda D Lowe, Sami Bawazeer, David G Watson, Suzanne McGill, Richard J S Burchmore, P P Paddy Pomeroy, Malcolm W Kennedy
True seals have the shortest lactation periods of any group of placental mammal. Most are capital breeders that undergo short, intense lactations, during which they fast while transferring substantial proportions of their body reserves to their pups, which they then abruptly wean. Milk was collected from Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) periodically from birth until near weaning. Milk protein profiles matured within 24 hours or less, indicating the most rapid transition from colostrum to mature phase lactation yet observed...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel A Medina, Francisco Pinto, Aline Ovalle, Pamela Thomson, Daniel Garrido
Composition of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet. Milk or formula oligosaccharides act as prebiotics, bioactives that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes. The influence of prebiotics on microbial interactions is not well understood. Here we investigated the transformation of prebiotics by a consortium of four representative species of the infant gut microbiome, and how their interactions changed with dietary substrates. First, we optimized a culture medium resembling certain infant gut parameters...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marek W J Whitehead, Nikolay Khanzhin, Lubor Borsig, Thierry Hennet
The structural complexity of glycosylation restrains the functional characterization of glycans. We present a versatile carbohydrate ligation technique based on the reaction of cyclic carbamates with primary amines. Cyclic-carbamate-derivatized carbohydrates can be added to primary amine-containing molecules in aqueous solution to yield glycoconjugates. This method enabled the presentation of carbohydrate epitopes on live animal cells, as shown by the acquisition of E-selectin binding sites on mouse MC-38 cells decorated with 3-fucosyllactose or 3-fucosyl-3-sialyllactose...
November 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
Hai Yu, Yanhong Li, Zhigang Wu, Lei Li, Jie Zeng, Chao Zhao, Yijing Wu, Nova Tasnima, Jing Wang, Huaide Liu, Madhusudhan Reddy Gadi, Wanyi Guan, Peng G Wang, Xi Chen
Helicobacter pylori α1-3/4-fucosyltransferase (Hp3/4FT) was expressed in Escherichia coli at a level of 30 mg L-1 culture and used as a diverse catalyst in a one-pot multienzyme (OPME) system for high-yield production of l-fucose-containing carbohydrates including Lewis antigens such as Lewis a, b, and x, O-sulfated Lewis x, and sialyl Lewis x and human milk fucosides such as 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) III, and lacto-N-difuco-hexaose (LNDFH) II and III. Noticeably, while difucosylation of tetrasaccharides was readily achieved using an excess amount of donor, the synthesis of LNFP III was achieved by Hp3/4FT-catalyzed selective fucosylation of the N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) component in lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT)...
October 5, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Márkó Grabarics, Orsolya Csernák, Réka Balogh, Szabolcs Béni
Human breast milk is the gold standard for infant feeding and the best possible nourishment a new-born could have. Breastfeeding is the natural way to provide optimal nutritional, immunological and emotional nurturing for the healthy growth and development of infants. Human milk is a complex and dynamic biofluid comprised of many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive structures, among which one of the most abundant substances are the non-conjugated complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Taksawan Thongaram, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, JoMay Chow, Michael J Miller
Human milk contains high concentrations of nondigestible complex oligosaccharides (human milk oligosaccharides; HMO) that reach the colon and are subsequently fermented by the infant gut microbiota. Using a high-throughput, low-volume growth determination, we evaluated the ability of 12 lactobacilli and 12 bifidobacteria strains, including several commercial probiotics, to ferment HMO and their constituent monomers. Of the 24 strains tested, only Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis ATCC 15697 and Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 were able to ferment 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 2'-fucosyllactose, and 3'-fucosyllactose...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Georg A Sprenger, Florian Baumgärtner, Christoph Albermann
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are almost unique constituents of breast milk and are not found in appreciable amounts in cow milk. Due to several positive aspects of HMO for the development, health, and wellbeing of infants, production of HMO would be desirable. As a result, scientists from different disciplines have developed methods for the preparation of single HMO compounds. Here, we review approaches to HMO preparation by (chemo-)enzymatic syntheses or by whole-cell biotransformation with recombinant bacterial cells...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Daniel R Laucirica, Vassilis Triantis, Ruud Schoemaker, Mary K Estes, Sasirekha Ramani
Background: Oligosaccharides in milk act as soluble decoy receptors and prevent pathogen adhesion to the infant gut. Milk oligosaccharides reduce infectivity of a porcine rotavirus strain; however, the effects on human rotaviruses are less well understood.Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of specific and abundant milk oligosaccharides on the infectivity of 2 globally dominant human rotavirus strains.Methods: Four milk oligosaccharides-2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and galacto-oligosaccharides-were tested for their effects on the infectivity of human rotaviruses G1P[8] and G2P[4] through fluorescent focus assays on African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA104 cells)...
September 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Anna Koromyslova, Shailesh Tripathi, Vasily Morozov, Horst Schroten, Grant S Hansman
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Norovirus interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are known to be important for an infection. In this study, we identified the HBGA binding pocket for an emerging GII genotype 17 (GII.17) variant using X-ray crystallography. The GII.17 variant bound the HBGA with an equivalent set of residues as the leading pandemic GII.4 variants. These structural data highlights the conserved nature of HBGA binding site between prevalent GII noroviruses...
August 2017: Virology
Sarah S Comstock, Min Li, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Theresa B Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon M Donovan
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory actions. It has previously been reported that these oligosaccharides contribute to the reduced duration of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in pigs.Objective: We measured the effects of HMOs and prebiotic oligosaccharides on immune cell populations from noninfected and rotavirus-infected pigs. We hypothesized that dietary HMOs would modulate systemic and gastrointestinal immunity.Methods: Colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were fed formula, formula with 4 g HMOs/L (2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and free sialic acid), or formula with 3...
June 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Jing Li, Qiangchuan Hou, Jiachao Zhang, Haiyan Xu, Zhihong Sun, Bilige Menghe, Heping Zhang
Gut microbiota is a determining factor in human physiological functions and health. It is commonly accepted that diet has a major influence on the gut microbial community, however, the effects of diet is not fully understood. The typical Mongolian diet is characterized by high and frequent consumption of fermented dairy products and red meat, and low level of carbohydrates. In this study, the gut microbiota profile of 26 Mongolians whom consumed wheat, rice and oat as the sole carbohydrate staple food for a week each consecutively was determined...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michelle K McGuire, Courtney L Meehan, Mark A McGuire, Janet E Williams, James Foster, Daniel W Sellen, Elizabeth W Kamau-Mbuthia, Egidioh W Kamundia, Samwel Mbugua, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, Linda J Kvist, Gloria E Otoo, Sarah L Brooker, William J Price, Bahman Shafii, Caitlyn Placek, Kimberly A Lackey, Bianca Robertson, Susana Manzano, Lorena Ruíz, Juan M Rodríguez, Rossina G Pareja, Lars Bode
Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability.Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations...
May 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Seppo Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides are key components of human milk and appear in various compositions and concentrations in all human milks. In regulatory sense human milk oligosaccharides are classified as novel foods or novel food ingredients requiring safety assessment. In addition, if any health messages are intended to be used also health claim regulations apply. This chapter reviews the regulatory settings and studies human milk oligosaccharides are required to fulfill to be able to enter markets in European Union or United States or elsewhere...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Di Huang, Kexin Yang, Jia Liu, Yingying Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Ru Wang, Bin Liu, Lu Feng
Fucosyllactoses, including 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), are important oligosaccharides in human milk that are commonly used as nutritional additives in infant formula due to their biological functions, such as the promotion of bifidobacteria growth, inhibition of pathogen infection, and improvement of immune response. In this study, we developed a synthetic biology approach to promote the efficient biosynthesis of 2'-FL and 3-FL in engineered Escherichia coli. To boost the production of 2'-FL and 3-FL, multiple modular optimization strategies were applied in a plug-and-play manner...
May 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Clarissa Schwab, Hans-Joachim Ruscheweyh, Vera Bunesova, Van Thanh Pham, Niko Beerenwinkel, Christophe Lacroix
Fucosyllactoses (2'- or 3'-FL) account for up to 20% of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Infant bifidobacteria, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, utilize the lactose moiety to form lactate and acetate, and metabolize L-fucose to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). Eubacterium hallii is a common member of the adult gut microbiota that can produce butyrate from lactate and acetate, and convert 1,2-PD to propionate. Recently, a Swiss cohort study identified E. hallii as one of the first butyrate producers in the infant gut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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