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study design

Wenjian Bi, Yun Li, Matthew P Smeltzer, Guimin Gao, Shengli Zhao, Guolian Kang
It has been well acknowledged that methods for secondary trait (ST) association analyses under a case-control design (ST$_{\text{CC}}$) should carefully consider the sampling process to avoid biased risk estimates. A similar situation also exists in the extreme phenotype sequencing (EPS) designs, which is to select subjects with extreme values of continuous primary phenotype for sequencing. EPS designs are commonly used in modern epidemiological and clinical studies such as the well-known National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project...
July 11, 2018: Biostatistics
Lorna Guinness, Repon C Paul, Joao S Martins, Auguste Asante, Jennifer A Price, Andrew Hayen, Stephen Jan, Ana Soares, Virginia Wiseman
Background: Health financing and delivery reforms designed to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) need to be informed by an understanding of factors that both promote access to health care and undermine it. This study examines the level of health care utilisation in Timor-Leste and the factors that drive it. Methods: Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of health care utilisation in 1712 households were used to develop multilevel models exploring how need and predisposing and enabling factors explain health care utilisation at both primary and secondary care facilities...
July 11, 2018: International Health
Meital Zur, Racheli Magnezi, Shirley Portuguese, Inbal Reuveni, Ron Kedem, Eyal Fruchter
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in 5.9-7.1% of children and adolescents, and 5% of adults. It results in poor academic, occupational, and social functioning. Pharmacotherapy improves core symptoms; however, average adherence levels are low and decrease at 16-17 years of age, just before the recruitment age to Israel Defense Forces (IDF). This study evaluated the effect of adherence to ADHD pharmacotherapy on occupational performance among soldiers...
July 11, 2018: Military Medicine
Sara Lukmanji, K Chelsea Altura, Bertil Rydenhag, Kristina Malmgren, Samuel Wiebe, Nathalie Jetté
OBJECTIVE: The Canadian Appropriateness of Epilepsy Surgery (CASES) tool was developed to help physicians identify patients who should be referred for an epilepsy surgery evaluation. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of this tool using a population-based cohort registry (the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register) of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery between 1990 and 2012. METHODS: Overall, 1044 patients met eligibility criteria for the study and were deemed to be surgical candidates by epilepsy experts...
June 28, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Hualong Xi, Xiangyu Meng, Tiejun Gu, Zhuang Li, Yue Cheng, Qing Sun, Kaixin Zhang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are a unique and attractive class of biologics and are potential substitutes for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. The safety, tolerance, and broad neutralization efficiency of a MAb cocktail called CL184, composed of the antibodies CR4098 and CR57, was confirmed in a phase I clinical trial. We have prepared a series of single-chain Fv fragments (scFvs) and leucine zipper Fv fragments (zipFvs) from CR57 and CR4098. In this study, we selected and formed scFv and zipFv cocktails and compared their protective effects against the rabies virus...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
B A Rakha, M S Ansari, S Akhter, J Santiago-Moreno, E Blesbois
Egg yolk is a good external cryoprotectant of mammalian sperm and some wild bird's sperm, but, at least in domestic breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), it may inhibit eventual fertilization of ova when high concentrations are used. We hypothesized that egg yolk can protect the sperm from cryo-induced damages providing adequate fertilization in one phylogenetic wild ancestor of current chicken breeds: the Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi). To test the hypothesis, the present study was designed to evaluate different concentrations of egg yolk in extender in comparison with glycerol...
June 28, 2018: Theriogenology
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Patrícia Anacleto, Carolina Camacho, Sara Cunha, José O Fernandes, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Rui Rosa, António Marques, Mário Diniz
Pharmaceutical drugs, such as diclofenac (DCF), are frequently detected in the marine environment, and recent evidence has pointed out their toxicity to non-target marine biota. Concomitantly, altered environmental conditions associated with climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also affect the physiology of marine organisms. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceutical exposure and climate change-related stressors) still require a deeper understanding...
June 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Andrea Cockett, Carole Jackson
OBJECTIVE: To explore the literature relating to the use of rubrics in Higher Education. DESIGN: A systematic search using three databases was undertaken, the question used to guide the search strategy was: What are the benefits and challenges of using rubrics as part of the assessment process in Higher Education? DATA SOURCES: Three electronic databases were searched: British Education Index, Education Resources Information Centre and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature...
June 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Ilana Dubovi
BACKGROUND: Online computer-based simulations are becoming more widespread in nursing education. Therefore, an understanding of when and how to implement the variety of instructional strategies related to these simulations is fundamental. OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effectiveness of online computer-based simulations designed using two alternative instructional approaches-Productive Failure and Simple-to-Complex sequencing-on learning of clinical reasoning skills...
July 6, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Maree Johnson, Tracy Levett-Jones, R Langdon, Gabrielle Weidemann, Elizabeth Manias, Bronwyn Everett
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the perceptions of nurses of an e-learning educational program to encourage the use of behavioural strategies-blocking, engaging, mediating, multitasking, and preventing-to reduce the negative effects of interruptions during medication administration. DESIGN: A qualitative design was used to evaluate the impact of this e-learning educational intervention on nurses' behaviour. SETTINGS: Two wards (palliative care and aged care) from two different hospitals within a large local health service within Sydney Australia, were included in the study...
June 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Elizabeth Aquino, Young-Me Lee, Nadia Spawn, Jessica Bishop-Royse
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the great demands placed on many nursing faculty put them at high risk for job burnout; there are limited studies exploring the relationship between burnout and leaving their academic positions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to address the national nursing faculty shortage by examining demographics, teaching preparation in the doctoral program, and burnout to determine intent to leave nursing academia among PhD and DNP-prepared nursing faculty...
June 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Farzana Rahiman, Usuf Chikte, Gail D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Nurses in sub-Saharan Africa are particularly at a higher risk of acquiring nosocomial infections, considering the increased prevalence of infectious diseases. It is therefore imperative that these nurses have a sound knowledge and understanding of infection prevention procedures. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning infection prevention and control precautions among nursing students in a resource limited setting...
June 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Jung Hee Kim, Myung-Haeng Hur, Hyun-Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Nursing handovers are a crucial nursing practice for patient safety and continuity of nursing care. As a strategy to improve nursing handovers, it has been suggested that new graduate nurses receive training in how to conduct handovers. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of simulation-based handover training and peer-learning handover training on clinical competence regarding handovers and clinical judgment among new graduate nurses...
June 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
J-L Rault, A J Lawrence, C R Ralph
Environment enrichment is a rising topic for animal welfare but measures to identify effective enrichment interventions are lacking. In humans and rodent species, environmental enrichment increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neurotrophin in the brain. Higher BDNF concentration is ultimately linked to higher stress resilience, and BDNF in the hippocampus enhances learning and memory. In addition, BDNF concentrations in the brain and blood are correlated, offering the opportunity to use peripheral BDNF as a minimally invasive measure of effective enrichment reflecting neural changes...
June 4, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Stefanie Thevelin, Anne Spinewine, Jean-Baptiste Beuscart, Benoit Boland, Sophie Marien, Fanny Vaillant, Ingeborg Wilting, Ariel Vondeling, Carmen Floriani, Claudio Schneider, Jacques Donzé, Nicolas Rodondi, Shane Cullinan, Denis O'Mahony, Olivia Dalleur
AIM: We aimed to develop a standardized chart review method to identify drug-related hospital admissions (DRA) in older people caused by non-preventable adverse drug reactions and preventable medication errors including overuse, underuse and misuse of medications: the DRA adjudication guide. METHODS: The DRA adjudication guide was developed based on design and test iterations with international and multidisciplinary input in 4 subsequent steps: literature review, evaluation of content validity using a Delphi consensus technique, a pilot test and a reliability study...
July 14, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Bruna Regina Zaccarim, Fernanda de Oliveira, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano Passarini, Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Lara Durães Sette, Angela Faustino Jozala, Maria Francisca Simas Teixeira, Valéria de Carvalho Santos Ebinuma
The population's interest in health products is increasing day by day. Thus, the demand for natural products as additives for food and pharmaceutical commodities is also growing. Colorants are additives that provide color to products and can be produced by microorganisms via various bioprocesses. In the search for new sources of natural colorants, fungi have been employed to produce novel and safer natural colorants. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to describe a Talaromyces species able to produce natural colorants and investigate the nutritional parameters for colorant production using statistical tools...
July 14, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
C Yeow, L Greaney, C Foy, W King, B Patel
The Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficulties in tracheal intubation in adults have generated much discussion regarding Plan D: emergency front-of-neck access with a scalpel-bougie cricothyroidotomy technique. There is concern that this technique may not provide an adequate pathway for the bougie and subsequently the tracheal tube, especially in obese patients with deeper airway structures. This could lead to the formation of a false passage, trauma and failure. A novel cricothyroidotomy introducer, 8 mm wide and 170 mm long, with a sharp leading edge and guiding channel to pass a bougie into the trachea, has been designed to complement the scalpel cricothyroidotomy technique...
July 13, 2018: Anaesthesia
Steven Paul Hafner, Stephanie Craig Rushing
Emerging adulthood (18-25) is a period of increased risk for adverse sexual health outcomes. While anyone in this age group is at elevated risk, American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth and emerging adults face unique factors that influence their risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To address this increased risk among AI/AN youth, culturally appropriate interventions are necessary. This study reports the results of a video-based sexual health intervention designed specifically for AI/AN youth and emerging adults (15-24 years old) on risk changing perceptions...
July 14, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Moumita Mukherjee, Pinki Saha Sardar, Pritam Roy, Swagata Dasgupta, Maitrayee Basu Roy, Sanjib Ghosh
A ternary system comprising of a Eu(III) complex of the drug Tetracycline hydrochloride (Eu3 TC) bound to bovine β-lactoglobulin variant A (BLGA) in aqueous buffer at physiological pH (pH = 7.4) has been investigated to exploit the enhanced "antenna effect" to locate the bound drug and find the microenvironment of the binding site. Steady-state and time-resolved emission studies at room temperature as well as at 77 K have been carried out to evaluate the binding parameters in the binary system consisting of BLGA and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Anubhuti Shukla, Joshua Nyambose, Rebecca Vanucci, Lisa Bennett Johnson, Kelly Welch, Eileen Lind, Alessandro Villa
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention that was designed to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness and knowledge among oral health providers (OHPs). HPV educational lectures and a dental information toolkit on HPV were offered to OHPs in New England in 2016-2017. OHPs included dentists and dental hygienists. Post intervention surveys were distributed 1 month later. A total of 230 participants attended the educational lectures and received the toolkit. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the difference in knowledge and preparedness about HPV before and after the intervention...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
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