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enzymatic volume effect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525415/effects-of-collagenase-digestion-and-stromal-vascular-fraction-supplementation-on-volume-retention-of-fat-grafts
#1
Jonathan B Olenczak, Scott A Seaman, Kant Y Lin, Angela Pineros-Fernandez, Catherine E Davis, Lisa S Salopek, Shayn M Peirce, Patrick S Cottler
OBJECTIVE: The use of autologous fat as a soft tissue filler has increased over the past decade in both reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries. Enhancement of autologous fat grafts with the addition of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) has been reported to improve long-term volume retention. Stromal vascular fraction is most commonly isolated using enzymatic digestion, but it is unknown what effect the digestion process has on the adipocytes and SVF cells that comprise the graft. Some clinicians have reported use of enzymatically digested fat grafts to alter the physical properties of the tissue in specialized applications...
June 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518050/acetylcholinesterase-provides-new-insights-into-red-blood-cell-ageing-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#2
Joames K Freitas Leal, Merel J W Adjobo-Hermans, Roland Brock, Giel J C G M Bosman
BACKGROUND: During its 120 days sojourn in the circulation, the red blood cell (RBC) remodels its membrane. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked enzyme that may serve as a marker for membrane processes occurring this ageing-associated remodelling process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression and enzymatic activity of AChE were determined on RBCs of various ages, as obtained by separation based on volume and density (ageing in vivo), and on RBCs of various times of storage in blood bank conditions (ageing in vitro), as well as on RBC-derived vesicles...
May 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470516/high-throughput-spheroid-screens-using-volume-resazurin-reduction-and-acid-phosphatase-activity
#3
Delyan P Ivanov, Anna M Grabowska, Martin C Garnett
Mainstream adoption of physiologically relevant three-dimensional models has been slow in the last 50 years due to long, manual protocols with poor reproducibility, high price, and closed commercial platforms. This chapter describes high-throughput, low-cost, open methods for spheroid viability assessment which use readily available reagents and open-source software to analyze spheroid volume, metabolism, and enzymatic activity. We provide two ImageJ macros for automated spheroid size determination-for both single images and images in stacks...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467979/negative-effect-of-ellagic-acid-on-cytosolic-ph-regulation-and-glycolytic-flux-in-human-endometrial-cancer-cells
#4
Khalid N M Abdelazeem, Yogesh Singh, Florian Lang, Madhuri S Salker
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1. The carrier is sensitive to oxidative stress. Growth of tumor cells could be suppressed by the polyphenol Ellagic acid, which is found in various fruits and vegetables. An effect of Ellagic acid on transport processes has, however, never been reported...
April 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466894/effect-of-ageing-on-the-properties-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-composition-of-biochar
#5
Gabriel Sigmund, Thomas D Bucheli, Isabel Hilber, Vesna Micić, Melanie Kah, Thilo Hofmann
The influence of ageing on biochar properties has been investigated by comparing three fresh biochars with biochars artificially aged by either H2O2 thermal oxidation or horseradish peroxidase enzymatic oxidation. In addition, a field-aged counterpart for one of the biochars was recovered from an agricultural field site, four years after application. Biochar properties, including surface areas and pore volumes (derived by N2 and CO2 physisorption) and elemental compositions, showed only minor changes following both artificial and field ageing, indicating high biochar stability...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459050/assessing-volumetric-absorptive-microsampling-coupled-with-stable-isotope-dilution-assay-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-as-potential-diagnostic-tool-for-whole-blood-5-methyltetrahydrofolic-acid
#6
Markus Kopp, Michael Rychlik
Volumetric absorptive microsamplers (VAMS) have been developed recently as a promising tool for clinical blood sampling. Compared to dried blood spot samples analyzed by accurate stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), the new technique could provide further substantial miniaturizing of folate assays by eliminating hematocrit effects and uneven analyte distribution within the sample. Herein, we present a miniaturized SIDA coupled with LC-MS/MS measurement of 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid as main folate vitamer in whole blood (WB) using [(13)C5]-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid as internal standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448897/a-performance-evaluation-of-nextera-xt-and-kapa-hyperplus-for-rapid-illumina-library-preparation-of-long-range-mitogenome-amplicons
#7
Joseph D Ring, Kimberly Sturk-Andreaggi, Michelle A Peck, Charla Marshall
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) facilitates the rapid and high-throughput generation of human mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data to build population and reference databases for forensic comparisons. To this end, long-range amplification provides an effective method of target enrichment that is amenable to library preparation assays employing DNA fragmentation. This study compared the Nextera XT DNA Library Preparation Kit (Illumina, San Diego, CA) and the KAPA HyperPlus Library Preparation Kit (Kapa Biosystems, Wilmington, MA) for enzymatic fragmentation and indexing of ∼8500bp mitogenome amplicons for Illumina sequencing...
April 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440054/a-new-approach-to-obtain-cellulose-nanocrystals-and-ethanol-from-eucalyptus-cellulose-pulp-via-the-biochemical-pathway
#8
Thalita J Bondancia, Luiz Henrique C Mattoso, José M Marconcini, Cristiane S Farinas
The feasibility of integration of cellulosic ethanol production with the manufacture of cellulose nanofibers and cellulose nanocrystals was evaluated using eucalyptus cellulose pulp as feedstock and employing the biochemical route alone. For the enzymatic hydrolysis step, experimental central composite design (CCD) methodology was used as a tool to evaluate the effects of solids loading (SL) and enzymatic loading (EL) on glucose release and cellulose conversion. Glucose concentrations from 45 to 125 g/L were obtained after 24 h, with cellulose conversions from 35 to 96%...
April 25, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434790/short-n-terminal-galanin-fragments-are-occurring-naturally-in-vivo
#9
Robert Ihnatko, Elvar Theodorsson
The galanin family currently consists of four peptides, namely galanin, galanin-message associated peptide, galanin-like peptide and alarin. Unlike galanin that signals through three different G protein-coupled receptors; GAL1, GAL2, and GAL3, binding at its N-terminal end, the cognate receptors for other members of the galanin family are currently unknown. Research using short N-terminal galanin fragments generated either by enzymatic cleavage or solid-phase synthesis has revealed differences in their receptor binding properties exerting numerous biological effects distinct from galanin(1-29) itself...
April 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399444/reticulated-vitreous-carbon-as-a-scaffold-for-enzymatic-fuel-cell-designing
#10
Michal Kizling, Maciej Dzwonek, Bartłomiej Olszewski, Paweł Bącal, Łukasz Tymecki, Agnieszka Więckowska, Krzysztof Stolarczyk, Renata Bilewicz
Three - dimensional (3D) electrodes are successfully used to overcome the limitations of the low space - time yield and low normalized space velocity obtained in electrochemical processes with two - dimensional electrodes. In this study, we developed a three - dimensional reticulated vitreous carbon - gold (RVC-Au) sponge as a scaffold for enzymatic fuel cells (EFC). The structure of gold and the real electrode surface area can be controlled by the parameters of metal electrodeposition. In particular, a 3D RVC-Au sponge provides a large accessible surface area for immobilization of enzyme and electron mediators, moreover, effective mass diffusion can also take place through the uniform macro - porous scaffold...
September 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375745/electric-fields-and-enzyme-catalysis
#11
Stephen D Fried, Steven G Boxer
What happens inside an enzyme's active site to allow slow and difficult chemical reactions to occur so rapidly? This question has occupied biochemists' attention for a long time. Computer models of increasing sophistication have predicted an important role for electrostatic interactions in enzymatic reactions, yet this hypothesis has proved vexingly difficult to test experimentally. Recent experiments utilizing the vibrational Stark effect make it possible to measure the electric field a substrate molecule experiences when bound inside its enzyme's active site...
March 24, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345876/engineering-cellular-microenvironments-with-photo-and-enzymatically-responsive-hydrogels-toward-biomimetic-3d-cell-culture-models
#12
Roger Y Tam, Laura J Smith, Molly S Shoichet
Conventional cell culture techniques using 2D polystyrene or glass have provided great insight into key biochemical mechanisms responsible for cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell-cell interactions. However, the physical and chemical properties of 2D culture in vitro are dramatically different than those found in the native cellular microenvironment in vivo. Cells grown on 2D substrates differ significantly from those grown in vivo, and this explains, in part, why many promising drug candidates discovered through in vitro drug screening assays fail when they are translated to in vivo animal or human models...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335408/n-hexane-insoluble-fraction-of-plantago-lanceolata-exerts-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-mice-by-inhibiting-cyclooxygenase-2-and-reducing-chemokines-levels
#13
Nanang Fakhrudin, Eny Dwi Astuti, Rini Sulistyawati, Djoko Santosa, Ratna Susandarini, Arief Nurrochmad, Subagus Wahyuono
Inflammation is involved in the progression of many disorders, such as tumors, arthritis, gastritis, and atherosclerosis. Thus, the development of new agents targeting inflammation is still challenging. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases including inflammation. A previous study has indicated that dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata leaves exerts anti-inflammatory activity in an in vitro model. Here, we examined the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a n-hexane insoluble fraction of P...
March 13, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328226/nonenzymatic-glucose-sensor-based-on-au-zno-core-shell-nanostructures-decorated-with-au-nanoparticles-and-enhanced-with-blue-and-green-light
#14
Cheng-Liang Hsu, Yu-Jui Fang, Ting-Jen Hsueh, Sin-Hui Wang, Shoou-Jinn Chang
Au/ZnO core-shell nanostructures decorated with Au nanoparticles were synthesized on an ITO/glass substrate. The investigated sensor contains 2-D, 1-D, and 0-D nanostructures to provide a large surface-area-to-volume ratio and catalytic quantum effect and to avoid the issues inherent in heterojunction interface barriers. The sensitivities of the fabricated glucose sensors in the dark and under blue and green LED illumination were 3371.9, 4410.9, and 4157.8 μA/cm(2) mM(-1), respectively. The achieved sensitivities are higher than previous reports on Au nanostructure sensors by 2-100 times...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273031/new-monocyte-locomotion-inhibitory-factor-analogs-protect-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#15
Xiaoping Wang, Chao Wang, Yan Yang, Jingman Ni
Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF) is an oligopeptide with anti-inflammatory properties. The carboxyl-terminal end group Cys-Asn-Ser serves as the pharmacophore of MLIF. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of two new synthetic analogs, Arg-Cys-Asn-Ser and D-Cys-Asn-Ser, on focal cerebral ischemia, which were designed and synthesized to increase the penetrability and enzymatic stability of Cys-Asn-Ser. Ninety-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: I - Sham; II - Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R); III - Nimodipine; IV - Cys-Asn-Ser; V - D-Cys-Asn-Ser; and VI - Arg-Cys-Asn-Ser...
February 27, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248099/efficient-expression-of-an-acidic-endo-polygalacturonase-from-aspergillus-niger-and-its-application-in-juice-production
#16
Jiaojiao Wang, Yuhong Zhang, Xing Qin, Lingyu Gao, Bin Han, Deqing Zhang, Jinyang Li, He Huang, Wei Zhang
An endo-polygalacturonase gene (pga-zj5a) was cloned by reverse transcription from cDNAs synthesized from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 total RNA. The open reading frame of pga-zj5a was 1089 base pairs encoding 362 amino acids. Pga-zj5a lacking a signal peptide sequence was successfully amplified using A. niger ZJ5 cDNA as the template and was ligated into the pPIC9 vector. The resulting plasmid was transformed into competent cells of Pichia pastoris GS115 for heterologous expression. The polygalacturonase showed a maximum activity level of 10436 U/mL in the culture supernatant from a 3 L fermenter...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212832/motor-dysfunction-and-alterations-in-glutathione-concentration-cholinesterase-activity-and-bdnf-expression-in-substantia-nigra-pars-compacta-in-rats-with-pedunculopontine-lesion
#17
Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, Javier Jimenez-Martin, Mei-Li Díaz-Hung, Esteban Alberti-Amador, Maylin Wong-Guerra, Ma Elena González-Fraguela, Bárbara Estupiñán-Díaz, Teresa Serrano-Sánchez, Liliana Francis-Turner, Susana Delgado-Ocaña, Yanier Núñez-Figueredo, Yamilé Vega-Hurtado, Isabel Fernández-Jiménez
Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been considered a critically important region in the regulation of some of the physiological functions that fail during the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, the effects of unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN [through the injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) solution (concentration: 0.1M; volume: 0.5µL)] in motor execution and gait disorders and the changes in cellular and molecular indicators in rat nigral tissue were evaluated. The motor execution was assessed using the beam test (BT) and the gait disorders by footprint test...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202059/cardiosphere-derived-cells-do-not-improve-cardiac-function-in-rats-with-cardiac-failure
#18
Taís Hanae Kasai-Brunswick, Andréa Rodrigues da Costa, Raiana Andrade Quintanilha Barbosa, Bruna Farjun, Fernanda Cristina Paccola Mesquita, Danúbia Silva Dos Santos, Isalira Peroba Ramos, Grazielle Suhett, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Sandro Torrentes da Cunha, José Oscar R Brito, Juliana do Amaral Passipieri, Adriana Bastos Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Heart failure represents an important public health issue due to its high costs and growing incidence worldwide. Evidence showing the regenerative potential of postmitotic heart tissue has suggested the existence of endogenous cardiac stem cells in adult hearts. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDC) constitute a candidate pool of such cardiac stem cells. Previous studies using acute myocardial infarction (MI) models in rodents demonstrated an improvement in cardiac function after cell therapy with CDC...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197170/glutathionylation-of-pea-chloroplast-2-cys-prx-and-mitochondrial-prx-iif-affects-their-structure-and-peroxidase-activity-and-sulfiredoxin-deglutathionylates-only-the-2-cys-prx
#19
Aingeru Calderón, Alfonso Lázaro-Payo, Iván Iglesias-Baena, Daymi Camejo, Juan J Lázaro, Francisca Sevilla, Ana Jiménez
Together with thioredoxins (Trxs), plant peroxiredoxins (Prxs), and sulfiredoxins (Srxs) are involved in antioxidant defense and redox signaling, while their regulation by post-translational modifications (PTMs) is increasingly regarded as a key component for the transduction of the bioactivity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Among these PTMs, S-glutathionylation is considered a protective mechanism against overoxidation, it also modulates protein activity and allows signaling. This study explores the glutathionylation of recombinant chloroplastic 2-Cys Prx and mitochondrial Prx IIF from Pisum sativum...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168011/semipurified-ethyl-acetate-partition-of-methanolic-extract-of-melastoma-malabathricum-leaves-exerts-gastroprotective-activity-partly-via-its-antioxidant-antisecretory-anti-inflammatory-action-and-synergistic-action-of-several-flavonoid-based-compounds
#20
Noor Wahida Ismail Suhaimy, Ahmad Khusairi Noor Azmi, Norhafizah Mohtarrudin, Maizatul Hasyima Omar, Siti Farah Md Tohid, Manraj Singh Cheema, Lay Kek Teh, Mohd Zaki Salleh, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria
Recent study has demonstrated the gastroprotective activity of crude methanolic extract of M. malabathricum leaves. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective potential of semipurified extracts (partitions): petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EAMM), and aqueous obtained from the methanolic extract followed by the elucidation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of the most effective partition. Using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, all partitions exerted significant gastroprotection, with EAMM being the most effective partition...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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