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Caroline Dickens, Ruth M Pfeiffer, William F Anderson, Raquel Duarte, Patricia Kellett, Joachim Schüz, Danuta Kielkowski, Valerie A McCormack
PURPOSE: Bimodal age distributions at diagnosis have been widely observed among US and European female breast cancer populations. To determine whether bimodal breast cancer distributions are also present in a sub-Saharan African population, we investigated female breast cancer in South Africa. METHODS: Using the South African National Cancer Registry data, we examined age-at-diagnosis frequency distributions (density plots) for breast cancer overall and by their receptor (oestrogen, progesterone and HER2) determinants among black and white women diagnosed during 2009-2011 in the public healthcare sector...
October 18, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
A Kenneth MacLeod, Lesley A McLaughlin, Colin J Henderson, C Roland Wolf
Tamoxifen is an oestrogen-receptor (ER) antagonist used in the treatment of breast cancer. It is a pro-drug, converted by several P450 enzymes to a primary metabolite, N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDT), which is then further modified by CYP2D6 to a pharmacologically potent secondary metabolite, 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen). Anti-depressants (ADs), which are often co-prescribed to patients receiving tamoxifen, are also metabolised by CYP2D6 and evidence suggests that a drug-drug interaction (DDI) between these agents adversely affects the outcome of tamoxifen therapy by inhibiting endoxifen formation...
October 18, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Sanna Nybacka, Heléne Bertéus Forslund, Maria Hedelin
A diet questionnaire (DQ) designed to assess habitual diet and phyto-oestrogen intake was developed. This study aimed to examine the validity of the DQ in men, with and without having prostate cancer. The DQ was validated against alkylresorcinol metabolites measured in urine as objective biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye (WG) intake, and a 4-d estimated food record (FR) was used for relative comparison. Participants (n 61) completed both methods and provided spot urine samples. We found a statistically significant correlation between the DQ and FR for reported whole grain intake and isoflavonoids, as well as for intake of macronutrients, except protein...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Shailaja Shukla, Bhawana Komal Singh, Om Prakash Pathania, Manjula Jain
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The proto-oncogene HER2/neu has been extensively studied in breast cancer patients. Serum levels of HER2/neu by ELISA in breast cancer patients were compared with tissue HER2/neu expression and with other clinicopathological parameters with the aim to investigate whether the serum assay could replace the established tests (IHC/FISH) for HER-2 status. METHODS: Blood and Tru-cut biopsy samples were collected for determining HER2/neu status in 64 breast cancer patients...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Abhijit Chakraborty, Chinmoy Kumar Bose, Jayasri Basak, Aditya Narayan Sen, Raghwendra Mishra, Ashis Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Number of metastatic lymph nodes has a strong prognostic value in the course of breast cancer treatment, morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the association between axillary lymph node metastasis and several variables such as age, tumour size, grade, lymphovascular invasion, oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression and HER2/neu status in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: In this study 426 (with complete information on study variables) patients with breast cancer on treatment during March 2010 to December 2013, were analyzed...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Keisuke Goto, Daichi Maeda, Yukitsugu Kudo-Asabe, Takashi Hibiya, Akimasa Hayashi, Masashi Fukayama, Kenichi Ohashi, Akiteru Goto
AIMS: Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is a benign vulvar neoplasm that arises from anogenital mammary-like glands, and its morphology is similar to mammary intraductal papilloma. The aim of this study was to investigate oncogenic mutations involved in the tumourigenesis of HP. We focused specifically on PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations, which are both reported to be detected in 33% of mammary intraductal papillomas. METHODS: In total, seven HP cases were analysed. Clinicopathological analyses and immunohistochemistry for oestrogen receptor, p63, smooth muscle actin (SMA), p53 and β-catenin were performed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Marianna Zanatelli, Ana M G Custodio, Manoel F Biancardi, Fernanda C A Santos, Rejane M Góes, Luiz R Falleiros-Jr, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
The female prostate is a reproductive gland that typically presents a morphology similar to that of the male gland and is highly developed in female Mongolian gerbils. Two main cell populations compose the epithelium gland: basal and secretory luminal cells. However, during postnatal development, diverse secretory cell phenotypes are distributed among the typical ones. Prostate homeostasis is under the control of sexual hormones, such as oestrogen and progesterone. After hormonal deprivation the female gland undergoes several morphophysiological changes...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
R P Piggott, P S Waters, M J Kerin
BACKGROUND: Tumour metastatic disease reflects a complex interplay between tumour characteristics and local host factors. This complex relationship may have an influence on the development of metastatic disease and patient survival. Multiple factors of the primary tumour influence the development of metastases and survival in patients. Breast cancer subtype has been shown to influence patient prognosis and response to therapy. AIM: The aim of our study was to correlate breast cancer subtype with bony metastatic disease and patient survival...
October 12, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Giulio Formoso, Enrica Perrone, Susanna Maltoni, Sara Balduzzi, Jack Wilkinson, Vittorio Basevi, Anna Maria Marata, Nicola Magrini, Roberto D'Amico, Chiara Bassi, Emilio Maestri
BACKGROUND: Tibolone is a synthetic steroid used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, on the basis of short-term data suggesting its efficacy. We considered the balance between the benefits and risks of tibolone. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tibolone for treatment of postmenopausal and perimenopausal women. SEARCH METHODS: In October 2015, we searched the Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGF) Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (from inception), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and clinicaltrials...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
E Vandendriessche, G Van De Putte, R Van Den Broecke, Etm De Jonge
AIM: Intra and inter tumour heterogeneity is a known feature in cancer because tumour cells undergo changes at genetic and epigenetic level as they spread from their primary tumour site. Adjuvant treatment protocols in breast cancer are currently based on the biological characteristics of the primary tumour, which in most cases has been removed surgically. Considering tumour heterogeneity in metastases we examined the present status of knowledge regarding measurable differences in tumour profiling between the primary breast tumour and its synchronous axillary lymph node metastases (ALNM) and if so whether adjuvant therapy directed towards the tumour characteristics of the ALNM instead of those of the primary tumour is more effective...
December 28, 2015: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Thomas P Ahern, Andrew H Beck, Bernard A Rosner, Ben Glass, Gretchen Frieling, Laura C Collins, Rulla M Tamimi
AIMS: Computational pathology platforms incorporate digital microscopy with sophisticated image analysis to permit rapid, continuous measurement of protein expression. We compared two computational pathology platforms on their measurement of breast tumour oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression. METHODS: Breast tumour microarrays from the Nurses' Health Study were stained for ER (n=592) and PR (n=187). One expert pathologist scored cases as positive if ≥1% of tumour nuclei exhibited stain...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
E Dagan, R Gershoni-Baruch, A Kurolap, G Fried
This study uncovers disease characteristics by long-term follow-up in Ashkenazi early onset breast cancer (EOBC) patients, carriers of founder BRCA1/2 mutations compared to non-carriers of such mutations. An archives-retrospective design was conducted to study the pathological and clinical characteristics of 149 Ashkenazi Jewish EOBC patients (<42 years) who were referred consecutively to the oncogenetic clinic by the oncology centre at Rambam HealthCare Campus, as from 1995, with a mean follow-up of 13...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Rosa Lauretta, Giulia Lanzolla, Patrizia Vici, Luciano Mariani, Costanzo Moretti, Marialuisa Appetecchia
Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
J A Van Heerden, J R Burger, J J Gerber
BACKGROUND: Prescribing for older patients is a well-recognised problem, and inappropriate items are prescribed frequently. Several tools and criteria are available to promote rational prescribing in older patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) in older South African patients. METHODS: A retrospective drug utilisation review was conducted using medicine claims data over a 1-year period...
September 9, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
L W B Olaniyan, N Mkwetshana, A I Okoh
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent present as an active ingredient in some personal care products such as soaps, toothpastes and sterilizers. It is an endocrine disrupting compound and its increasing presence in water resources as well as in biosolid-amended soils used in farming, its potential for bioaccumulation in fatty tissues and toxicity in aquatic organisms are a cause for concern to human and environmental health. TCS has also been detected in blood, breast milk, urine and nails of humans...
2016: SpringerPlus
Roger A Lobo
For several decades, the role of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) has been debated. Early observational data on HRT showed many benefits, including a reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality. More recently, randomized trials, including the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), studying mostly women many years after the the onset of menopause, showed no such benefit and, indeed, an increased risk of CHD and breast cancer, which led to an abrupt decrease in the use of HRT. Subsequent reanalyzes of data from the WHI with age stratification, newer randomized and observational data and several meta-analyses now consistently show reductions in CHD and mortality when HRT is initiated soon after menopause...
October 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Ben-Shian Huang, Muh-Hwa Yang, Peng-Hui Wang, Hsin-Yang Li, Teh-Ying Chou, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic parasitic myomas (PMs), caused by intra-corporeal power morcellation during laparoscopy is gradually increasing. However, the pathogenesis and medical treatment of PMs remain largely unelucidated. METHODS: Laparoscopically-induced PM xenografted mouse model was conducted by xenografting human uterine myoma fragments into the abdominal cavity of SCID mice and hormonal manipulation was performed using this mouse model to demonstrate the role of oestrogen in the development of implanted PMs...
October 6, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Marie Todd
Lipoedema is a chronic progressive adipose disorder that affects mainly women and presents as symmetrical enlargement of the buttocks and legs. It is commonly misdiagnosed as obesity or lymphoedema, but careful assessment will reveal a disproportionate enlargement below the waist which is resistant to dieting, sparing of the feet, legs are tender or painful to touch and bruise easily, there is occasional orthostatic oedema, and there is often significant psychological morbidity. Lipoedema is a oestrogen-regulated condition with onset around puberty in 78% of women, and there is often a strong family history...
October 2016: British Journal of Community Nursing
I Obiorah, S Sengupta, P Fan, V C Jordan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Vishnu Prasad Adhikari, Lin-Jie Lu, Ling-Quan Kong
Lifestyle and family history are two of the most important risk factors for breast cancer (BC). However, these risk factors cannot explain the differences in the incidence and early BC onset among Chinese females compared to their western counterparts. We propose in this hypothesis the potential mechanism of indirect oncogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in causing BC through its persistence as occult infection and continuous replication with long term subtle liver damage. Estrogen is mainly deactivated in the liver and long term necro-inflammatory damage to liver may result in persistent high level of estrogen, which is a dominant risk factor for BC...
September 12, 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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