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Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wei Chen, Suhong Pan, Hao Cheng, Andrew J Sweetman, Hao Zhang, Kevin C Jones
A passive water sampler based on the diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique was developed and tested for 3 groups of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs, including oestrogens, alkyl-phenols and bisphenols). Three different resins (hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced (HLB), XAD18 and Strata-XL-A (SXLA)) were investigated for their suitability as the binding phase for DGT devices. Laboratory tests across a range of pH (3.5-9.5), ionic strength (0.001-0.5 M) and dissolved organic matter concentration (0-20 mg L-1 ) showed HLB and XAD18-DGT devices were more stable compared to SXLA-DGT...
March 12, 2018: Water Research
M P De Cesaro, J T Dos Santos, J G Ferst, J E Nóbrega, Pra Rosa, M T Rovani, G F Ilha, R C Bohrer, R Ferreira, B G Gasperin, V Bordignon, Pbd Gonçalves
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are known to regulate reproductive events in polyovulatory species, but their function and regulation in monovulatory species remain to be fully characterized. Using a well-established in vivo model, we found that bovine granulosa cells from follicles near the deviation stage express mRNA for the three NP receptors (NPR1, NPR2 and NPR3), but not for NP precursors (NPPA, NPPB and NPPC). The abundance of NPR3 mRNA was higher in dominant compared to subordinate follicles at the expected time of follicular deviation...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
S C Mills, J L O'Donnell, G Bernardi, R Beldade
Group-living animals commonly display differences in behaviour, physiology and endocrine profiles between conspecifics within the group, which are tightly linked to reproduction. Teleosts exhibit a variety of social systems, where social status, as well as sex, has been linked to different androgen and oestrogen profiles. Levels of gonadal androgen and oestrogen were investigated as a function of sex and position in a social hierarchy in free-living individuals of the skunk anemonefish Amphiprion akallopisos, a protandrous pomacentrid fish with a size-based dominance hierarchical social system...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Sarah A Marshall, Jonathan T McGuane, Yu May Soh, Helen M Gehring, Emma Simpson, Laura J Parry
Relaxin regulates cervical extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling during pregnancy by modifying collagen and other ECM molecules by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesised that abnormal collagen remodelling in the cervix of pregnant relaxin-deficient (Rln1-/-) mice is due to excessive collagen (Col1a1 and Col3a1) and decreased matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp2, Mmp9, Mmp13 and Mmp7) and oestrogen receptors (Esr1 and Esr2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, gelatinase zymography, MMP activity assays and histological staining evaluated changes in ECM in pregnant wildtype (Rln1+/+) and Rln1-/- mice...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Tao Ye, Dongliang Sun, Tong Mu, Yi Chu, Hui Miao, Mian Zhang, Hongxu Yang, Qian Liu, Lei Lu, Xianghui Xing, Shibin Yu
The striking predilection of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in women, especially during gonad-intact puberty or reproductive years, indicates that oestrogen plays an important role in the progression of TMD, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was used to create temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) models in rats, while 17β-estradiol (E2 ) injections were applied to mimic patients with high-physiological levels of oestrogen. Micro-CT scanning, histological staining and real-time PCR assays were preformed to observe the degenerative changes in the mandibular condylar cartilage and subchondral bone...
March 9, 2018: Bone
Muhammad Luqman Nordin, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Rasedee Abdullah, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim Abdullah
BACKGROUND: Ardisia crispa Thunb. D.C is used mostly in some parts of the Asian region by traditional practitioners to treat certain diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation including cancer and rheumatism. In Malaysia, it is popularly known as 'Mata Ayam' and local traditional practitioners believed that the root of the plant is therapeutically beneficial. METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of A. crispa and its solvents partitions (ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts) against breast cancer cells were evaluated by using MTT assay...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Y Valcárcel, A Valdehíta, E Becerra, M López de Alda, A Gil, M Gorga, M Petrovic, D Barceló, J M Navas
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are natural or man-made chemicals that can affect the health of organisms by interfering with their normal hormonal functions. Many of these substances can cause their effects at very low doses and, considering the key role played by the endocrine system on development, organisms in early phases of growth (foetal, childhood, puberty) are especially sensitive to the action of EDs. In addition, when combined, they can show additive, antagonistic and synergistic activities. Taking all this into account it is essential to determine the presence of this kind of compounds in drinking water...
February 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Shu Shimada, Yoshimitsu Akiyama, Kaoru Mogushi, Mari Ishigami-Yuasa, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Hiromi Nagasaki, Hiroshi Fukamachi, Yasuhito Yuasa, Shinji Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC) exhibits rapid disease progression and poor patient prognosis. We have previously established an E-cadherin/p53 double conditional knockout (DCKO) mouse line as the first genetically engineered one, which morphologically and molecularly recapitulates human DGC. In this study, we explored low-molecular-weight drugs selectively eliminating mouse and human DGC cells. METHODS: We derived mouse gastric cancer (GC) cell lines from DGC of the DCKO mice demonstrating enhanced tumourigenic activity in immunodeficient mice and acquired tolerance to cytotoxic anti-cancer agents...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Takeshi Kotake, Masakazu Toi
There have been numerous clinical trials of CDK4/6 inhibitors performed on various carcinomas including breast cancer. One such inhibitor tested and which has ongoing clinical trials for breast cancer is abemaciclib. Abemaciclib is a molecular-targeted agent that targets basic cell cycle regulatory mechanisms. Areas covered: This review discusses the available clinical data and ongoing clinical trials of abemaciclib in breast cancer. Expert opinion: Abemaciclib has demonstrated a clear anti-tumour effect and manageable toxicity against HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer in many clinical trials and is expected to be an important standard therapy...
March 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Ellen Wejde, Ann Nozohoor Ekmark, Pernilla Stenström
BACKGROUND: Topical oestrogen and manual separation are the main treatments for labial adhesions. The aim was to evaluate treatment of labial adhesions and compare the outcome of topical oestrogen treatment with that of manual separation. METHOD: All girls aged 0-12 years admitted to a tertiary centre for paediatric surgery for labial adhesions were included. The study design was dual: The first part was a retrospective chart review of the treatment success according to the medical charts...
March 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Melanie H Jacobson, Penelope P Howards, Lyndsey A Darrow, Juliana W Meadows, James S Kesner, Jessica B Spencer, Metrecia L Terrell, Michele Marcus
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that hyperthyroid and hypothyroid women experience menstrual irregularities more often compared with euthyroid women, but reasons for this are not well-understood and studies on thyroid hormones among euthyroid women are lacking. In a prospective cohort study of euthyroid women, this study characterised the relationship between thyroid hormone concentrations and prospectively collected menstrual function outcomes. METHODS: Between 2004-2014, 86 euthyroid premenopausal women not lactating or taking hormonal medications participated in a study measuring menstrual function...
March 8, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Heather Katz, Hassaan Jafri, Thomas Dougherty, Yehuda Lebowicz
Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) in men is an extremely rare entity. MBC is typically very aggressive with a poor prognosis. In men, it has only been reported three times in the literature. We report a 47-year-old man who presented with right-sided breast erythema and nipple inversion. Mammogram revealed a 2.4 cm spiculated mass. Initial pathology was inconclusive; however, right-sided simple mastectomy showed invasive metaplastic carcinoma with adenosquamous histology. He received adjuvant chemotherapy with 4 cycles of dose dense Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide followed by 12 weeks of paclitaxel and chest wall radiation...
March 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Chithra Janardhanan Susheelamma, Sathy M Pillai, Sivakumari Asha Nair
Oestrogen-progesterone signalling is highly versatile and critical for the maintenance of healthy endometrium in humans. The genomic and nongenomic signalling cascades initiated by these hormones in differentiated cells of endometrium have been the primary focus of research since 1920s. However, last decade of research has shown a significant role of stem cells in the maintenance of a healthy endometrium and the modulatory effects of hormones on these cells. Endometriosis, the growth of endometrium outside the uterus, is very common in infertile patients and the elusiveness in understanding of disease pathology causes hindrance in selection of treatment approaches to enhance fertility...
March 8, 2018: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Christoph Engel, Kerstin Rhiem, Eric Hahnen, Sibylle Loibl, Karsten E Weber, Sabine Seiler, Silke Zachariae, Jan Hauke, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Anke Waha, Britta Blümcke, Marion Kiechle, Alfons Meindl, Dieter Niederacher, Claus R Bartram, Dorothee Speiser, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Norbert Arnold, Peter Wieacker, Elena Leinert, Andrea Gehrig, Susanne Briest, Karin Kast, Olaf Riess, Günter Emons, Bernhard H F Weber, Jutta Engel, Rita K Schmutzler
BACKGROUND: There is no international consensus up to which age women with a diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and no family history of breast or ovarian cancer should be offered genetic testing for germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (gBRCA) mutations. Here, we explored the association of age at TNBC diagnosis with the prevalence of pathogenic gBRCA mutations in this patient group. METHODS: The study comprised 802 women (median age 40 years, range 19-76) with oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 negative breast cancers, who had no relatives with breast or ovarian cancer...
March 7, 2018: BMC Cancer
Anita Risa, Csilla Krifaton, József Kukolya, Balázs Kriszt, Mátyás Cserháti, András Táncsics
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZON) are dangerous mycotoxins due to their carcinogenicity or oestrogenicity. To alleviate negative effects on humans and animals, successful detoxification tools are needed. The application of microorganisms to biodegrade mycotoxins can be an effective way in food and feed industry enhancing food safety. Several Rhodococcus strains are effective in the degradation of aromatic mycotoxins and their application in mycotoxin biodetoxification processes is a promising field of biotechnology...
March 6, 2018: Current Microbiology
Maria Wielsøe, Hans Eiberg, Mandana Ghisari, Peder Kern, Ole Lind, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
The present study investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in xenobiotic and steroid hormone-metabolizing genes in relation to breast cancer risk and explored possible effect modifications on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and breast cancer associations. The study also assessed effects of Greenlandic BRCA1 founder mutations. Greenlandic Inuit women (77 cases and 84 controls) were included. We determined two founder mutations in BRCA1: Cys39Gly (rs80357164) and 4684delCC, and five SNPs in xenobiotic and oestrogen-metabolizing genes: CYP17A1 -34T>C (rs743572), CYP19A1 *19C>T (rs10046), CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943), CYP1B Leu432Val (rs1056836) and COMT Val158Met (rs4680)...
March 6, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Karen M Rothacker, Katie L Ayers, Dave Tang, Kiranjit Joshi, Jocelyn A van den Bergen, Gorjana Robevska, Naeem Samnakay, Lakshmi Nagarajan, Kate Francis, Andrew H Sinclair, Catherine S Choong
Background: Desert hedgehog ( DHH ) mutations have been described in only a limited number of individuals with 46, XY disorders of sex development (DSD) presenting as either partial or complete gonadal dysgenesis. Gonadal tumours and peripheral neuropathy have been associated with DHH mutations. Herein we report a novel, homozygous mutation of DHH identified through a targeted, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) DSD panel, in a patient presenting with partial gonadal dysgenesis. This novel mutation is two amino acids away from a previously described mutation in a patient who presented with complete gonadal dysgenesis...
2018: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
Sebastián Carranza-Lira, Miriam Elizabeth Cruz-Ramírez, Diana Sulvarán-Victoria
Introduction: Microscopic haematuria is common in adults and it has been reported in 13% of postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the changes in urinary sediment after the use of vaginal conjugated oestrogens. Material and methods: Postmenopausal women with vaginal dryness were studied. In all them a urinalysis was done, looking for density, pH, and the presence of leukocytes and erythrocytes. In order to be included in the study, all of the women had to have microscopic haematuria, considered as the presence of 3 or more erythrocytes in the urinary sediment...
September 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Linlin Liu, Xiaowu Huang, Enlan Xia, Xiaoyu Zhang, Tin-Chiu Li, Yuhuan Liu
This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a national training centre for hysteroscopy between January 2012 and December 2014 to compare the clinical outcome of two doses of oestradiol valerate (4 mg and 10 mg daily) in the prevention of recurrence of adhesions after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. A total of 176 women who suffered from Asherman syndrome with moderate to severe intrauterine adhesions were included: 91 subjects received a 10 mg daily dose of oestradiol and 85 subjects received a 4 mg daily dose of oestradiol in the postoperative period...
March 5, 2018: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
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