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Sex steroids

Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Song-Yi Park, Lynne R Wilkens, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand
BACKGROUND: Evidence has accumulated that long-term use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protects against colorectal cancer (CRC). We tested whether the inverse associations between NSAIDs and CRC is similarly observed across sexes and five racial/ethnic groups (Japanese, Latino, African American, Native Hawaiian, and white) in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. METHODS: During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, we identified 4,882 invasive incident CRC cases among 183,199 eligible participants...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Georgios Nikolakis, Constantine A Stratakis, Theodora Kanaki, Andrej Slominski, Christos C Zouboulis
The skin is an important extra-gonadal steroidogenic organ, capable of metabolizing various hormones from their precursors, as well as of synthesizing de novo a broad palette of sex steroids and glucocorticoids from cholesterol. In this manuscript, we review the major steroidogenic properties of human skin and we suggest steroidogenesis' impairment as a cardinal factor for various pathological conditions such as acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, and androgenic alopecia.
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Ewa Szwejser, B M Lidy Verburg-van Kemenade, Magdalena Maciuszek, Magdalena Chadzinska
Clinical and experimental evidence shows that estrogens affect immunity in mammals. Less is known about this interaction in the evolutionary older, non-mammalian, vertebrates. Fish form an excellent model to identify evolutionary conserved neuroendocrine-immune interactions: i) they are the earliest vertebrates with fully developed innate and adaptive immunity, ii) immune and endocrine parameters vary with season iii) physiology is constantly disrupted by increasing contamination of the aquatic environment...
October 16, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Nadja Borisow, Ingo Kleiter, Anna Gahlen, Katrin Fischer, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Florence Pache, Klemens Ruprecht, Joachim Havla, Markus Krumbholz, Tania Kümpfel, Orhan Aktas, Marius Ringelstein, Christian Geis, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Achim Berthele, Bernhard Hemmer, Klemens Angstwurm, Robert Weissert, Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Simon Schuster, Martin Stangel, Florian Lauda, Hayrettin Tumani, Christoph Mayer, Lena Zeltner, Ulf Ziemann, Ralf A Linker, Matthias Schwab, Martin Marziniak, Florian Then Bergh, Ulrich Hofstadt-van Oy, Oliver Neuhaus, Alexander Winkelmann, Wael Marouf, Lioba Rückriem, Jürgen Faiss, Brigitte Wildemann, Friedemann Paul, Sven Jarius, Corinna Trebst, Kerstin Hellwig
BACKGROUND: Gender and age at onset are important epidemiological factors influencing prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in autoimmune diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of female sex and fertile age on aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-ab) status, attack localization, and response to attack treatment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and its spectrum disorders (neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)). METHODS: Female-to-male ratios, diagnosis at last visit (NMO vs NMOSD), attack localization, attack treatment, and outcome were compared according to sex and age at disease or attack onset...
October 6, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Seth O'Neill, Paul J Watson, Simon Barry
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Achilles tendinopathy can be a debilitating chronic condition for both active and inactive individuals. The identification of risk facors is important both in preventing but also treating tendinopathy, many factors have been proposed but there is a lack of primary epidemiological data. The purpose of this study was to develop a statement of expert consensus on risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy in active and sedentary patient populations to inform a primary epidemiological study...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Wataru Ando, Kengo Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Koyama, Yoshichika Hashimoto, Takashi Tsujimoto, Kenji Ohzono
Idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) can be correctly diagnosed in accordance with the established criteria. However, some general orthopedic physicians have misdiagnosed patients as having ONFH. The goal of this study was to clarify the radiologic and clinical features of misdiagnosed patients. This study included 50 patients who were referred to the authors' hospital by general physicians with a diagnosis of ONFH. The correct diagnosis was made based on the Japanese Investigation Committee diagnostic criteria for ONFH...
October 18, 2016: Orthopedics
Wioletta Pijacka, Bethan Clifford, Dawid Walas, Chantal Tilburgs, Jaap A Joles, Sarah McMullen, Simon C Langley-Evans
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that autonomic nervous system and sympatho-vagal balance plays an important role in maintaining arterial blood pressure (ABP) (Salman IM., 2016) and that autonomic regulation of ABP differs between males and females (Hart EC et al., 2014). We hypothesised that sex hormones affect blood pressure via the autonomic nervous system and that the late development of hypertension in females is due to protective effects of ovarian steroids in females rather than due to detrimental effects of testosterone in males...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Eric S Orwoll, Jodi Lapidus, Patty Y Wang, Liesbeth Vandenput, Andrew Hoffman, Howard Fink, Gail A Laughlin, Maria Nethander, Östen Ljunggren, Andreas Kindmark, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Anthony Kwok, Sundeep Khosla, Timothy Kwok, Claes Ohlsson
Measurement of serum testosterone (T) levels is recommended in the evaluation of osteoporosis in older men and estradiol (E2) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with the rate of bone loss and fractures, but the clinical utility of sex steroid and SHBG measurements for the evaluation of osteoporosis in men has not been examined. To evaluate whether measurements of T, E2 and/or SHBG are useful for the prediction of fracture risk or the rate of bone loss in older men, we analyzed longitudinal data from 5487 community-based men participating in the MrOS Study in the US, Sweden and Hong Kong...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Charli S Davies, Kendra N Smyth, Lydia K Greene, Debbie A Walsh, Jessica Mitchell, Tim Clutton-Brock, Christine M Drea
In vertebrates, reproductive endocrine concentrations are strongly differentiated by sex, with androgen biases typifying males and estrogen biases typifying females. These sex differences can be reduced in female-dominant species; however, even the most masculinised of females have less testosterone (T) than do conspecific males. To test if aggressively dominant, female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) may be hormonally masculinised, we measured serum androstenedione (A4), T and estradiol (E2) in both sexes and social classes, during both 'baseline' and reproductive events...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Imen Gorsane, I Helal, I Yacoub, F Ben Hamida, E Abderrahim, T Ben Abdallah
Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a heterogeneous entity. Previous few studies have evaluated the efficacy of calcineurin inhibitors in primary FSGS and have suggested positive benefit. In this single-center, retrospective study (1975-2014), we report our experience in Tunisian adults with primary FSGS treated with cyclosporine A (CsA). It includes patients histologically proven FSGS and managed in the Charles Nicolle Hospital at Tunis, Tunisia. The dose of CsA was adjusted to maintain a whole blood trough level of 80-150 ng/mL...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Michael C Topf, David W Hsu, Douglas R Adams, Tingting Zhan, Stanley Pelosi, Thomas O Willcox, Brian McGettigan, Kyle W Fisher
PURPOSE: To determine the rate of persistent tympanic membrane perforation after intratympanic steroid injection. To determine which comorbid conditions and risk factors are associated with prolonged time to perforation closure following intratympanic steroid injection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data were gathered for patients who had undergone intratympanic steroid injection to treat sudden sensorineural hearing loss or Ménière's disease. Primary outcomes analysis included rate of persistent tympanic membrane perforation, defined as perforation at least 90days following last injection, and time to perforation healing...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Adomas Bunevicius, Sarunas Tamasauskas, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Albertas Sliauzys, Robertas Bunevicius
BACKGROUND: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. METHODS: Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54...
October 14, 2016: Early Human Development
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Iftikhar A Tayubi, Ejaz Ahmad, Majid A Ganaie, Osama S Bajouh, Samera F AlBasri, Ibtihal M J Abdulkarim, Mohd A Beg
Environmental contamination has been one of the major drawbacks of the industrial revolution. Several man-made chemicals are constantly released into the environment during the manufacturing process and by leaching from the industrial products. As a result, human and animal populations are exposed to these synthetic chemicals on a regular basis. Many of these chemicals have adverse effects on the physiological functions, particularly on the hormone systems in human and animals and are called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Michaël R Laurent, Geoffrey L Hammond, Marco Blokland, Ferran Jardí, Leen Antonio, Vanessa Dubois, Rougin Khalil, Saskia S Sterk, Evelien Gielen, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Tom Fiers, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Dirk Vanderschueren, Frank Claessens
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Diqi Yang, Lei Wang, Pengfei Lin, Tingting Jiang, Nan Wang, Fan Zhao, Huatao Chen, Keqiong Tang, Dong Zhou, Aihua Wang, Yaping Jin
With granulosa and theca cells, the ovaries are responsible for producing oocytes and secreting sex steroids such as estrogen and progesterone. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in follicle atresia and embryo implantation. In this study, goat granulosa cells were isolated from medium-sized (4-6 mm) healthy follicles. Primary granulosa cells were immortalized by transfection with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish a goat granulosa cell line (hTERT-GGCs). These hTERT-GGCs expressed hTERT and had relatively long telomeres at passage 50...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
K Dziendzikowska, A Krawczyńska, M Oczkowski, T Królikowski, K Brzóska, A Lankoff, M Dziendzikowski, T Stępkowski, M Kruszewski, J Gromadzka-Ostrowska
The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various applications, including consumer, agriculture and medicine products, has raised many concerns about the potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) to human health and the environment. An increasing body of evidence suggests that AgNPs may have adverse effects of humans, thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive system. Silver particles (20nm AgNPs (groups Ag I and Ag II) and 200nm Ag sub-micron particles (SPs) (group Ag III)) were administered intravenously to male Wistar rats at a dose of 5 (groups Ag I and Ag III) or 10 (group Ag II) mg/kg of body weight...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Rene Seiger, Andreas Hahn, Allan Hummer, Georg S Kranz, Sebastian Ganger, Michael Woletz, Christoph Kraus, Ronald Sladky, Alexander Kautzky, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Rupert Lanzenberger
Sex-steroid hormones are primarily involved in sexual differentiation and development and are thought to underlie processes related to cognition and emotion. However, divergent results have been reported concerning the effects of hormone administration on brain structure including side effects like brain atrophy and dementia. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender subjects offers a unique model for studying the effects of sex hormones on the living human brain. In this study, 25 Female-to-Male (FtM) and 14 Male-to-Female (MtF) subjects underwent MRI examinations at baseline and after a period of at least 4-months of continuous cross-sex hormone administration...
October 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Alisha M Truman, Jonathan L Tilly, Dori C Woods
The endocrine function of the ovary is dependent upon the ovarian follicle, which on a cellular basis consists of an oocyte surrounded by adjacent somatic cells responsible for generating sex steroid hormones and maintenance of hormonal stasis with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. As females age, both fertility and the endocrine function of the ovary decline due to waning follicle numbers as well as aging-related cellular dysfunction. Although there is currently no cure for ovarian failure and endocrine disruption, recent advances in ovarian biology centered on ovarian stem cell and progenitor cell populations have brought the prospects of cell- or tissue-based therapeutic strategies closer to fruition...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Astra S Bryant, Anna K Greenwood, Scott A Juntti, Allie E Byrne, Russell D Fernald
Dopamine regulates reproduction in part by modulating neuronal activity within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Previous studies suggested numerous mechanisms by which dopamine exerts inhibitory control over the HPG axis, ultimately changing the levels of sex steroids that regulate reproductive behaviors. However, it is not known whether these mechanisms are conserved across vertebrate species. In particular, it is unknown whether mechanisms underlying dopaminergic control of reproduction are shared between mammals and teleost fish...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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