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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231996/molecular-mechanisms-of-tributyltin-induced-alterations-in-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-steroidogenesis-in-hamster-testis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#1
V Kanimozhi, K Palanivel, M A Akbarsha, B Kadalmani
Tributyltins (TBT) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants that disturb normal endocrine function including gonadal function in humans and marine organisms. TBT was administered through oral route to male Syrian hamsters at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 ppm/kg for 65 days. Changes in testis morphology, immunohistochemistry of iNOS, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, cholesterol transport receptor, nuclear receptors, and transcription factors were analyzed. TBT treatment affected each of these parameters to significant levels in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle treated control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230619/neuroanatomical-and-molecular-correlates-of-cognitive-and-behavioural-outcomes-in-hypogonadal-males
#2
O B Akinola, M O Gabriel
Robust epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence supports emerging roles for the sex steroids in such domains as neurodevelopment, behaviour, learning and cognition. Regions of the mammalian brain that are involved in cognitive development and memory do not only express the classical nuclear androgen receptor, but also the non-genomic membrane receptor, which is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates some rapid effects of the androgens on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Under physiological conditions, hippocampal neurons do express the enzyme aromatase, and therefore actively aromatize testosterone to oestradiol...
December 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227165/sex-hormone-binding-globulin-an-important-biomarker-for-predicting-pcos-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Ritu Deswal, Arun Yadav, Amita Suneja Dang
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein which regulates bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes type II. This meta-analysis was performed to examine the associations of SHBG with PCOS and to correlate serum SHBG levels with various PCOS associated endocrine and metabolic dysregulation as well as to determine the effects of various therapeutic agents on serum SHBG levels in PCOS patients in order to assess the true accuracy of SHBG in the prediction of PCOS...
December 11, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224107/sex-dependent-role-of-estrogen-sulfotransferase-and-steroid-sulfatase-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#4
Wojciech G Garbacz, Mengxi Jiang, Wen Xie
Sulfonation and desulfation are two opposing processes that represent an important layer of regulation of estrogenic activity via ligand supplies. Enzymatic activities of families of enzymes, known as sulfotransferases and sulfatases, lead to structural and functional changes of the steroids, thyroids, xenobiotics, and neurotransmitters. Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) and steroid sulfatase (STS) represent negative and positive regulation of the estrogen activity, respectively. This is because EST-mediated sulfation deactivates estrogens, whereas STS-mediated desulfation converts the inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#5
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224100/estrogens-and-body-weight-regulation-in-men
#6
Katya B Rubinow
Our understanding of the metabolic roles of sex steroids in men has evolved substantially over recent decades. Whereas testosterone once was believed to contribute to metabolic risk in men, the importance of adequate androgen exposure for the maintenance of metabolic health has been demonstrated unequivocally. A growing body of evidence now also supports a critical role for estrogens in metabolic regulation in men. Recent data from clinical intervention studies indicate that estradiol may be a stronger determinant of adiposity than testosterone in men, and even short-term estradiol deprivation contributes to fat mass accrual...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222858/obesity-lipid-profiles-and-oxidative-stress-in-children-after-liver-transplantation
#7
Piotr Czubkowski, Aldona Wierzbicka, Joanna Pawłowska, Irena Jankowska, Piotr Socha
PURPOSE: In adult liver transplant recipients, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure are significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This may be attributed to the long-term immunosuppressive treatment, mostly with calcineurin inhibitors and steroids, which in long-term may be associated with hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and cardiovascular complications. Since such data for children is sparse, the aim of this study was to assess the lipid and oxidative stress markers after pediatric liver transplantation (LTx)...
December 10, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222040/prohibitin-a-new-player-in-immunometabolism-and-in-linking-obesity-and-inflammation-with-cancer
#8
Yang Xin Zi Xu, Sudharsana Rao Ande, Suresh Mishra
Immunometabolism, which has important implications in cancer biology, has emerged as a major regulator of different immune cell types. Various factors that integrate metabolic switches within immune cells with signal directed program that promote or inhibit their functions remain largely unidentified. Furthermore, sex differences are known to exist in immune functions and cancer incidences in the body and sex steroid hormones are integral component of these differences. However, factors that mediate such differences, and the potential link between the two fundamental aspects of immune cell biology that contributes to sex differences in health and disease remain unexplored...
December 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221568/nutritional-programming-by-glucocorticoids-in-breast-milk-targets-mechanisms-and-possible-implications
#9
REVIEW
Jonneke J Hollanders, Annemieke C Heijboer, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
Vertical transmission of glucocorticoids via breast milk might pose a mechanism through which lactating women could prepare their infants for the postnatal environment. The primary source of breast-milk glucocorticoids is probably the systemic circulation. Research from our group showed that milk cortisol and cortisone concentrations follow the diurnal rhythm of maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, with a higher abundance of cortisone compared to cortisol. Measurement of breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations is challenging due to possible cross-reactivity with progestagens and sex steroids, which are severely elevated during pregnancy and after parturition...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217803/growth-hormone-deficiency-in-children-from-suspecting-to-diagnosing
#10
Varuna Vyas, Anil Kumar, Vandana Jain
Isolated Growth hormone deficiency is an important and treatable cause of short stature. However, it is often difficult to diagnose the condition with certainty due to the lack of a single robust diagnostic test. Short children, other than those with the classical phenotype of immature chubby facies, truncal obesity and micropenis in boys, or those with history of cranial lesions with known association with hypopituitarism, should be evaluated for growth hormone deficiency only after excluding the other more common conditions...
November 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217467/why-should-we-measure-free-25-oh-vitamin-d
#11
REVIEW
Oleg Tsuprykov, Xin Chen, Carl-Friedrich Hocher, LianghongYin, Berthold Hocher
Vitamin D, either in its D2 or D3 form, is essential for normal human development during intrauterine life, kidney function and bone health. Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to cancer development and some autoimmune diseases. Given this huge impact of vitamin D on human health, it is important for daily clinical practice and clinical research to have reliable tools to judge on the vitamin D status. The major circulating form of vitamin D3 is 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D), although is not the most active metabolite, the concentrations of total 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in the serum are currently routinely used in clinical practice to assess vitamin D status...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216223/increased-risk-of-peripheral-arterial-occlusive-disease-in-patients-with-bell-s-palsy-using-population-data
#12
Li-Syue Liou, Chih-Ya Chang, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Chun-Hung Tseng, Cheng-Yu Chen, Fung-Chang Sung
OBJECTIVE: This population-based cohort study investigated the risk of developing peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients with Bell's palsy. METHODS: We used longitudinal claims data of health insurance of Taiwan to identify 5,152 patients with Bell's palsy newly diagnosed in 2000-2010 and a control cohort of 20,608 patients without Bell's palsy matched by propensity score. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of PAOD were assessed by the end of 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208686/effects-of-growth-hormone-administration-on-luteinizing-hormone-secretion-in-healthy-older-men-and-women
#13
Ranganath Muniyappa, Shannon D Sullivan, Sri Harsha Tella, Brent S Abel, S Mitchell Harman, Marc R Blackman
The known interactions between the somatotropic and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes have not been well delineated in older individuals. Aging-associated decline in insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels has been proposed to play a role in reproductive senescence in animals. However, the effects of GH on LH secretion are unknown in older individuals. Our objective was to determine whether GH modulates LH secretion or levels of sex steroids (SS) in healthy older (ages 65-88 years) men (n = 24) and women (n = 24) with low-normal plasma IGF-1 levels...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208661/plasma-steroid-metabolome-for-diagnosis-and-subtyping-patients-with-cushing-syndrome
#14
Graeme Eisenhofer, Jimmy Masjkur, Mirko Peitzsch, Guido Di Dalmazi, Martin Bidlingmaier, Matthias Grüber, Julia Fazel, Andrea Osswald, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome requires a multistep process that includes verification of hypercortisolism followed by identification of the cause of adrenocortical hyperfunction. This study assessed whether pituitary, ectopic, and adrenal subtypes of Cushing syndrome were characterized by distinct plasma steroid profiles that might assist diagnosis. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, mass spectrometric measurements of a panel of 15 plasma steroids were applied to 222 patients tested for Cushing syndrome...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206779/concentration-range-of-serum-sex-steroids-in-normal-postmenopausal-women-and-those-with-diagnosis-of-vulvovaginal-atrophy
#15
Yuyong Ke, Alain Bélanger, Jean-Nicolas Simard, Renaud Gonthier, Céline Martel, Mario Vaillancourt, Fernand Labrie
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the range of serum sex-related steroids in normal postmenopausal women and in women of the same age with a diagnosis of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). METHODS: Validated mass spectrometry-based assays coupled to gas or liquid chromatography were used over a 10-year period for steroid measurements. Serum samples were obtained in up to 1,512 women aged 55 to 65 years. RESULTS: Serum estrone sulfate (E1S) and androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), the main metabolites of estrogens and androgens, respectively, were 16...
December 4, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203165/sex-hormone-levels-in-the-brain-of-d-aspartate-treated-rats
#16
Maria Maddalena Di Fiore, Alessandra Santillo, Sara Falvo, Gabriella Chieffi Baccari, Massimo Venditti, Federica Di Giacomo Russo, Monica Lispi, Antimo D'Aniello
d-Aspartate (d-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid present in the central nervous system and endocrine glands of various animal taxa. d-Asp is implicated in neurotransmission, physiology of learning, and memory processes. In gonads, it plays a crucial role in sex hormone synthesis. We have investigated the effects of chronic (30 days d-Asp drinking solution) and acute (i.p. injection of 2μmol/g bw d-Asp) treatments on sex steroid synthesis in rat brain. Furthermore, to verify the direct effect of d-Asp on neurosteroidogenic enzyme activities, brain homogenates were incubated with different substrates (cholesterol, progesterone, or testosterone) with or without the addition of d-Asp...
December 1, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203121/using-a-memory-systems-lens-to-view-the-effects-of-estrogens-on-cognition-implications-for-human-health
#17
Donna L Korol, Wei Wang
Understanding the organizing and activating effects of gonadal steroids on adult physiology can guide insight into sex differences in and hormonal influences on health and disease, ranging from diabetes and other metabolic disorders, emotion and stress regulation, substance abuse, pain perception, immune function and inflammation, cognitive function and dysfunction accompanying neurological disorders. Because the brain is highly sensitive to many forms of estrogens, it is not surprising that many adult behaviors, including cognitive function, are modulated by estrogens...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200993/brain-sexual-differentiation-and-requirement-of-sry-why-or-why-not
#18
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differentiation, but this can be overridden in males by early exposure to estrogenic chemicals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199869/-inflammaging-and-estradiol-among-older-u-s-women-a-nationally-representative-longitudinal-study
#19
Aniruddha Das
Despite accumulating small-sample and clinical evidence on "inflammaging," no population-representative longitudinal studies have specifically examined women's late-life inflammation trends. While a range of studies indicates estradiol's immunomodulation role, evidence is contradictory on whether its effects are pro- or antiinflammatory among older women. Using longitudinal data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project-a national probability sample of older U.S. adults aged 57 to 85 years at baseline-this study began to fill these gaps...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197933/impact-of-low-dose-steroids-on-hba1c-levels-and-development-of-pre-diabetes-and-nodat-in-non-diabetic-renal-transplant-recipients-on-long-term-follow-up
#20
F P Tillmann, M Schmitz, L C Rump, I Quack
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of 5 mg of prednisolone/day on HbA1c levels and its association with the development of pre-diabetes and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODAT) in non-diabetic first renal transplant recipients on long-term follow-up. METHODS: Four hundred patients were analysed on an average of 4.1 ± 3.0 years after successful transplantation: 96 (24%) were steroid-free and 304 (76%) treated with 5 mg of prednisolone/day combined with cyclosporine A (CsA) or tacrolimus (Tac) as part of their immunosuppressive protocol...
December 2, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
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