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Progestogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329745/interleukin-6-and-hepcidin-levels-during-hormone-deplete-and-hormone-replete-phases-of-an-oral-contraceptive-cycle-a-pilot-study
#1
Marc Sim, Brian Dawson, Grant Landers, Dorine W Swinkels, Erwin Wiegerinck, Bu B Yeap, Debbie Trinder, Peter Peeling
BACKGROUND: In the past, elevated estradiol levels were reported to downregulate the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, thereby potentially improving iron metabolism. As estrogen plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and can influence the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6; a hepcidin up-regulator), this investigation examined the effects of estradiol supplementation achieved by the use of a monophasic oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on IL-6, hepcidin levels and iron status during the hormone-deplete versus hormone-replete phases within an oral contraceptive cycle (OCC)...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326633/bias-from-depletion-of-susceptibles-the-example-of-hormone-replacement-therapy-and-the-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism
#2
Christel Renoux, Sophie Dell'Aniello, Benjamin Brenner, Samy Suissa
PURPOSE: The data on the association between hormone replacement therapy and the increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in postmenopausal women are conflicting. The observed differences between oral estrogen and oral estrogen-progestogen combination formulations may be the result of bias from depletion of susceptibles. METHODS: We used United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink to identify the cohort of all women aged 50 to 79 during 1987-2008, with all incident cases of VTE occurring during the study period identified...
March 22, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323934/menopausal-hormone-therapy-and-type-2-diabetes-prevention-evidence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#3
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, JoAnn E Manson, John C Stevenson, Vivian A Fonseca
Type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the US. Large randomized controlled trials suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in women. Still, the mechanisms and clinical implications of these associations are a matter of controversy. This review provides an up-to-date analysis and integration of epidemiological, clinical and basic studies, and proposes a mechanistic explanation for the effect of menopause and MHT on type 2 diabetes development and prevention...
March 8, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319317/p-hacking-can-be-avoided-with-core-outcome-sets
#4
J van 't Hooft, K S Khan
The article by Thornton et al. establishes with data from progestogen trials something we have always feared, i.e. the corruption of reported results through selective publication of outcomes. In their analysis, trials with a predefined primary outcome showed no effect of progesterone consistently; trials that did not report a predefined primary outcome, however, had a tendency to show more promising results. Indeed this problem is so ingrained that even prospective registration of trials has not fully addressed it...
March 20, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318099/inadvertent-p-hacking-among-trials-and-systematic-reviews-of-the-effect-of-progestogens-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
M Prior, R Hibberd, N Asemota, J G Thornton
BACKGROUND: Progestogens have been evaluated in numerous trials and meta-analyses, many of which concluded they were effective. However, two large trials PROMISE and OPPTIMUM have recently concluded that progesterone was ineffective. This raises the possibility that earlier studies and reviews had been biased by either selective publication or selective choice of outcomes, so called "P-hacking". OBJECTIVES: To compare the findings all progestogen trials and systematic reviews with those of trials with pre-registered primary outcomes which avoided selective outcome reporting...
March 20, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301216/bioidentical-menopausal-hormone-therapy-registered-hormones-non-oral-estradiol%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-progesterone-are-optimal
#6
M L'Hermite
The many advantages of registered bioidentical sex hormones over registered, conventional, non-bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are considered. The transdermal route of estrogen administration avoids excess venous thromboembolic and ischemic stroke events. There is some indication that conjugated equine estrogens are more thrombogenic and most likely induce some hypertensive responses; estradiol might also be superior to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in terms of global cardiovascular health...
March 16, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283026/preventing-recurrence-of-endometriosis-by-means-of-long-acting-progestogen-therapy-pre-empt-report-of-an-internal-pilot-multi-arm-randomised-controlled-trial-incorporating-flexible-entry-design-and-adaption-of-design-based-on-feasibility-of-recruitment
#7
Lee J Middleton, Jane P Daniels, Annalise Weckesser, Siladitya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is associated with the growth of endometrium in ectopic sites mainly within the pelvis. This results in inflammation and scarring, causing pain and impaired quality of life. Endometriotic lesions can be excised or ablated surgically, but the risk of recurrence is high. A Heath Technology Assessment commissioning call in 2011 sought applications for trials aimed at evaluating long-term effectiveness of postoperative, long-acting, reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in preventing recurrence of endometriosis...
March 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277799/missed-pills-frequency-reasons-consequences-and-solutions
#8
Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet, Christian Jamin, Iñaki Lete, Paloma Lobo, Rossella E Nappi, Axelle Pintiaux, Günther Häusler, Christian Fiala
OBJECTIVES: Oral hormonal contraception is an effective contraceptive method as long as regular daily intake is maintained. However, a daily routine is a constraint for many women and can lead to missed pills, pill discontinuation and/or unintended pregnancy. This article describes the frequency of inconsistent use, the consequences, the risk factors and the possible solutions. METHODS: The article comprises a narrative review of the literature. RESULTS: Forgetting one to three pills per cycle is a frequent problem among 15-51% of users, generally adolescents...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276200/vasomotor-symptoms-due-to-natural-menopause-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-nma-of-treatment-effects-from-the-nice-menopause-guideline
#9
Grammati Sarri, Hugo Pedder, Sofia Dias, Yelan Guo, Mary Ann Lumsden
BACKGROUND: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are the hallmarks of menopause, occurring in approximately 75% of postmenopausal women in the UK and are severe in 25%. OBJECTIVES: To identify which treatments are most clinically effective for the relief of VMS for non-hysterectomized women in natural menopause. SEARCH STRATEGY: English publications in MEDLINE, Embase and The Cochrane Library up to 13(th) January 2015 were searched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials (RCTs) of treatments for women with a uterus for the outcomes of frequency of VMS (up to 26 weeks), vaginal bleeding and discontinuation...
March 9, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274328/risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-among-users-of-postmenopausal-hormone-therapy-a-nationwide-case-control-study
#10
Bushra Imtiaz, Heidi Taipale, Antti Tanskanen, Miia Tiihonen, Miia Kivipelto, Anna-Mari Heikkinen, Jari Tiihonen, Hilkka Soininen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Anna-Maija Tolppanen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Medicine and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) is a nested case-control study of the entire Finnish population with clinically verified AD from 2005 to 2011 and up to 4 matched controls per case. This study comprises 230,580 women (46,117 cases and 184,463 controls). Data on HT use from 1995 to 2011 was extracted from the national prescription register using following ATC codes: G03C (estrogen), G03D (progestogen) and G03F (estrogen and progestogen in combination)...
April 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257559/non-contraceptive-oestrogen-containing-preparations-for-controlling-symptoms-of-premenstrual-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Bushra Naheed, Jan Herman Kuiper, Olalekan A Uthman, Fidelma O'Mahony, Patrick Michael Shaughn O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a psychological and somatic disorder of unknown aetiology, with symptoms typically including irritability, depression, mood swings, bloating, breast tenderness and sleep disturbances. About 3% to 10% of women who experience these symptoms may also meet criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMS symptoms recur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and reduce by the end of menstruation. PMS results from ovulation and may be due to ovarian steroid interactions relating to neurotransmitter dysfunction...
March 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238536/high-salt-intake-does-not-aggravate-glucose-dysregulation-and-dyslipidemia-induced-by-estrogen-progestin-oral-contraceptive
#12
Oluwaseun A Adeyanju, Taofeek O Usman, Aboyeji L Oyewole, Sikiru A Biliaminu, Lawrence A Olatunji
BACKGROUND: Estrogen-progestogen combined oral contraceptive (OC) use has been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors, including glucose dysregulation, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and pro-inflammatory state. However, the effect of a high-salt diet on these risk factors during OC use is not yet investigated. We therefore hypothesized that a high-salt diet would increase cardiometabolic risk factors in female rats treated with a combination of OC steroids, levonorgestrel (L) and ethinylestradiol (EE), and that elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory markers are associated with the cardiometabolic effects...
February 10, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226203/characteristic-changes-in-decidual-gene-expression-signature-in-spontaneous-term-parturition
#13
Haidy El-Azzamy, Andrea Balogh, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Christopher LaJeunesse, Olesya Plazyo, Zhonghui Xu, Theodore G Price, Zhong Dong, Adi L Tarca, Zoltan Papp, Sonia S Hassan, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Chong Jai Kim, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Nandor Gabor Than
Background: The decidua has been implicated in the "terminal pathway" of human term parturition, which is characterized by the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways in gestational tissues. However, the transcriptomic changes in the decidua leading to terminal pathway activation have not been systematically explored. This study aimed to compare the decidual expression of developmental signaling and inflammation-related genes before and after spontaneous term labor in order to reveal their involvement in this process...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214940/transcriptional-and-biochemical-alterations-in-zebrafish-eleuthero-embryos-danio-rerio-after-exposure-to-synthetic-progestogen-dydrogesterone
#14
Wen-Jun Shi, Guang-Guo Ying, Guo-Yong Huang, Yan-Qiu Liang, Li-Xin Hu, Jian-Liang Zhao, Jin-Na Zhang
Little information has so far been known on the effects of synthetic progestogen dydrogesterone (DDG) in organisms like fish. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DDG on the transcriptional and biochemical alterations in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos. Zebrafish eleuthero-embryos were analyzed for the transcriptional alterations by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and biochemical changes by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FITR) after 144 h exposure to DDG...
February 18, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161112/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-contraception-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
N Gensous, L Doassans-Comby, E Lazaro, P Duffau
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety of contraceptive methods use among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the two databases MEDLINE and SCOPUS, in order to identify articles concerning the safety of contraceptive methods use among women with SLE, through May 2016. Information on study characteristics, objectives, population, contraception and outcomes were extracted...
February 1, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132583/the-evolving-role-of-oral-hormonal-therapies-and-review-of-conjugated-estrogens-bazedoxifene-for-the-management-of-menopausal-symptoms
#16
Sharon J Parish, John A Gillespie
This review describes the evolving role of oral hormone therapy (HT) for treating menopausal symptoms and preventing osteoporosis, focusing on conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene (CE/BZA). Estrogens alleviate hot flushes and prevent bone loss associated with menopause. In nonhysterectomized women, a progestin should be added to estrogens to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Use of HT declined since the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) studies showed that HT does not prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) and that conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate increased the risk of invasive breast cancer after nearly 5 years of use...
January 30, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126367/the-choice-of-progestogen-for-the-prevention-of%C3%A2-preterm-birth-in-women-with-singleton-pregnancy-and-prior-preterm-birth
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104494/thoughts-on-interactions-between-pgrmc1-and-diverse-attested-and-potential-hydrophobic-ligands
#18
REVIEW
Michael A Cahill, Amy E Medlock
Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) is located in many different subcellular locations with many different attested and probably location-specific functions. PGRMC1 was recently identified in the mitochondrial outer membrane where it interacts with ferrochelatase, the last enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway. It has been proposed that PGRMC1 may act as a chaperone to shuttle newly synthesized heme from the mitochondrion to cytochrome P450 (cyP450) enzymes. Here we consider potential roles that PGRMC1 may play in transferring heme, and other small hydrophobic ligands such as cholesterol and steroids, between the hydrophobic compartment of the membrane lipid bilayer interior to aqueous proteins, and perhaps to the membranes of other organelles...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093732/long-term-hormone-therapy-for-perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women
#19
REVIEW
Jane Marjoribanks, Cindy Farquhar, Helen Roberts, Anne Lethaby, Jasmine Lee
BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) is widely provided for control of menopausal symptoms and has been used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and dementia in older women. This is an updated version of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of long-term HT (at least 1 year's duration) on mortality, cardiovascular outcomes, cancer, gallbladder disease, fracture and cognition in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women during and after cessation of treatment...
January 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092737/complex-molecular-changes-induced-by-chronic-progestogens-exposure-in-roach-rutilus-rutilus
#20
Gabor Maasz, Zita Zrinyi, Peter Takacs, Sandor Lovas, Istvan Fodor, Tibor Kiss, Zsolt Pirger
In our previous study, we measured 0.23-13.67ng/L progestogens (progesterone, drospirenone, levonorgestrel) in natural waters in the catchment area of the largest shallow lake of Central Europe, Lake Balaton. Progestogen contaminations act as potent steroids with mixed progestagenic, androgenic and mild estrogenic effects that is why our aim was to investigate the morphological and molecular effects of mixture of progesterone, drospirenone, and levonorgestrel in environmentally relevant (10ng/L) and higher (50 and 500ng/L) exposure concentrations in common roach, Rutilus rutilus...
January 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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