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Microbiology, bacteria, virus

Jack A Gilbert
It is now well accepted that our modern lifestyle has certain implications for our health (Schaub et al., ), mainly as a result of our willingness to remove ourselves from the biological diversity of our natural environments (Roduit et al., ), while still being drawn inextricably to interact with it (Kellert and Wilson, ). Much of our interaction with the biological world is shaped by our interaction with the microbiological world. The bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea and protists that comprise the microbiome of this planet, are also key to the development and normal functioning of our bodies...
October 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Anne Spichler Moffarah, Mayar Al Mohajer, Bonnie L Hurwitz, David G Armstrong
The skin is colonized by a diverse collection of microorganisms which, for the most part, peacefully coexist with their hosts. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a variety of conditions; in immunocompromised hosts, SSTIs can be caused by diverse microorganisms-most commonly bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and protozoa. The diagnosis of SSTIs is difficult because they may commonly masquerade as other clinical syndromes or can be a manifestation of systemic disease. In immunocompromised hosts, SSTI poses a major diagnostic challenge, and clinical dermatological assessment should be initially performed; to better identify the pathogen and to lead to appropriate treatment, etiology should include cultures of lesions and blood, biopsy with histology, specific microbiological analysis with special stains, molecular techniques, and antigen-detection methodologies...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Vladimir A Morozov, Elena Plotzki, Avi Rotem, Uriel Barkai, Joachim Denner
BACKGROUND: To prevent transmission of zoonotic microorganisms from pig transplants to human recipients when performing xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, or organs, donor pigs have to be carefully characterized. Göttingen minipigs (GöMP) are often used for various biomedical investigations and are well characterized concerning the presence of numerous bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Recently, we studied the prevalence and expression of porcine endogenous retroviruses and the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in GöMP...
September 11, 2016: Xenotransplantation
Maryury Brown-Jaque, Maite Muniesa, Ferran Navarro
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area...
2016: Scientific Reports
Martin Strathmann, Marina Horstkott, Christoph Koch, Uta Gayer, Jost Wingender
Along the intense industrialization of the Ruhr valley (Germany), the River Ruhr became increasingly polluted. Over time, using it for recreational purposes became a serious health hazard and bathing was banned due to chemical and microbiological risks. The purpose of the collaborative project "Safe Ruhr" was to verify the current status and to provide a scientific basis for lifting the bathing ban. As the river also provides a raw water source for drinking water production, it was investigated how well the treatment procedures control possible hygienic risks...
July 14, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Jordi Vila Estapé, Yuliya Zboromyrska, Andrea Vergara Gómez, Izaskun Alejo Cancho, Elisa Rubio García, Miriam José Álvarez-Martínez, Jorge Puig de la Bellacasa Brugada, M Ángeles Marcos Maeso
Lower respiratory tract infections remain one of the most common causes of mortality worldwide, which is why early diagnosis is crucial. Traditionally the microbiological diagnosis of these infections has been based on conventional methods including culture on artificial media for isolation of bacteria and fungi and cell cultures for virus and antibody or antigen detection using antigen-antibody reactions. The main drawback of the above mentioned methods is the time needed for an etiological diagnosis of the infection...
July 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
S Dubler, S Zimmermann, M Fischer, P Schnitzler, T Bruckner, M A Weigand, U Frank, S Hofer, A Heininger
BACKGROUND: In the past, anaesthetic breathing circuits were identified as a source of pathogen transmission. It is still debated, whether breathing circuits combined with breathing system filters can be safely used for more than 1 day. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission risk of bacteria and also viruses via breathing circuits after extended use. METHODS: The inner and outer surface of 102 breathing circuits used for 1 day and of 101 circuits used for 7 days were examined for bacteria and viruses...
October 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Daisuke Kurai, Yoshiko Sasaki, Takeshi Saraya, Haruyuki Ishii, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Kunihisa Kozawa, Akihide Ryo, Taisei Ishioka, Makoto Kuroda, Kazunori Oishi, Hajime Takizawa, Hirokazu Kimura
BACKGROUND: The etiological profile of viruses among adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been characterized yet. The aim of this study was twofold: first, investigate the pathogen profiles and the molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses among Japanese CAP patients; and second, explore the clinical significance of viral infections. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Kyorin University Hospital. To identify respiratory pathogens, hospitalized CAP patients were enrolled, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technology was applied alongside conventional microbiological methods...
July 2016: Respiratory Investigation
Katarzyna Lewandowska, Jan Kuś
Pneumonia remains one of the main reasons of heath care system utilization. Quick diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation determine favorable outcome. Empirical antibiotic treatment allows to achieve treatment success in most patients. Treatment recommendations are based on big epidemiological trials. Nevertheless, it is sometimes necessary to know the definite etiologic factor of pneumonia. In these cases microbiological diagnostics is useful, i.e. sputum microscopy and culture, blood culture, bronchial lavage culture, bacterial antigen tests in urine, molecular tests...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Paula Juliana Pérez-Chaparro, Poliana Mendes Duarte, Jamil Awad Shibli, Sheyla Montenegro, Sílvia Lacerda Heluy, Luciene Cristina Figueiredo, Marcelo Faveri, Magda Feres
BACKGROUND: There is still no consensus as regards the microorganisms that may be considered true peri-implant pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to determine the weight of evidence for the microorganisms related to peri-implantitis based on the results of "association studies". METHODS: This review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Two independent researchers searched the PubMed/Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases up to August 4(th) 2015, for studies comparing the microbiological outcomes of subgingival biofilm samples from healthy implants and implants with peri-implantitis...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Neelja Singhal, Manish Kumar, Jugsharan Singh Virdi
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being used for rapid and reproducible identification of bacteria, viruses and fungi in clinical microbiological laboratories. However, some studies have also reported the use of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of parasites, like Leishmania, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba, ticks and fleas. The present review collates all the information available on the use of this technique for parasites, in an effort to assess its applicability and the constraints for identification/diagnosis of parasites and diseases caused by them...
October 2016: Parasitology
Isao Nishi, Yoh Hidaka
Healthcare-associated infection control aims to protect patients and health care workers from infections. For successful control, it is important not to transmit pathogens and resistant bacteria as well as not to create new resistant bacteria. Preventing the transmission of pathogens and resistant bacteria involves the reliable implementation of preventative measures for specific pathways in response to the causative microorganism. Appropriate information from the microbiology laboratory promotes the thorough implementation of prevention measures...
March 2016: Rinsho Byori. the Japanese Journal of Clinical Pathology
Katarzyna Krenke, Ewa Sadowy, Edyta Podsiadły, Waleria Hryniewicz, Urszula Demkow, Marek Kulus
BACKGROUND: An increasing incidence of parapneumonic effusion and pleural empyema (PPE/PE) has been reported in recent studies. As only few data on etiology of PPE/PE in Central Europe have been reported, we undertook a study on the etiology of PPE/PE in children, using both standard culture and molecular techniques. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between June 2011 and December 2013. Consecutive children with PPE/PE complicating community acquired pneumonia, who required diagnostic/therapeutic thoracentesis were included...
July 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Khadijeh Ahmadi, Soheila Nikakhlagh
BACKGROUND: Sinusitis is a complex involvement of the upper respiratory system by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other allergens. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the dominant bacterial microorganisms involved in acute sinusitis, whereas in chronic sinusitis, Staphylococcus aureus and some anaerobic bacteria are the prevailing pathogens. Appropriate antibiotic treatment requires sinusitis bacteriology assessment. The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria in clinical samples from patients with chronic sinusitis...
August 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Jordi Vila, Ines Oliveira, Yuliya Zboromyrska, Joaquim Gascon
Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is acquired primarily through ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with pathogens that cause diarrhoea. They can be bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of TD are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Campylobacter, although there are significant variations by geographic area visited. Most TD occurs in individuals traveling to low-middle income countries. The type of travel, length of stay, traveller's age, and the presence of certain underlying conditions are important risk factors to consider for the acquisition of TD...
May 24, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Christine G Golding, Lindsey L Lamboo, Daniel R Beniac, Timothy F Booth
Despite being an excellent tool for investigating ultrastructure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is less frequently used than transmission electron microscopy for microbes such as viruses or bacteria. Here we describe rapid methods that allow SEM imaging of fully hydrated, unfixed microbes without using conventional sample preparation methods. We demonstrate improved ultrastructural preservation, with greatly reduced dehydration and shrinkage, for specimens including bacteria and viruses such as Ebola virus using infiltration with ionic liquid on conducting filter substrates for SEM...
2016: Scientific Reports
X Fernandez-Cassi, C Silvera, S Cervero-Aragó, M Rusiñol, F Latif-Eugeni, C Bruguera-Casamada, S Civit, R M Araujo, M J Figueras, R Girones, S Bofill-Mas
The use of lagooning as a complementary natural method of treating secondary effluents of wastewater treatment plants has been employed as an affordable and easy means of producing reclaimed water. However, using reclaimed water for some purposes, for example, for food irrigation, presents some risks if the effluents contain microbial pathogens. Classical bacterial indicators that are used to assess faecal contamination in water do not always properly indicate the presence of bacterial or viral pathogens. In the current study, the presence of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), heterotrophic bacterial counts (HBC), pathogens and opportunistic pathogens, such as Legionella spp...
August 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Giovanna E Carpagnano, Mario Malerba, Donato Lacedonia, Antonia Susca, Antonio Logrieco, Mauro Carone, Grazia Cotugno, Giuseppe A Palmiotti, Maria P Foschino-Barbaro
BACKGROUND: The presence of virus and bacteria in the airways of subjects with asthma is common and seems to be associated with a deterioration due to the disease. The microbiologic study of airways in asthma is foreseen by guidelines with induced sputum that is often ineffective and contraindicated in severe asthma. AIM: To analyze the fungal microbiome in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of subjects with asthma by evaluating a possible correlation with anthropometric and asthma severity data...
May 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Kagan Ipci, Niyazi Altıntoprak, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Mehmet Senturk, Cemal Cingi
In the present paper, we discuss the importance of the microbiome in allergic disease. In this review paper, the data from the Medline (PubMed) and search engine of Kirikkale University were systematically searched for all relevant articles in June 15th, 2015 for the past 30 years. The keywords of "microbiome", "dysbiosis", "allergy", "allergic rhinitis", "allergic disease", "mechanisms" and "treatment" were used alone or together. In this paper, microbiomes were presented in terms of "Definition", "Influence of \the human microbiome on health", "The microbiome and allergic diseases", and "Modulation of the gut microbiota in terms of treatment and prevention"...
April 26, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
S Strubbia, B P Lyons, R J Lee
Bivalve shellfish may accumulate contaminants of public health concern including pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Microbiological monitoring of production areas is based on faecal coliforms in water in the USA and Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs in the European Union. E. coli is known to reflect contamination with Salmonella enterica but not necessarily with other human pathogens such as enteric viruses. A structured field study was undertaken at three locations in order to investigate the geographical and temporal variability of E...
June 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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