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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904380/transfer-of-labile-organic-matter-and-microbes-from-the-ocean-surface-to-the-marine-aerosol-an-experimental-approach
#1
Eugenio Rastelli, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Marco Lo Martire, Silvestro Greco, Maria Cristina Facchini, Matteo Rinaldi, Colin O'Dowd, Darius Ceburnis, Roberto Danovaro
Surface ocean bubble-bursting generates aerosols composed of microscopic salt-water droplets, enriched in marine organic matter. The organic fraction profoundly influences aerosols' properties, by scattering solar radiations and nucleating water particles. Still little is known on the biochemical and microbiological composition of these organic particles. In the present study, we experimentally simulated the bursting of bubbles at the seawater surface of the North-Eastern Atlantic Ocean, analysing the organic materials and the diversity of the bacteria in the source-seawaters and in the produced aerosols...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898207/shotgun-metagenomics-from-sampling-to-analysis
#2
Christopher Quince, Alan W Walker, Jared T Simpson, Nicholas J Loman, Nicola Segata
Diverse microbial communities of bacteria, archaea, viruses and single-celled eukaryotes have crucial roles in the environment and in human health. However, microbes are frequently difficult to culture in the laboratory, which can confound cataloging of members and understanding of how communities function. High-throughput sequencing technologies and a suite of computational pipelines have been combined into shotgun metagenomics methods that have transformed microbiology. Still, computational approaches to overcome the challenges that affect both assembly-based and mapping-based metagenomic profiling, particularly of high-complexity samples or environments containing organisms with limited similarity to sequenced genomes, are needed...
September 12, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862989/fetal-death-an-extreme-manifestation-of-maternal-anti-fetal-rejection
#3
Kia Lannaman, Roberto Romero, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Yeon Mee Kim, Steven J Korzeniewski, Eli Maymon, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Bogdan Panaitescu, Sonia S Hassan, Lami Yeo, Bo Hyun Yoon, Chong Jai Kim, Offer Erez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between chronic placental inflammation and amniotic fluid (AF) markers of maternal anti-fetal rejection as well as the presence of microorganisms in the AF fluid of patients with fetal death. STUDY DESIGN: This cohort study included 40 patients with fetal death whose placentas were examined for chronic inflammatory lesions and whose AF chemokine ligand (CXCL)10 and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations were determined by immunoassays...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852568/etiology-of-acute-respiratory-disease-in-fattening-pigs-in-finland
#4
Minna Haimi-Hakala, Outi Hälli, Tapio Laurila, Mirja Raunio-Saarnisto, Tiina Nokireki, Taina Laine, Suvi Nykäsenoja, Kirsti Pelkola, Joaquim Segales, Marina Sibila, Claudio Oliviero, Olli Peltoniemi, Sinikka Pelkonen, Mari Heinonen
BACKGROUND: The objective of our study was to clinically and etiologically investigate acute outbreaks of respiratory disease in Finland. Our study also aimed to evaluate the clinical use of various methods in diagnosing respiratory infections under field conditions and to describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of the main bacterial pathogen(s) found during the study. METHODS: A total of 20 case herds having finishing pigs showing acute respiratory symptoms and eight control herds showing no clinical signs suggesting of respiratory problems were enrolled in the study...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741603/role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
REVIEW
Lei Wang, Ke Hao, Ting Yang, Chen Wang
OBJECTIVE: The development of culture-independent techniques for microbiological analysis shows that bronchial tree is not sterile in either healthy or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) individuals. With the advance of sequencing technologies, lung microbiome has become a new frontier for pulmonary disease research, and such advance has led to better understanding of the lung microbiome in COPD. This review aimed to summarize the recent advances in lung microbiome, its relationships with COPD, and the possible mechanisms that microbiome contributed to COPD pathogenesis...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734862/respiratory-infections-and-antibiotic-usage-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#6
Johannes M Sperlich, Bodo Grimbacher, Sarita Workman, Tanzina Haque, Suranjith L Seneviratne, Siobhan O Burns, Veronika Reiser, Werner Vach, John R Hurst, David M Lowe
BACKGROUND: Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) suffer frequent respiratory tract infections despite immunoglobulin replacement and are prescribed significant quantities of antibiotics. The clinical and microbiological nature of these exacerbations, the symptomatic triggers to take antibiotics, and the response to treatment have not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVES: To describe the nature, frequency, treatment, and clinical course of respiratory tract exacerbations in patients with CVID and to describe pathogens isolated during respiratory tract exacerbations...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719310/severity-of-pneumonia-in-under-5-year-old-children-from-developing-countries-a-multicenter-prospective-observational-study
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
Thomas Bénet, Valentina Sanchez Picot, Shally Awasthi, Nitin Pandey, Ashish Bavdekar, Anand Kawade, Annick Robinson, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Maryam Sylla, Souleymane Diallo, Graciela Russomando, Wilma Basualdo, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Philippe Vanhems, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà, For The Gabriel Network
Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. The objectives were to evaluate the microbiological agents linked with hypoxemia in hospitalized children with pneumonia from developing countries, to identify predictors of hypoxemia, and to characterize factors associated with in-hospital mortality. A multicenter, observational study was conducted in five hospitals, from India (Lucknow, Vadu), Madagascar (Antananarivo), Mali (Bamako), and Paraguay (San Lorenzo). Children aged 2-60 months with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were enrolled prospectively...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711782/the-human-microbiome
#8
REVIEW
Hubert E Blum
Until recently, human microbiology was based on the identification of single microbes, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, frequently isolated from patients with acute or chronic infections. Novel culture-independent molecular biochemical analyses (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) allow today to detect and classify the diverse microorganisms in a given ecosystem (microbiota), such as the gastrointestinal tract, the skin, the airway system, the urogenital tract and others, and to assess all genomes in these ecosystems (microbiome) as well as their gene products...
July 13, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672875/light-assisted-advanced-oxidation-processes-for-the-elimination-of-chemical-and-microbiological-pollution-of-wastewaters-in-developed-and-developing-countries
#9
REVIEW
Stefanos Giannakis, Sami Rtimi, Cesar Pulgarin
In this work, the issue of hospital and urban wastewater treatment is studied in two different contexts, in Switzerland and in developing countries (Ivory Coast and Colombia). For this purpose, the treatment of municipal wastewater effluents is studied, simulating the developed countries' context, while cheap and sustainable solutions are proposed for the developing countries, to form a barrier between effluents and receiving water bodies. In order to propose proper methods for each case, the characteristics of the matrices and the targets are described here in detail...
June 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655582/prevalence-of-clostridium-perfringens-toxin-in-patients-suspected-of-having-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea
#10
Young Jin Kim, Si Hyun Kim, Junggu Ahn, Soongmoon Cho, Dongchun Kim, Kwanghyun Kim, Heegun Lee, Hyunwoo Son, Hee Joo Lee, Dongeun Yong, Jun Yong Choi, Hye Ran Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin
BACKGROUND: Although Clostridium perfringens has been reported as a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), it is uncommon to detect this pathogen in clinical microbiology laboratories in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of C. perfringens toxin in patients suspected of having AAD. METHODS: A total of 135 stool specimens submitted to a clinical microbiology laboratory for C. difficile toxin assay were tested. We tried to detect both C...
June 26, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619124/multiplex-tests-to-identify-gastrointestinal-bacteria-viruses-and-parasites-in-people-with-suspected-infectious-gastroenteritis-a-systematic-review-and-economic-analysis
#11
Karoline Freeman, Hema Mistry, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Pam Royle, Noel McCarthy, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Rohini Manuel, James Mason
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a common, transient disorder usually caused by infection and characterised by the acute onset of diarrhoea. Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify common bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens using molecular testing. By providing test results more rapidly than conventional testing methods, GPP tests might positively influence the treatment and management of patients presenting in hospital or in the community. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence for GPP tests [xTAG(®) (Luminex, Toronto, ON, Canada), FilmArray (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and Faecal Pathogens B (AusDiagnostics, Beaconsfield, NSW, Australia)] and to develop a de novo economic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of GPP tests with conventional testing in England and Wales...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578421/aetiology-and-outcomes-of-suspected-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-children-in-mbarara-uganda
#12
Anne-Laure Page, Yap Boum Ii, Elizabeth Kemigisha, Nicolas Salez, Deborah Nanjebe, Céline Langendorf, Said Aberrane, Dan Nyehangane, Fabienne Nackers, Emmanuel Baron, Rémi Charrel, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are severe conditions, leading to neurological sequelae or death. Knowledge of the causative agents is essential to develop guidelines for case management in resource-limited settings. Between August 2009 and October 2012, we conducted a prospective descriptive study of the aetiology of suspected CNS infections in children two months to 12 years old, with fever and at least one sign of CNS involvement in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda. Children were clinically evaluated on admission and discharge, and followed-up for 6 months for neurological sequelae...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560124/multidrug-resistant-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-isolated-from-and-masquerading-healed-tubercular-constrictive-pericarditis-and-study-of-virulence-markers
#13
Reetika Dawar, Anoop Ganjoo, Firdaus Imdadi, Vasundhra Bhandari
Among the infectious causes of pericarditis are various bacteria, viruses, fungal and parasitic infections. The course disease may progress to a chronic constrictive pattern especially with tubercular etiology. Non-typhoidal Salmonella has rarely been reported as a cause of pericarditis. We describe here a case from which the pericardial fluid from an old case of tubercular pericarditis sent for culture to microbiology laboratory grew a Salmonella typhimurium. We studied the antibiotic resistance pattern, phage type and virulence factors playing a role in the invasive nature of the pathogen since no such study from pericardial fluid was found in the literature...
April 26, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#14
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
June 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520995/new-molecular-diagnostic-tools-in-traveller-s-diarrhea
#15
Jordi Vila
Traveller's diarrhea can be caused by bacteria, protozoa, helminths and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of traveller's diarrhea are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Shigella, although there are significant variations according to the geographic area visited. While traveller's diarrhea is usually a mild, self-limiting disease, half of the travellers with traveller's diarrhea have some limitation in their activities during the journey and up to 10% present persistent diarrhea or other complications, making microbiological diagnosis necessary...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520621/outbreaks-in-the-adult-icus
#16
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Yaseen M Arabi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infectious disease outbreaks in the critical care setting are common and serious consequence. This article reviews and summarizes recent outbreaks in the adult ICUs. RECENT FINDINGS: Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and emerging viruses in ICUs from different countries are common. Outbreak investigation relies on epidemiologic methods, microbiologic studies, and molecular typing methods. Overuse of antibiotics, gaps in implementing infection prevention measures, and contaminated environment are common causes of ICU outbreaks...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512280/herpes-simplex-1-and-periopathogen-role-in-peri-implantitis
#17
S Parthiban, Nizar Ahmed, T Ramakrishnan, V Balakumar, Manoj Raja, Himanshu Shekhar
INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to compare the qualitative and quantitative profiles of herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) in implant surfaces between participants with peri-implantitis (PI) and Healthy peri-implant tissues and to quantitatively assess the relation between HSV-1 and periopathogens inside the microbiological profile associated with PI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with PI and 40 with healthy peri-implant tissues (HI) were recruited...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462680/does-placental-mdsc-mediated-modulation-of-arginine-levels-help-protect-the-foetus-from-auxotrophic-pathogens
#18
Abdul Qader Tahir Ismail
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immunosuppressive precursors of dendritic cells, macrophages and granulocytes. MDSCs normally quickly differentiate, but have elevated levels in chronic infection and cancer, where they help tumours evade the immune system through induction of T-cell dysfunction. MDSC levels are also raised in pregnancy, and in the neonate. During pregnancy they may help to prevent maternal rejection of the semiallogenic foetus. In the immediate postnatal period they may aid in allowing tolerance of gut microbiological colonisation and non-pathological environmental antigens...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451440/microbiological-screenings-for-infection-control-in-unaccompanied-minor-refugees-the-german-armed-forces-medical-service-s-experience
#19
Winfried Maaßen, Dorothea Wiemer, Claudia Frey, Christina Kreuzberg, Egbert Tannich, Rebecca Hinz, Andreas Wille, Andreas Fritsch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Hagen Frickmann
BACKGROUND: The German Military Medical Service contributed to the medical screening of unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) coming to Germany in 2014 and 2015. In this study, a broad range of diagnostic procedures was applied to identify microorganisms with clinical or public health significance. Previously, those tests had only been used to screen soldiers returning from tropical deployments. This instance is the first time the approach has been studied in a humanitarian context. METHODS: The offered screenings included blood cell counts, hepatitis B serology and microscopy of the stool to look for protozoa and worm eggs as well as PCR from stool samples targeting pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and helminths...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439785/influence-of-environmental-conditions-on-norovirus-presence-in-mussels-harvested-in-montenegro
#20
Nevena Ilic, Branko Velebit, Vlado Teodorovic, Vesna Djordjevic, Nedjeljko Karabasil, Dragan Vasilev, Spomenka Djuric, Bojan Adzic, Mirjana Dimitrijevic
This study comprises the first systematic survey of the occurrence of Norovirus in Mediterranean mussels from harvesting areas in Montenegro coast of Adriatic Sea. Mussels may accumulate contaminants of public health concern, including pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Microbiological monitoring of harvesting areas is based on count of Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs in the European Union. It is assumed that E. coli does not reflect contamination with enteric viruses. A structured field study was undertaken at six locations in Bay of Kotor, Montenegro, in order to investigate plausible influence of environmental factors on the variability of E...
April 24, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
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