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E Hallmann-Szelińska, K Cieślak, D Kowalczyk, K Szymański, L B Brydak
The aim of the study was to determine the level of antibodies against hemagglutinin of influenza viruses in the sera of 1,050 patients stratified into 7 different age groups during the 2016/2017 epidemic season in Poland. The method consisted of using the hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI). The findings confirmed the presence of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies against the following influenza virus antigens: A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09, A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2), and B/Brisbane/60/2008. The level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies differed across the age groups investigated, with the highest values in patients aged 10-14 years...
June 22, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Feng Liu, Wen-Pin Tzeng, Lauren Horner, Ram P Kamal, Heather R Tatum, Elisabeth G Blanchard, Xiyan Xu, Ian York, Terrence M Tumpey, Jacqueline M Katz, Xiuhua Lu, Min Z Levine
Background: Although ferret antisera used in influenza surveillance did not detect antigenic drift of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses during 2015-16 season, low vaccine effectiveness was reported in adults. We investigated the immune basis of low responses to circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses following vaccination. Methods: Over 300 paired adult (18-49 yrs) pre and post-vaccination sera collected in 6 seasons (2010-11 to 2015-16) were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition assays to evaluate the antibody responses to thirteen A(H1N1) viruses circulated from 1977 to 2016...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alexander I Makarkov, Aakash R Patel, Valentine Bainov, Brian J Ward
BACKGROUND: Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) antibodies are often used as a correlate of protection for influenza. However, these manual assays are labor-intensive and difficult to standardize due to variability in biologic reagents used and subjective interpretation of the results. METHODS: Sera with known HAI and MN titers were used to assess a novel test based on the inhibition of fluorescence 'dequenching'. Whole influenza virions (A/California/07/2009 (H1N1), A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2) and B/Brisbane/60/2008) labelled with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine perchlorate (DiD) were exposed to serial dilutions of serum and mixed with turkey red blood cells followed by acidification of the media (pH 5...
June 18, 2018: Vaccine
Guillaume Hékimian, Tamara Jovanovic, Nicolas Bréchot, Guillaume Lebreton, Pascal Leprince, Jean-Louis Trouillet, Matthieu Schmidt, Ania Nieszkowska, Sébastien Besset, Jean Chastre, Alain Combes, Charles-Edouard Luyt
PURPOSE: To describe patients with refractory cardiogenic shock related to influenza B virus myocarditis rescued by venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VA-ECMO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized in our unit for influenza-associated myocarditis were prospectively included. We also conducted a systematic MEDLINE database literature review through the PubMed search engine, between 1946 and 2017. RESULTS: We report the cases of 4 young patients with fulminant myocarditis requiring VA-ECMO for 6 [5-8] days...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Salah Uddin Khan, Emily S Gurley, Nancy Gerloff, Md Z Rahman, Natosha Simpson, Mustafizur Rahman, Najmul Haider, Sukanta Chowdhury, Amanda Balish, Rashid Uz Zaman, Sharifa Nasreen, Bidhan Chandra Das, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, C Todd Davis, Ruben O Donis, Stephen P Luby
Avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic strains, pose severe economic, animal and public health concerns. We implemented live bird market surveillance in Bangladesh to identify the subtypes of avian influenza A viruses in domestic waterfowl and market environments. We collected waterfowl samples monthly from 4 rural sites from 2007 to 2012 and environmental samples from 4 rural and 16 urban sites from 2009 to 2012. Samples were tested through real-time RT-PCR, virus culture, and sequencing to detect and characterize avian influenza A viruses...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lisa Walz, Sarah-Katharina Kays, Gert Zimmer, Veronika von Messling
Immune responses induced by currently licensed inactivated influenza vaccines are mainly directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, the immunodominant antigen of influenza viruses. The resulting antigenic drift of HA requires frequent updating of the vaccine composition and annual revaccination. On the other hand, the level of antibodies directed against the neuraminidase (NA) glycoprotein, the second major influenza virus antigen, vary greatly. To investigate the potential of the more conserved NA protein for the induction of a subtype-specific protection, vesicular stomatitis virus-based replicons expressing a panel of N1 proteins from prototypic seasonal and pandemic H1N1 strain and human H5N1 and H7N9 isolates were generated...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
O G Kurskaya, T A Murashkina, A Yu Alekseev, K A Sharshov, L P Romakh, A A Derko, A V Troitskii, T N Bystrova, V A Shkurupy, A M Shestopalov
Antiviral efficiency of oxidized dextrans (OD) with different molecular weights and oxidation degree (OD40min, OD70min, OD40max, and OD70 max) was studied in vitro and in vivo. Dextrans OD40max and OD70max prevented the development of the cytopathic effect of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in more than 50% MDCK cells vs. control (no OD). Four intranasal doses of OD40min, OD40max, and OD70min and one intranasal dose of OD70max before infection of BALB/c mice with A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus significantly reduced mortality and prolonged life span in comparison with controls receiving saline...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Cory N Criss, Ryan Barbaro, Kristy Ann Bauman, Odetola Folafoluwa, Ranjith Vellody, Marcus D Jarboe
INTRODUCTION: This case highlights the successful utilization of a multidisciplinary approach to numerous bilateral bronchopleural fistulae (BPF) using minimally invasive techniques. In this study, we present a previously healthy 14-year-old male hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influenza and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus coinfection complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, with significant lung tissue damage requiring prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Anne Schuchat, Larry J Anderson, Lance E Rodewald, Nancy J Cox, Rana Hajjeh, Mark A Pallansch, Nancy E Messonnier, Daniel B Jernigan, Melinda Wharton
The need for closer linkages between scientific and programmatic areas focused on addressing vaccine-preventable and acute respiratory infections led to establishment of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. During its first 10 years (2006-2015), NCIRD worked with partners to improve preparedness and response to pandemic influenza and other emergent respiratory infections, provide an evidence base for addition of 7 newly recommended vaccines, and modernize vaccine distribution...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Salaheddin M Mahmud, Songul Bozat-Emre, Luiz C Mostaço-Guidolin, Ruth Ann Marrie
To investigate a potential risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) after vaccination with Arepanrix, the GlaxoSmithKline AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine, we used the provincewide immunization registry for Manitoba, Canada, to match 341,347 persons vaccinated during the 2009 pandemic to 485,941 unvaccinated persons on age, sex, address, and a propensity score measuring the probability of vaccination. We used a previously validated algorithm to identify MS cases from provincial hospital, physician, and prescription drug claims databases...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Devinder Midha, Arun Kumar, Pratibha Vasudev, Zafar Ahmad Iqbal, Amit Kumar Mandal
The year 2009-2010 saw H1N1 influenza outbreaks occurring in almost all countries of the world, causing the WHO to declare it a pandemic of an alert level of 6. In India, H1N1 influenza outbreaks were again reported in late 2014 and early 2015. Since then, sporadic cases of H1N1 influenza have been reported. H1N1 influenza usually presents itself with respiratory tract symptoms. In a minority of patients, abdominal symptoms may occur as well. Acute influenza-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis mostly occurs in the pediatric population, whereas in adults, it is a rare complication...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Simone La Frazia, Sara Piacentini, Anna Riccio, Jean Francois Rossignol, M Gabriella Santoro
The emergence of new avian influenza virus (AIV) strains able to infect humans represents a serious threat to global human health. In addition to surveillance and vaccine development, antiviral therapy remains crucial for AIV control; however, the increase in drug-resistant AIV strains underscores the need for novel approaches to anti-influenza chemotherapy. We have previously shown that the thiazolide anti-infective nitazoxanide (NTZ) inhibits influenza A/PuertoRico/8/1934(H1N1) virus replication, and this effect was associated with inhibition of viral hemagglutinin (HA) maturation...
June 13, 2018: Antiviral Research
Hanjun Zhao, Kelvin K W To, Hin Chu, Qiulu Ding, Xiaoyu Zhao, Cun Li, Huiping Shuai, Shuofeng Yuan, Jie Zhou, Kin-Hang Kok, Shibo Jiang, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Limited efficacy of current antivirals and antiviral-resistant mutations impairs anti-influenza treatment. Here, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiviral effect of three defective interfering genes (DIG-3) of influenza virus. Viral replication is significantly reduced in cell lines transfected with DIG-3. Mice treated with DIG-3 encoded by jetPEI-vector, as prophylaxis and therapeutics against A(H7N7) virus, respectively, have significantly better survivals (80% and 50%) than control mice (0%). We further develop a dual-functional peptide TAT-P1, which delivers DIG-3 with high efficiency and concomitantly exerts antiviral activity by preventing endosomal acidification...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Bei Wang, Tze Hau Lam, Mun Kuen Soh, Zhiyong Ye, Jinmiao Chen, Ee Chee Ren
Human influenza virus (IAV) are among the most common pathogens to cause human respiratory infections. A better understanding on interplay between IAV and host factors may provide clues for disease prevention and control. While many viruses are known to downregulate p53 upon entering the cell to reduce the innate host antiviral response, IAV infection is unusual in that it activates p53. However, it has not been clear whether this process has proviral or antiviral effects. In this study, using human isogenic p53 wild-type and p53null A549 cells generated from the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we observed that p53null cells exhibit significantly reduced viral propagation when infected with influenza A virus (strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 H1N1)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hui Cai, Meisui Liu, Charles J Russell
Reporter viruses provide a powerful tool to study infection, yet incorporating a non-essential gene often results in virus attenuation and genetic instability. Here, we used directed evolution of a luciferase-expressing pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) 2009 influenza A virus in mice to restore replication kinetics and virulence, increase the bioluminescence signal, and maintain reporter gene expression. An unadapted pH1N1 virus with NanoLuc luciferase inserted into the 5' end of the PA gene segment grew to titers 10-fold less than wild-type in MDCK cells and in DBA/2 mice and was less virulent...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Raffael Nachbagauer, David Shore, Hua Yang, Scott K Johnson, Jon D Gabbard, S Mark Tompkins, Jens Wrammert, Patrick C Wilson, James Stevens, Rafi Ahmed, Florian Krammer, Ali H Ellebedy
Broadly cross-reactive antibodies that recognize conserved epitopes within the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stalk domain are of particular interest for their potential use as therapeutic and prophylactic agents against multiple influenza virus subtypes including zoonotic virus strains. Here, we characterized four human HA stalk-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their binding breadth and affinity, in vitro neutralization capacity, and in vivo protective potential against an highly pathogenic avian influenza virus...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Daniel A Green, Kirsten St George
Rapid antigen tests for influenza, herein referred to as rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), have been widely used for the diagnosis of influenza since their introduction in the 1990's due to their ease of use, rapid results, and suitability for point of care (POC) testing. However, issues related to the diagnostic sensitivity of these assays have been known for decades, and these issues gained greater attention following reports of their poor performance during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. In turn, significant concerns arose about the consequences of false negative results, which could pose significant risks to both individual patient care and to public health efforts...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
K Russell, K Herrick, H Venkat, S Brady, K Komatsu, K Goodin, V Berisha, R Sunenshine, C Perez-Velez, S Elliott, S J Olsen, C Reed
The Arizona Department of Health Services identified unusually high levels of influenza activity and severe complications during the 2015-2016 influenza season leading to concerns about potential increased disease severity compared with prior seasons. We estimated state-level burden and severity to compare across three seasons using multiple data sources for community-level illness, hospitalisation and death. Severity ratios were calculated as the number of hospitalisations or deaths per community case. Community influenza-like illness rates, hospitalisation rates and mortality rates in 2015-2016 were higher than the previous two seasons...
June 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
K Malbari, H Gonsalves, A Chintakrindi, D Gohil, M Joshi, S Kothari, S Srivastava, A Chowdhary, M Kanyalkar
Considering the need for discovery of new antiviral drugs, in view to combat the issue of resistance particularly to anti-influenza drugs, a series of 2'-amino, 3'-amino and 2', 4'-dihydroxy chalcone derivatives were designed. Structure-based drug design was used to design inhibitors of influenza virus - H1N1 neuraminidase enzyme. These were further optimized by a combination of iterative medicinal chemistry principles and molecular docking. Based on the best docking scores, some chalcone derivatives were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
2018: Acta Virologica
Mai-Chi Trieu, Åsne Jul-Larsen, Marianne Sævik, Anders Madsen, Jane Kristin Nøstbakken, Fan Zhou, Steinar Skrede, Rebecca Jane Cox
Background: The 2009 influenza pandemic was caused by A/H1N1pdm09 virus, which was subsequently included in the seasonal vaccine as the A/H1N1 strain up to 2016/17. This provided a unique opportunity to investigate the antibody response to H1N1pdm09 over time. Methods: Healthcare workers (HCWs) were immunized with the AS03-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09 vaccine in 2009 (N=250), and subsequently vaccinated with seasonal vaccines containing H1N1pdm09 for 4 seasons (repeated group), <4 seasons (occasional group), or received no further vaccinations (single group)...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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