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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075182/dispersing-the-mists-an-experimental-history-of-medicine-study-into-the-quality-of-volatile-inhalations
#1
Barry Murnane, Cathal T Gallagher, Noel Snell, Mark Sanders, Ramin Moshksar, Darragh Murnane
BACKGROUND: Dr. Nelson's Improved Inhaler was first marketed with an advertisement in The Lancet in 1865. Revolutionary at the time for its ease of use and patient-friendliness, the inhaler is still in use for self-treatment by many all over the world. On the occasion of its 150th anniversary, this study reports an experimental historical medicine approach to identify evidence for the quality of vapor inhalers. METHODS: Through accessing reviews of the device's use by the contemporary medical establishment, it was established that Dr...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064463/global-research-trends-in-lithium-toxicity-from-1913-to-2015-a-bibliometric-analysis
#2
Sa'ed H Zyoud, W Stephen Waring, Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi
Lithium salts have been used to treat psychiatric disorders since the 1940s and are currently used in prophylaxis and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess lithium toxicity-related publications using bibliometric approaches from a health point of view to assess global research trends in the lithium toxicity field to offer guidance to future research in this field. The data were retrieved from the online version of Scopus database on 6 August 2016. All records with the term "lithium" in the title were retrieved, and those related to lithium toxicity were evaluated...
January 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050393/metronomic-chemotherapy-seems-prowess-to-battle-against-cancer-in-current-scenario
#3
Prema Muthusamy, Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary, G K Nalini
INTRODUCTION: Metronomic chemotherapy is an emerging method of chemotherapy. Metronomic 'lowdose' chemotherapy regimen induces tumour dormancy and reduces cancer resistance against anticancer drugs. It tends to improve overall success rate of cancer chemotherapy than conventional cyclical regimen. AIM: The aim of this systemic review was to provide comprehensive data of metronomic chemotherapy trials, regimens used and it's outcome in cancer therapeutics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty chemotherapy trial data were searched sequentially from web...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048284/su-f-p-08-medical-physics-perspective-on-radiation-therapy-quality-and-safety-considerations-in-low-income-settings
#4
J Van Dyk, A Meghzifene
PURPOSE: The last few years have seen a significant growth of interest in the global radiation therapy crisis. Various organizations are quantifying the need and providing aid in support of addressing the shortfall existing in many low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). The Lancet Oncology Commission report (Lancet Oncol. Sep;16(10):1153-86, 2015) projects a need of 22,000 new medical physicists in LMICs by 2035 if there is to be equal access globally. With the tremendous demand for new facilities, equipment and personnel, it is very important to recognize quality and safety considerations and to address them directly...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030373/what-are-the-most-promising-new-agents-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#5
David A Sallman, Jeffrey E Lancet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the treatment paradigm for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) had been largely unchanged for many years, in-depth molecular characterization has revolutionized our understanding of mutations that drive the disease, subsequently serving to guide current clinical investigation. Furthermore, recent advances in the field have highlighted the importance of optimizing known efficacious agents by improving drug delivery or bypassing resistance mechanisms. The current status of novel agents which are shaping the clinical management of AML patients are summarized in this review...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027060/methodological-quality-of-surgical-mortality-studies-using-large-hospital-databases-a-systematic-review
#6
Cécile Payet, Jean-Christophe Lifante, Matthew J Carty, Muriel Rabilloud, Antoine Duclos
OBJECTIVE: To review the methodology employed in surgical mortality studies to control for potential confounders. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Nationwide hospital data are increasingly used to investigate surgical outcomes. However, poor data granularity and coding inaccuracies may lead to flawed findings. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in accordance with the PRISMA statement in 6 major journals (NEJM, Lancet, BMJ, JAMA, Medical Care, Annals of Surgery) using PubMed from its inception until December 31, 2014...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006850/bone-marrow-cellularity-at-day-14-is-the-most-important-predictive-factor-for-response-in-patients-with-aml-who-require-double-induction-chemotherapy-analysis-from-a-large-single-institution-experience
#7
Patrick T Griffin, Rami S Komrokji, Kendra Sweet, Najla H Al Ali, Eric Padron, Timothy E Kubal, Alan F List, Jeffrey E Lancet
In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the presence of residual disease at day 14 after primary induction therapy warrants consideration of a second induction cycle. However, data to guide retreatment decisions in such patients are presently limited. Here, we retrospectively reviewed data from 176 patients with AML treated at our institution with a second induction chemotherapy regimen because of day 14 residual disease. Clinical variables and nadir bone marrow features were assessed for correlations with complete remission (CR) and overall survival (OS)...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858205/statistical-inference-in-abstracts-of-major-medical-and-epidemiology-journals-1975-2014-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Andreas Stang, Markus Deckert, Charles Poole, Kenneth J Rothman
Since its introduction in the twentieth century, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), a hybrid of significance testing (ST) advocated by Fisher and null hypothesis testing (NHT) developed by Neyman and Pearson, has become widely adopted but has also been a source of debate. The principal alternative to such testing is estimation with point estimates and confidence intervals (CI). Our aim was to estimate time trends in NHST, ST, NHT and CI reporting in abstracts of major medical and epidemiological journals...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855102/non-inferiority-trials-are-they-inferior-a-systematic-review-of-reporting-in-major-medical-journals
#9
Sunita Rehal, Tim P Morris, Katherine Fielding, James R Carpenter, Patrick P J Phillips
OBJECTIVE: To assess the adequacy of reporting of non-inferiority trials alongside the consistency and utility of current recommended analyses and guidelines. DESIGN: Review of randomised clinical trials that used a non-inferiority design published between January 2010 and May 2015 in medical journals that had an impact factor >10 (JAMA Internal Medicine, Archives Internal Medicine, PLOS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777044/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibitors-in-hypertension-is-there-evidence-for-benefit-independent-of-blood-pressure-reduction
#10
REVIEW
Chirag Bavishi, Sripal Bangalore, Franz H Messerli
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are first line anti-HTN drug classes that are potent, effective and largely safe. Direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) have shown similar blood pressure (BP) reduction but more side effects. The efficacy of ACEIs and ARBs (for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal protection) has been promoted to extend beyond what could be explained by BP reduction alone...
November 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760420/risks-of-metformin-in-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-lessons-learned-from-taiwanese-data
#11
Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Like other biguanide agents, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with lower tendency towards hypoglycemia compared to other anti-diabetic drugs. Given its favorable effects on serum lipids, obese body habitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, metformin is recommended as the first-line pharmacologic agent for type 2 diabetes in the absence of contraindications. However, as metformin accumulation may lead to type B non-hypoxemic lactic acidosis, especially in the setting of kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and overdose, regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have maintained certain restrictions regarding its use in kidney dysfunction...
October 20, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757242/no-difference-found-in-time-to-publication-by-statistical-significance-of-trial-results-a-methodological-review
#12
L Jefferson, C Fairhurst, E Cooper, C Hewitt, T Torgerson, L Cook, P Tharmanathan, S Cockayne, D Torgerson
OBJECTIVE: Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. DESIGN: Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 2016: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717615/nurturing-care-promoting-early-childhood-development
#13
REVIEW
Pia R Britto, Stephen J Lye, Kerrie Proulx, Aisha K Yousafzai, Stephen G Matthews, Tyler Vaivada, Rafael Perez-Escamilla, Nirmala Rao, Patrick Ip, Lia C H Fernald, Harriet MacMillan, Mark Hanson, Theodore D Wachs, Haogen Yao, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Adrian Cerezo, James F Leckman, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection...
October 3, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650288/reporting-and-dealing-with-missing-quality-of-life-data-in-rcts-has-the-picture-changed-in-the-last-decade
#14
REVIEW
S Fielding, A Ogbuagu, S Sivasubramaniam, G MacLennan, C R Ramsay
PURPOSE: Missing data are a major problem in the analysis of data from randomised trials affecting power and potentially producing biased treatment effects. Specifically focussing on quality of life outcomes, we aimed to report the amount of missing data, whether imputation was used and what methods and was the missing mechanism discussed from four leading medical journals and compare the picture to our previous review nearly a decade ago. METHODS: A random selection (50 %) of all RCTS published during 2013-2014 in BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and NEJM was obtained...
December 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638428/curcumin-the-golden-nutraceutical-multitargeting-for-multiple-chronic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara, Devivasha Bordoloi, Ganesan Padmavathi, Javadi Monisha, Nand Kishor Roy, Sahdeo Prasad, Bharat B Aggarwal
Curcumin, a yellow pigment in the Indian spice Turmeric (Curcuma longa), which is chemically known as diferuloylmethane, was first isolated exactly two centuries ago in 1815 by two German Scientists, Vogel and Pelletier. However, according to the pubmed database, the first study on its biological activity as an antibacterial agent was published in 1949 in Nature and the first clinical trial was reported in The Lancet in 1937. Although the current database indicates almost 9000 publications on curcumin, until 1990 there were less than 100 papers published on this nutraceutical...
September 17, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637413/reporting-on-data-monitoring-committees-in-neonatal-randomised-controlled-trials-is-inconsistent
#16
L M Perrem, S Gosling, I Ravikumar, A S Khashan, J Miletin, C A Ryan, E Dempsey
AIM: To evaluate the reported use of data monitoring committees (DMCs), the frequency of interim analysis, prespecified stopping rules and early trial termination in neonatal randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We reviewed neonatal RCTs published in four high-impact general medical journals, specifically looking at safety issues including documented involvement of a DMC, stated interim analysis, stopping rules and early trial termination. We searched all journal issues over an 11-year period (2003-2013) and recorded predefined parameters on each item for RCTs meeting inclusion criteria...
January 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602242/chinese-helicobacter-pylori-vaccine-solution-for-an-old-challenge
#17
REVIEW
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Yeong Yeh Lee
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world's population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide...
August 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585992/assessing-second-look-tumour-resectability-in-childhood-posterior-fossa-ependymoma-a-centralised-review-panel-and-staging-tool-for-future-studies
#18
Christopher P Millward, Conor Mallucci, Tim Jaspan, Donald Macarthur, Richard Heyward, Tim Cox, Kung Chong, Richard G Grundy
PURPOSE: To improve uniformity in radiological review/reporting and discussion of surgical resection status in the forthcoming SIOP Ependymoma II trial, a central review of imaging and resection status will be carried out prior to treatment stratification. We present a review of surgical decision-making from the UKCCSG/SIOP Ependymoma trial for very young children (<3 years) (Lancet Oncol 8:696-705, 2007) and propose a primary surgical staging system for residual disease that could be used for Ependymoma II...
September 1, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576545/the-rise-and-fall-of-protein-malnutrition-in-global-health
#19
Richard D Semba
BACKGROUND: From the 1950s to the mid-1970s, United Nations (UN) agencies were focused on protein malnutrition as the major worldwide nutritional problem. The goal of this review is to examine this era of protein malnutrition, the reasons for its demise, and the aftermath. SUMMARY: The UN Protein Advisory Group was established in 1955. International conferences were largely concerned about protein malnutrition in children. By the early 1970s, UN agencies were ringing the alarm about a 'protein gap'...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566615/study-of-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-low-frequency-stimulation-following-kindling-a-review-of-the-cellular-mechanism-related-to-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-low-frequency-electrical-stimulation
#20
Zohreh Ghotbeddin, Mahyar Janahmadi, Ali Yadollahpour
Epilepsy affects about 1-2 % of world population as a chronic neurological disease that is manifested by repeated and consecutive seizures (Grone and Baraban, Nat Neurosci 18(3):339-343, 2015). There is no definitive therapy for epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs cannot offer a permanent and definitive cure for epilepsy, and most epileptic patients become drug resistant (Sasa, J Pharmacol Sci 100(5):487-494, 2006). Surgery and removal of the epileptic focus is a substitute method for treating drug-resistant patients and epilepsy surgery of either side of the brain improves seizure control...
August 26, 2016: Neurological Sciences
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