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review in Lancet

Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Like other biguanide agents, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with lower tendency towards hypoglycemia compared to other anti-diabetic drugs. Given its favorable effects on serum lipids, obese body habitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, metformin is recommended as the first-line pharmacologic agent for type 2 diabetes in the absence of contraindications. However, as metformin accumulation may lead to type B non-hypoxemic lactic acidosis, especially in the setting of kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and overdose, regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have maintained certain restrictions regarding its use in kidney dysfunction...
October 20, 2016: Nephron
L Jefferson, C Fairhurst, E Cooper, C Hewitt, T Torgerson, L Cook, P Tharmanathan, S Cockayne, D Torgerson
OBJECTIVE: Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. DESIGN: Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine)...
October 2016: JRSM Open
Pia R Britto, Stephen J Lye, Kerrie Proulx, Aisha K Yousafzai, Stephen G Matthews, Tyler Vaivada, Rafael Perez-Escamilla, Nirmala Rao, Patrick Ip, Lia C H Fernald, Harriet MacMillan, Mark Hanson, Theodore D Wachs, Haogen Yao, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Adrian Cerezo, James F Leckman, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection...
October 3, 2016: Lancet
S Fielding, A Ogbuagu, S Sivasubramaniam, G MacLennan, C R Ramsay
PURPOSE: Missing data are a major problem in the analysis of data from randomised trials affecting power and potentially producing biased treatment effects. Specifically focussing on quality of life outcomes, we aimed to report the amount of missing data, whether imputation was used and what methods and was the missing mechanism discussed from four leading medical journals and compare the picture to our previous review nearly a decade ago. METHODS: A random selection (50 %) of all RCTS published during 2013-2014 in BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and NEJM was obtained...
September 20, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara, Devivasha Bordoloi, Ganesan Padmavathi, Javadi Monisha, Nand Kishor Roy, Sahdeo Prasad, Bharat B Aggarwal
Curcumin, a yellow pigment in the Indian spice Turmeric (Curcuma longa), which is chemically called as diferuloylmethane was first isolated exactly two centuries ago in 1815 by two German Scientists, Vogel and Pelletier. According to pubmed database, however, the first paper was published on its biological activity in 1949 in Nature as an antibacterial agent, and the first clinical trial reported in Lancet in 1937. Although the current database indicates almost 9000 publications on curcumin but until 1990 there were less than 100 papers published on this nutraceutical...
September 17, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
L M Perrem, S Gosling, I Ravikumar, A S Khashan, J Miletin, C A Ryan, E Dempsey
AIM: To evaluate the reported use of Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs), the frequency of interim analysis, pre-specified stopping rules and early trial termination in neonatal randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We reviewed neonatal RCTs published in four high impact general medical journals, specifically looking at safety issues including documented involvement of a DMC, stated interim analysis, stopping rules and early trial termination. We searched all journal issues over an 11-year period (2003-2013) and recorded predefined parameters on each item for RCTs meeting inclusion criteria...
September 16, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Yeong Yeh Lee
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world's population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide...
August 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Christopher P Millward, Conor Mallucci, Tim Jaspan, Donald Macarthur, Richard Heyward, Tim Cox, Kung Chong, Richard G Grundy
PURPOSE: To improve uniformity in radiological review/reporting and discussion of surgical resection status in the forthcoming SIOP Ependymoma II trial, a central review of imaging and resection status will be carried out prior to treatment stratification. We present a review of surgical decision-making from the UKCCSG/SIOP Ependymoma trial for very young children (<3 years) (Lancet Oncol 8:696-705, 2007) and propose a primary surgical staging system for residual disease that could be used for Ependymoma II...
September 1, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Richard D Semba
BACKGROUND: From the 1950s to the mid-1970s, United Nations (UN) agencies were focused on protein malnutrition as the major worldwide nutritional problem. The goal of this review is to examine this era of protein malnutrition, the reasons for its demise, and the aftermath. SUMMARY: The UN Protein Advisory Group was established in 1955. International conferences were largely concerned about protein malnutrition in children. By the early 1970s, UN agencies were ringing the alarm about a 'protein gap'...
August 30, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Zohreh Ghotbeddin, Mahyar Janahmadi, Ali Yadollahpour
Epilepsy affects about 1-2 % of world population as a chronic neurological disease that is manifested by repeated and consecutive seizures (Grone and Baraban, Nat Neurosci 18(3):339-343, 2015). There is no definitive therapy for epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs cannot offer a permanent and definitive cure for epilepsy, and most epileptic patients become drug resistant (Sasa, J Pharmacol Sci 100(5):487-494, 2006). Surgery and removal of the epileptic focus is a substitute method for treating drug-resistant patients and epilepsy surgery of either side of the brain improves seizure control...
August 26, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Joanna Grabska, Bijal Shah, Damon Reed, Najla Al Ali, Eric Padron, Hanadi Ramadan, Jeffrey Lancet, Alan List, Rami Komrokji
INTRODUCTION: There has been little improvement in cancer survival of adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, aged 18 to 39 years, possibly reflecting different disease biology. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is mainly a disease of the elderly. The characteristics, outcomes, and response to treatment are not well described in the AYA population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients from the Moffitt Cancer Center MDS database. We compared baseline characteristics and outcomes of the AYA population to older patients...
August 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Stuart J Ritchie
Horta et al (1) assembled a meta-analytic dataset on an important question: the effect of breastfeeding on children's cognitive test scores. Using a rigorous set of inclusion criteria to screen out poor-quality studies (e.g. those that had no comparison group; those that did not use standard cognitive tests), they estimated that children in the groups who were breastfed had on average a 3.44-point higher IQ score. Their meta-analysis was cited prominently in a recent Lancet review on the effects of breastfeeding (2)...
August 1, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Rodrigo S Reis, Deborah Salvo, David Ogilvie, Estelle V Lambert, Shifalika Goenka, Ross C Brownson
The global pandemic of physical inactivity requires a multisectoral, multidisciplinary public-health response. Scaling up interventions that are capable of increasing levels of physical activity in populations across the varying cultural, geographic, social, and economic contexts worldwide is challenging, but feasible. In this paper, we review the factors that could help to achieve this. We use a mixed-methods approach to comprehensively examine these factors, drawing on the best available evidence from both evidence-to-practice and practice-to-evidence methods...
September 24, 2016: Lancet
Ulf Ekelund, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Wendy J Brown, Morten Wang Fagerland, Neville Owen, Kenneth E Powell, Adrian Bauman, I-Min Lee
BACKGROUND: High amounts of sedentary behaviour have been associated with increased risks of several chronic conditions and mortality. However, it is unclear whether physical activity attenuates or even eliminates the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting. We examined the associations of sedentary behaviour and physical activity with all-cause mortality. METHODS: We did a systematic review, searching six databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, Sport Discus, and Scopus) from database inception until October, 2015, for prospective cohort studies that had individual level exposure and outcome data, provided data on both daily sitting or TV-viewing time and physical activity, and reported effect estimates for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, or breast, colon, and colorectal cancer mortality...
September 24, 2016: Lancet
Meredith Hays, Mary Andrews, Ramey Wilson, David Callender, Patrick G O'Malley, Kevin Douglas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for Abstracts by five high-impact general medical journals and to assess whether the quality of reporting was homogeneous across these journals. DESIGN: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Randomised controlled trial (RCT) abstracts in five high-impact general medical journals. PARTICIPANTS: We used up to 100 RCT abstracts published between 2011 and 2014 from each of the following journals: The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Annals of Internal Medicine (Annals IM), The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (The BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)...
July 28, 2016: BMJ Open
Julie M Silverstein
PURPOSE: Cushing's disease (CD) and acromegaly are characterized by excessive hormone secretion resulting in comorbidities such as impaired glucose metabolism, diabetes and hypertension. Pasireotide is a new-generation, multireceptor-targeted somatostatin receptor ligand approved for CD (subcutaneous [SC] injection formulation) and acromegaly (long-acting release [LAR] formulation). In clinical studies of pasireotide, hyperglycemia-related adverse events (AEs) were frequently observed...
October 2016: Pituitary
P Fusar-Poli, A Meyer-Lindenberg
OBJECTIVE: Since the first study published in the Lancet in 1976, structural neuroimaging has been used in psychosis with the promise of imminent clinical utility. The actual impact of structural neuroimaging in psychosis is still unclear. METHOD: We present here a critical review of studies involving structural magnetic resonance imaging techniques in patients with psychosis published between 1976 and 2015 in selected journals of relevance for the field. For each study, we extracted summary descriptive variables...
September 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Herman Tournaye, Csilla Krausz, Robert D Oates
An accurate medical history and directed physical examination are essential in diagnosis of male infertility. We review the hormonal assessments and specific genetic analyses that are useful additional tests, and detail other evidence-based examinations that are available to help guide therapeutic strategies. By contrast with female infertility treatments-especially hormonal manipulations to stimulate or enhance oocyte production-spermatogenesis and sperm quality abnormalities are much more difficult to affect positively...
July 6, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Patrick T Harrison, David J Sanz, Jennifer A Hollywood
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic and progressive autosomal recessive disorder of secretory epithelial cells, which causes obstructions in the lung airways and pancreatic ducts of 70,000 people worldwide (for recent review see Cutting Nat Rev Genet 16(1):45-56, 2015). The finding that mutations in the CFTR gene cause CF (Kerem et al. Science 245(4922):1073-1080, 1989; Riordan et al. Science 245(4922):1066-1073, 1989; Rommens et al. Science 245(4922):1059-1065, 1989), was hailed as the very happy middle of a story whose end is a cure for a fatal disease (Koshland Science 245(4922):1029, 1989)...
September 2016: Human Genetics
Martin Müller, Beat Gloor, Daniel Candinas, Thomas Malinka
BACKGROUND: Even though citation analysis has several limitations, it is a commonly used tool to determine the impact of scientific articles in different research fields. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to identify and systematically review the 100 most cited articles in the field of visceral surgery focusing on papers that modified therapeutic concepts and influenced the surgeons' decision making. METHODS: The 100 most cited clinical articles in visceral surgery were identified using Journal Citation Reports and Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pa...
2016: Digestive Surgery
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