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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434521/nursing-education-challenges-and-solutions-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-integrative-review
#1
Thokozani Bvumbwe, Ntombifikile Mtshali
Background: The Lancet Commission and the Global Health Workforce Alliance reported that professional education has generally not kept up the pace of health care challenges. Sub Saharan Africa needs an effective and efficient nursing education system to build an adequate, competent and relevant nursing workforce necessary for the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. The Plan of Action for Scaling up Quality Nursing and Midwifery Education and Practice for the African Region 2012 - 2022 provided a framework for scale up of nurses and midwives...
2018: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432862/responsible-epidemiologic-research-practice-a-guideline-developed-by-a-working-group-of-the-netherlands-epidemiological-society
#2
Gerard M H Swaen, Miranda Langendam, Joost Weyler, Huibert Burger, Sabine Siesling, Willem Jan Atsma, Lex Bouter
OBJECTIVES: to develop a guideline on responsible epidemiologic research practice that will increase value and transparency, will increase the accountability of the epidemiologists and will reduce research waste. SETTING: A working group of the Netherland Epidemiological Society was given the task of developing a guideline that would meet these objectives. Several publications about the need to prevent Detrimental Research Practices triggered this work. Among these were a series in the Lancet on research waste and a subsequent series on transparency in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412437/an-international-position-statement-on-the-management-of-frailty-in-diabetes-mellitus-summary-of-recommendations-2017
#3
A J Sinclair, A Abdelhafiz, T Dunning, M Izquierdo, L Rodriguez Manas, I Bourdel-Marchasson, J E Morley, M Munshi, J Woo, B Vellas
AIM: the the International Position Statement provides the opportunity to summarise all existing clinical trial and best practice evidence for older people with frailty and diabetes. It is the first document of its kind and is intended to support clinical decisions that will enhance safety in management and promote high quality care. METHODS: the Review Group sought evidence from a wide range of studies that provide sufficient confidence (in the absence of grading) for the basis of each recommendation...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378418/cpx-351-changing-the-landscape-of-treatment-for-patients-with-secondary-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#4
Chetasi Talati, Jeffrey E Lancet
Multiple novel therapeutic agents against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been evaluated in the past several decades without meaningful clinical improvement in outcomes, especially for AML patients age ≥60, where the overall incidence of AML is highest. Therapeutic options mainly consist of hypomethylating agents, ongoing clinical trials and, less commonly, intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy. CPX-351, a novel liposomal formulation which encapsulates cytarabine and daunorubicin in 5:1 molar ratio, has shown promising efficacy, leading to recent US FDA approval for front-line therapy for patients with therapy-related AML and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes based on a large multicenter Phase III clinical trial...
January 30, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368021/access-to-safe-timely-and-affordable-surgical-care-in-uganda-a-stratified-randomized-evaluation-of-nationwide-public-sector-surgical-capacity-and-core-surgical-indicators
#5
Katherine Albutt, Maria Punchak, Peter Kayima, Didacus B Namanya, Geoffrey A Anderson, Mark G Shrime
BACKGROUND: Access to safe surgery is critical to health, welfare, and economic development. In 2015, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery recommended that all countries collect surgical indicators to lend insight into improving surgical care. No nationwide high-quality data exist for these metrics in Uganda. METHODS: A standardized quantitative hospital assessment and a semi-structured interview were administered to key stakeholders at 17 randomly selected public hospitals...
January 24, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329525/reporting-of-heterogeneity-of-treatment-effect-in-cohort-studies-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
Meryl Dahan, Caroline Scemama, Raphael Porcher, David J Biau
BACKGROUND: This article corresponds to a literature review and analyze how heterogeneity of treatment (HTE) is reported and addressed in cohort studies and to evaluate the use of the different measures to HTE analysis. METHODS: prospective cohort studies, in English language, measuring the effect of a treatment (pharmacological, interventional, or other) published among 119 core clinical journals (defined by the National Library of Medicine) in the last 16 years were selected in the following data source: Medline...
January 12, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281975/a-survey-of-prevalence-of-narrative-and-systematic-reviews-in-five-major-medical-journals
#7
Clovis Mariano Faggion, Nikolaos P Bakas, Jason Wasiak
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews may provide less biased evidence than narrative reviews because they observe a strict methodology, similarly to primary studies. Hence, for clinical research questions, systematic reviews should be the study design of choice. It would be important to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of narrative and systematic reviews published in prominent medical journals. Researchers and clinicians give great value to articles published in such scientific journals...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239150/gender-differences-in-septic-intensive-care-unit-patients
#8
Francesco Campanelli, Giovanni Landoni, Luca Cabrini, Alberto Zangrillo
BACKGROUND: The world population is mostly male at birth, although there is a shift in predominance over 55 years of age with more females than males. Male gender was recently hypothesized to be a risk factor for sepsis and septic shock; the reasons and the consequences of this odd discrepancy are yet a matter of debate. We investigated the percentage of males and females in a large number of trials performed on septic adult patients admitted to Intensive Care Units. METHODS: We analysed all the multicentre randomized controlled trials ever published in peer-reviewed Journals reporting a significant effect on mortality in intensive care unit septic adult patients; furthermore, we retrieved all the manuscripts dealing with sepsis or septic shock patients published in the last 3 years in the three medical Journals with the highest impact factor...
December 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221458/a-cohort-examination-to-establish-reporting-of-the-remit-and-function-of-trial-steering-committees-in-randomised-controlled-trials
#9
Elizabeth J Conroy, Barbara Arch, Nicola L Harman, J Athene Lane, Steff C Lewis, John Norrie, Matthew R Sydes, Carrol Gamble
BACKGROUND: The DAMOCLES project established a widely used Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) Charter for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Typically, within the UK, the DMC is advisory and recommends to another executive body; the Trial Steering Committee (TSC). Despite the executive role of the TSC, the CONSORT Statement does not explicitly require reporting of TSC activity, although is included as an example of good reporting. A lack of guidance on TSC reporting can impact transparency of trial oversight, ultimately leading to a misunderstanding regarding role and, subsequently, further variation in practice...
December 8, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167940/the-prognostic-value-of-circulating-myeloblasts-in-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#10
Vu H Duong, Eric Padron, Najla H Al Ali, Jeffrey E Lancet, Jeff Hall, Brian Kwok, Ling Zhang, Pearlie K Epling-Burnette, Alan F List, Rami S Komrokji
The prognostic value of peripheral blasts (PB) is not well-studied in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We evaluated the impact of PB on overall survival (OS) and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a large cohort. The MDS database at the Moffitt Cancer Center was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with ≥ 1% PB (PB-MDS) and those without PB (BM-MDS). We also assessed the correlation between PB and gene mutations. One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight patients were identified, among whom 13% had PB near the time of diagnosis...
February 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161458/proton-pump-inhibitors-for-functional-dyspepsia
#11
REVIEW
Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Yuhong Yuan, Ahmed Hassan, Premysl Bercik, Paul Moayyedi
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD or non-ulcer dyspepsia) is defined as continuous or frequently recurring epigastric pain or discomfort for which no organic cause can be found. Acid suppressive therapy, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has been proposed as a therapeutic option in FD, but its efficacy remains controversial. While PPIs are generally considered safe and well tolerated, they have been associated with adverse events, especially in the long term. For this reason, decisions on whether to initiate or continue PPI therapy should be made based on an appropriate clinical indication...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143640/how-is-the-lives-saved-tool-list-used-in-the-global-health-community-results-of-a-mixed-methods-list-user-study
#12
Angela R Stegmuller, Andrew Self, Kate Litvin, Timothy Roberton
BACKGROUND: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a computer-based model that estimates the impact of scaling up key interventions to improve maternal, newborn and child health. Initially developed to inform the Lancet Child Survival Series of 2003, the functionality and scope of LiST have been expanded greatly over the past 10 years. This study sought to "take stock" of how LiST is now being used and for what purposes. METHODS: We conducted a quantitative survey of LiST users, qualitative interviews with a smaller sample of LiST users and members of the LiST team at Johns Hopkins University, and a literature review of studies involving LiST analyses...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117323/group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children-why-what-and-how-to-undertake-estimates
#13
Joy E Lawn, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jennifer Hall, Lola Madrid, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Anna C Seale
Improving maternal, newborn, and child health is central to Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030, requiring acceleration especially to prevent 5.6 million deaths around the time of birth. Infections contribute to this burden, but etiological data are limited. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important perinatal pathogen, although previously focus has been primarily on liveborn children, especially early-onset disease. In this first of an 11-article supplement, we discuss the following: (1) Why estimate the worldwide burden of GBS disease? (2) What outcomes of GBS in pregnancy should be included? (3) What data and epidemiological parameters are required? (4) What methods and models can be used to transparently estimate this burden of GBS? (5) What are the challenges with available data? and (6) How can estimates address data gaps to better inform GBS interventions including maternal immunization? We review all available GBS data worldwide, including maternal GBS colonization, risk of neonatal disease (with/without intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis), maternal GBS disease, neonatal/infant GBS disease, and subsequent impairment, plus GBS-associated stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal encephalopathy...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108500/breastfeeding-and-oral-health-evidence-and-methodological-challenges
#14
K G Peres, B W Chaffee, C A Feldens, C Flores-Mir, P Moynihan, A Rugg-Gunn
Breastfeeding is a powerful health-promoting behavior. A 2016 Lancet global collaboration to review the health implications of breastfeeding was among the first to consider oral health outcomes. While a role was suggested for breastfeeding in preventing malocclusion, caries was the only included disease condition unfavorably associated with breastfeeding. The present critical review examines the evidence connecting breastfeeding practices to these outcomes and discusses the methodological challenges inherent in reaching causal conclusions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053807/systematic-review-of-the-concentrations-of-oligosaccharides-in-human-milk
#15
Stephan Thurl, Manfred Munzert, Günther Boehm, Catherine Matthews, Bernd Stahl
Context: Oligosaccharides are the third largest solid component in human milk. These diverse compounds are thought to have numerous beneficial functions in infants, including protection against infectious diseases. The structures of more than 100 oligosaccharides in human milk have been elucidated so far. Objective: The aim of this review was to identify the main factors that affect the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk and to determine whether it is possible to calculate representative and reliable mean concentrations...
November 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993088/hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-orthopedic-literature-in-medical-journals-is-it-negatively-biased
#16
Ronald E Delanois, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Morad Chughtai, Arthur L Malkani, Peter M Bonutti, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Healthcare policy is often determined by well-designed studies most often published in high-impact medical journals. However, concern about the presence of publication bias against lower-extremity arthroplasty-related studies has called into question some of the validity of certain reports. There are only a few studies investigating the presence of the bias in high-impact medical journals against lower-extremity arthroplasty intervention, particularly in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), and the Lancet...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988181/search-for-unpublished-data-by-systematic-reviewers-an-audit
#17
Hedyeh Ziai, Rujun Zhang, An-Wen Chan, Nav Persaud
OBJECTIVES: We audited a selection of systematic reviews published in 2013 and reported on the proportion of reviews that researched for unpublished data, included unpublished data in analysis and assessed for publication bias. DESIGN: Audit of systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 for the following journals: Journal of the American Medical Association , The British Medical Journal , Lancet , Annals of Internal Medicine and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973503/minding-the-gaps-health-financing-universal-health-coverage-and-gender
#18
Sophie Witter, Veloshnee Govender, T K Sundari Ravindran, Robert Yates
In a webinar in 2015 on health financing and gender, the question was raised why we need to focus on gender, given that a well-functioning system moving towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) will automatically be equitable and gender balanced. This article provides a reflection on this question from a panel of health financing and gender experts.We trace the evidence of how health-financing reforms have impacted gender and health access through a general literature review and a more detailed case-study of India...
July 25, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936594/transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-outcomes-indications-complications-and-innovations
#19
REVIEW
Michael N Young, Ignacio Inglessis
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become the standard of care for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in individuals who are at prohibitive surgical risk and presents a viable alternative to surgery in selected patients who are at high operative risk. To date, outcomes from the PARTNER (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valve) and Medtronic CoreValve® US Pivotal trials continue to show the benefits of TAVR in these high-risk subgroups out to 5 and 3 years, respectively (as reported by Mack et al...
September 22, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904119/metrics-for-identifying-food-security-status-and-the-population-with-potential-to-benefit-from-nutrition-interventions-in-the-lives-saved-tool-list
#20
REVIEW
Bianca D Jackson, Neff Walker, Rebecca Heidkamp
Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) uses the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as a proxy for food security to identify the percentage of the population with the potential to benefit from balanced energy supplementation and complementary feeding (CF) interventions, following the approach used for the Lancet's 2008 series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. Because much work has been done in the development of food security indicators, a re-evaluation of the use of this indicator was warranted.Objective: The aim was to re-evaluate the use of the poverty head-count ratio at $1...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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