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Jueun Kim, Shinae Park, Jung-Shin Lee
Candida albicans is a major pathogenic fungus in human, and meets at first the innate immune cells, such as macrophage, in its host. One important strategy of the host cell to kill C. albicans is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the macrophages. In response to ROS produced by the macrophage, C. albicans operates its defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species by expressing its oxidative stress response genes. Although there have been many researches explaining the specific transcription factors and the expression of the oxidative stress genes in C...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Teresa Santos, Margarida Gaspar de Matos, Celeste Simões, Isabel Leal, Maria do Céu Machado
Background Research on living with a chronic disease (CD) in adolescence is increasing. However, studies on the relevance of psychosocial factors are still needed. The present review, focuses on the impact of living with a CD in adolescence on on quality of life (QoL), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychosocial factors. Methods A literature review of articles identified through PubMed, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES (these last two ones comprise the Ebsco Host platform) and original peer-reviewed research papers, published between 2010 and 2015, with no restrictions regarding the format/source of interventions, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or types of comparisons were included...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Niloofar Shoari, Jean-Sébastien Dubé
Various statistical tests on concentration data serve to support decision-making regarding characterization and monitoring of contaminated media, assessing exposure to a chemical, and quantifying the associated risks. However, the routine statistical protocols cannot be directly applied because of challenges arising from nondetects or left-censored observations that are concentration measurements below detection limit of measuring instruments. Despite the existence of techniques based on survival analysis that can adjust for nondetects, these are seldom taken into account properly...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Kaveh Movlaee, Mohmmad Reza Ganjali, Parviz Norouzi, Giovanni Neri
Iron oxide nanostructures (IONs) in combination with graphene or its derivatives-e.g., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide-hold great promise toward engineering of efficient nanocomposites for enhancing the performance of advanced devices in many applicative fields. Due to the peculiar electrical and electrocatalytic properties displayed by composite structures in nanoscale dimensions, increasing efforts have been directed in recent years toward tailoring the properties of IONs-graphene based nanocomposites for developing more efficient electrochemical sensors...
November 23, 2017: Nanomaterials
Kayode Adesina Adegoke, Rhoda Oyeladun Oyewole, Bukola Morenike Lasisi, Olugbenga Solomon Bello
The presence of organic pollutants in the environment is of major concern because of their toxicity, bio-accumulating tendency, threat to human life and the environment. It is a well-known fact that, these pollutants can damage nerves, liver, and bones and could also block functional groups of essential enzymes. Conventional methods for removing dissolved pollutants include chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation or reduction, filtration, ion-exchange, electrochemical treatment, application of membrane technology, evaporation recovery and biological treatment...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Heloisa Ramlow, Ricardo Antonio Francisco Machado, Cintia Marangoni
To meet surging water demands, water reuse is being sought as an alternative to traditional water resources. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) has been increasingly studied in the past decade for its potential as an emerging cost effective wastewater treatment process and subsequent water reuse. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the current progress in the application of DCMD for textile wastewater treatment based on the available state of the art. There are already published review papers about the membrane distillation process, but the difference in the present work is that it focuses on the textile area, which consumes a lot of water and generates large amounts of wastewater, and still needs innovations in the sector...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
G Johnson, F C Wright, K Foster, A Blinkhorn
CONTEXT/INTRODUCTION: The availability of clinical dental services in rural locations is a major concern for many countries as dental care professionals gravitate to work in metropolitan areas. This systematic review examines the literature on Rural Placement Programs within dentistry and their impact on workforce intentions and employment outcomes. The review provides a detailed analysis of the methodological characteristics of the literature, considers the quality of the evidence and compares the outcomes within an international context...
November 23, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Susan Nunan, Christine Brown Wilson, Timothy Henwood, Deborah Parker
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of published fall risk assessment tools (FRATs) tested for predictive validity among older adults in long-term care (LTC). METHODS: A systematic search was conducted using five databases. Only studies reporting on sensitivity and specificity values, conducted in LTC on populations primarily aged over 60 years, were considered. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were included and three different categories of FRATs emerged: multifactorial assessment tools, functional mobility assessments and algorithms...
November 23, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
Tingting Wu, James D Englehardt, Tianjiao Guo, Lucien Gassie, Aaron Dotson
Challenges of water and wastewater management in Alaska include the potential need for above-grade and freeze-protected piping, high unit energy costs and, in many rural areas, low population density and median annual income. However, recently developed net-zero water (NZW), i.e., nearly closed-loop, direct potable water reuse systems, can retain the thermal energy in municipal wastewater, producing warm treated potable water without the need for substantial water re-heating, heat pumping or transfer, or additional energy conversion...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Victor John M Cantor, Kim Leng Poh
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been used as a performance measurement tool in efficiency assessment of healthcare systems. However, over the years, researchers and health practitioners presented the theoretical and methodological limitations of DEA that limits the full view of healthcare efficiency. To address these limitations, a commonly used strategy is to integrate other statistical methods and techniques with DEA to provide better efficiency evaluation. This paper reviews 57 studies with DEA applications in the healthcare industry to illustrate the integrated analysis of healthcare efficiency...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
Jorge L Alió Del Barrio, Verónica Vargas, Olena Al-Shymali, Jorge L Alió
Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) is a flap-free intrastromal technique for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. To date, this technique lacks automated centration and cyclotorsion control, so several concerns have been raised regarding its capability to correct moderate or high levels of astigmatism. The objective of this paper is to review the reported SMILE outcomes for the correction of myopic astigmatism associated with a cylinder over 0.75 D, and its comparison with the outcomes reported with the excimer laser-based corneal refractive surgery techniques...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Tahereh Naseribooriabadi, Farahnaz Sadoughi, Abbas Sheikhtaheri
Background: The implication of health literacy is the ability of individuals to find, understand, and use their required health information from reliable sources. It is an indicator of the individuals' participation in their own medical decision-making. Deaf individuals have limited health literacy and poor health status due to low literacy. Hence, this review was conducted to understand barriers and facilitators influencing health literacy among deaf community. Methods: We searched the ISI Web of Sciences, Scopus, and Medline from 1987 to 2016...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Farnaz Faridi, Reza Khosrowabadi
Asperger syndrome (AS) is a subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) characterized by major problems in social and nonverbal communication, together with limited and repetitive forms of behavior and interests. The linguistic and cognitive development in AS is preserved which help us to differentiate it from other subtypes of ASD. However, significant effects of AS on cognitive abilities and brain functions still need to be researched. Although a clear cut pathology for Asperger has not been identified yet, recent studies have largely focused on brain imaging techniques to investigate AS...
September 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Annarosa Cipriano, Stefania Cella, Paolo Cotrufo
Objective: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) refers to the intentional self-inflicted destruction of body tissue without suicidal intention and for purposes not socially sanctioned. Our paper presents an up-to-date overview on nonsuicidal, self-injurious behaviors. Method: In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search was conducted across two databases, PubMed and PsycARTICLES, regarding the main features of NSSI with a focus on epidemiological and etiologic data, diagnostic criteria, and functions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Minjun Wang, Wenbo Tang, Yi Zhun Zhu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third bio-active gasotransmitter, is produced endogenously and tightly involved in the pathogenesis and treatment for various diseases. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a paramount role in maintaining cellular energetic balance. Increasing evidences have also suggested AMPK as a novel modulator in multiple pathological conditions. In this paper, we will review the biological principles of H2S and AMPK, and most importantly, the recent discoveries regarding AMPK-mediated pharmacological actions of H2S...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sanae Mouden, Peter G L Klinkhamer, Young Hae Choi, Kirsten A Leiss
With mounting concerns over health and environmental effects of pesticides, the search for environmentally acceptable substitutes has amplified. Plant secondary metabolites appear in the horizon as an attractive solution for green crop protection. This paper reviews the need for changes in the techniques and compounds that, until recently, have been the mainstay for dealing with pest insects. Here we describe and discuss main strategies for selecting plant-derived metabolites as candidates for sustainable agriculture...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
Yan Shi, Wang Lv, Luming Wang, Jian Hu
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death 1 ligand (PD-L1) pathway is a key mechanism of immune regulation, and its abnormal activation in tumor tissues suggests that PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may participate in the regulation of tumor immune escape. Driver gene mutation which is known as a key factor in the tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), was also reported to play a important role in the process of tumor immune escape. It indicates that there is an interaction between driver gene and PD-1/PD-L1 pathway...
November 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
J D Jensen, S Smed
The use of taxes to promote healthy nutritional behaviour has gained ground in the past decade. The present paper reviews existing applications of fiscal instruments in nutrition policy and derives some perspectives and recommendations from the experiences gained with these instruments. Many countries in different parts of the world have experiences with the taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages, in some cases in combination with taxes on unhealthy food commodities such as confectionery or high-fat foods. These tax schemes have many similarities, but also differ in their definitions of tax objects and in the applied tax rates...
November 23, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Ana Rath, Valérie Salamon, Sandra Peixoto, Virginie Hivert, Martine Laville, Berenice Segrestin, Edmund A M Neugebauer, Michaela Eikermann, Vittorio Bertele, Silvio Garattini, Jørn Wetterslev, Rita Banzi, Janus C Jakobsen, Snezana Djurisic, Christine Kubiak, Jacques Demotes-Mainard, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based clinical practice is challenging in all fields, but poses special barriers in the field of rare diseases. The present paper summarises the main barriers faced by clinical research in rare diseases, and highlights opportunities for improvement. METHODS: Systematic literature searches without meta-analyses and internal European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network (ECRIN) communications during face-to-face meetings and telephone conferences from 2013 to 2017 within the context of the ECRIN Integrating Activity (ECRIN-IA) project...
November 22, 2017: Trials
Amy Backhouse, David A Richards, Rose McCabe, Ross Watkins, Chris Dickens
BACKGROUND: Interventions aiming to coordinate services for the community-based dementia population vary in components, organisation and implementation. In this review we aimed to investigate the views of stakeholders on the key components of community-based interventions coordinating care in dementia. METHODS: We searched four databases from inception to June 2015; Medline, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PsycINFO, this was aided by a search of four grey literature databases, and backward and forward citation tracking of included papers...
November 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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