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Joceline Lega, Heidi E Brown
Recent events have thrown the spotlight on infectious disease outbreak response. We developed a data-driven method, EpiGro, which can be applied to cumulative case reports to estimate the order of magnitude of the duration, peak and ultimate size of an ongoing outbreak. It is based on a surprisingly simple mathematical property of many epidemiological data sets, does not require knowledge or estimation of disease transmission parameters, is robust to noise and to small data sets, and runs quickly due to its mathematical simplicity...
October 11, 2016: Epidemics
Matthew E Dupre, Alicia Nelson
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n = 2197)...
October 15, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Abdulkadir Kocak, Ismail Erol, Muslum Yildiz, Hatice Can
Developing small compound based drugs targeting the β-secretase (BACE) enzyme is one of the most promising strategies in treatment of the Alzheimer's disease. As the enzyme shows the activity based on the acid-base reaction at a very narrow pH range, the protonation state of aspartic acids with the residue number 32 and 228 (Asp32 and Asp228), which forms the active site dyad, along with the protonation state of the ligand (substrate or inhibitor) play very critical role in interactions between the ligand and enzyme...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Fawaz Abo-Alhassan, Fatemah Faras, Yousef M Malek, Munish Joneja, Piyaray M Dhar
BACKGROUND: Appendicular schistosomiasis is an unusual etiology of acute appendicitis, which has been reported in countries endemic in schistosomiasis, such as sub-saharan Africa and South America. Nowadays, due to globalization, this disease has been diagnosed in non-endemic countries. Kuwait is a country possessing a larger percentage of foreigners than national citizens. Therefore, several cases of schistosomal appendicitis were found. METHOD: The clinicopathological records of all patients that underwent appendectomy during January 2007 and December 2011 were recorded from the archives of Al-Adan Hospital in Kuwait...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Poul Jennum, Anne Sabers, Jakob Christensen, Rikke Ibsen, Jakob Kjellberg
PURPOSE: Epilepsy surgery has been a standard treatment for refractory epilepsies that cannot be controlled by standard medical treatment. We aimed to evaluate the health and social consequences of resective surgery relative to controls from a study of national data. METHODS: Using the Danish National Patient Registry we identified all subjects with an epilepsy diagnosis between 1996 and 2009 and compared them with a group of patients with an epilepsy diagnosis who had had neither epilepsy surgery nor a vagus stimulation diagnosis by the index date, and who were matched by gender, index year for epilepsy diagnosis, and index year for epilepsy surgery...
October 6, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Rocío Carmona, Cristina Linares, Cristina Ortiz, Blanca Vázquez, Julio Díaz
BACKGROUND: Although the effects of noise on population morbidity and mortality have been observed both in the short and long term, the morbidity and mortality indicators used to date have not enabled information on such health effects to be accessed in real time. At an international level, there are relatively few studies, mostly recent, which have considered an alternative indicator, such as the demand for medical attention provided by emergency services, taking into account environmental factors other than noise...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Sineewanlaya Wichit, Pauline Ferraris, Valérie Choumet, Dorothée Missé
Arboviruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses represent a major public health problem due to globalization and propagation of susceptible vectors worldwide. Arthropod vector-derived salivary factors have the capacity to modulate human cells function by enhancing or suppressing viral replication and, therefore, modify the establishment of local and systemic viral infection. Here, we discuss how mosquito saliva may interfere with Dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans. Identification of saliva factors that enhance infectivity will allow the production of vector-based vaccines and therapeutics that would interfere with viral transmission by targeting arthropod saliva components...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Gro Gujord Tangen, Astrid Bergland, Knut Engedal, Anne Marit Mengshoel
Parkinsonian signs are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) of mild degree and predict functional decline, but their relationship with gait speed and balance is unclear. The aims of this study were to describe characteristics of patients with parkinsonian signs among 98 patients with AD of mild degree (with no comorbid Parkinson's disease), and to examine associations between parkinsonian signs with gait speed and balance. A cross sectional study at a memory clinic was conducted. Presence of each parkinsonian sign (bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor) was derived from the UPDRS, regular gait speed was recorded over 10m and balance were assessed using the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest)...
October 14, 2016: Gait & Posture
Lin Cheng, Matthew D Blackledge, David J Collins, Matthew R Orton, Neil P Jerome, Thorsten Feiweier, Mihaela Rata, Veronica Morgan, Nina Tunariu, Martin O Leach, Dow-Mu Koh
PURPOSE: To introduce T2-adjusted computed DWI (T2-cDWI), a method that provides synthetic images at arbitrary b-values and echo times (TEs) that improve tissue contrast by removing or increasing T2 contrast in diffusion-weighted images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to the standard DWI acquisition protocol T2-weighted echo-planar images at multiple (≥2) echo times were acquired. This allows voxelwise estimation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 values, permitting synthetic images to be generated at any chosen b-value and echo time...
October 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Isabel N Figueiredo, Susana Moura, Júlio S Neves, Luís Pinto, Sunil Kumar, Carlos M Oliveira, João D Ramos
In this work we propose a novel method for identifying individuals based on retinal fundus image matching. The method is based on the image registration of retina blood vessels, since it is known that the retina vasculature of an individual is a signature, i.e., a distinctive pattern of the individual. The proposed image registration consists of a multiscale affine registration followed by a multiscale elastic registration. The major advantage of this particular two-step image registration procedure is that it is able to account for both rigid and non-rigid deformations either inherent to the retina tissues or as a result of the imaging process itself...
September 26, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Elizabeth Hammond, Emma Shu, Karagin Sawchuk, Yvonne Myal, Afshin Raouf, Thomas Klonisch, Sabine Hombach-Klonisch, Etienne Leygue, Sam Kung, Janice Safneck, Michael Mowat, Wayne Xu, Leigh Murphy, Marshall Pitz
BACKGROUND: Few descriptive epidemiological studies on the incidence, treatment and survival can accurately reflect a whole population. Manitoba, Canada has an accurate cancer registry, a drug information program network and a breast screening program since 1995. This combined with a stable population provides true population data that can accurately describe the region. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design all Breast Cancer cases were obtained from 2004-2010 (N=5399) and grouped by Intrinsic sub-type...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Silmara Montalvão, Priscila Soares Elídio, Sabrina da Silva Saraiva, Bruna de Moraes Mazetto, Marina Pereira Colella, Erich Vinícius de Paula, Simone Appenzeller, Joyce Annichino-Bizzacchi, Fernanda Andrade Orsi
INTRODUCTION: Antibodies directed against domain 1 of β2 glycoprotein 1 (aβ2GP1-Dm1) have been involved in the immunopathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, the clinical relevance of aβ2GP1-Dm1 in thrombotic APS has not yet been fully explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of aβ2GP1-Dm1 in a cohort of patients with thrombotic APS, and to evaluate whether testing for aβ2GP1-Dm1 could have a clinical impact upon the risk assessment of the disease...
October 4, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Baoxin Liu, Yong Li, Jiachen Luo, Liming Dai, Jinlong Zhao, Hongqiang Li, Qiqiang Jie, Dongzhi Wang, Xin Huang, Yidong Wei
OBJECTIVES: To examine plasma protein Z (PZ) levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and chronic coronary atherosclerosis disease (CCAD) patients without history of AMI and explore its potential clinical significance. METHODS: Plasma PZ concentrations were measured in 90 AMI patients (Group A), 87 CCAD patients without AMI history who remained free of major clinical events at least one year (Group B), and 88 clinically healthy controls (Group C). RESULTS: PZ was found to be significantly lower (P<0...
October 13, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Massimiliano de Zambotti, John Trinder, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
Insomnia is considered a hyperarousal disorder, in which several psychophysiological domains including the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are over-activated, potentially contributing to increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Here, we aimed to determine whether insomnia that develops in the context of the transition to menopause (menopausal transition insomnia, MTI) is similarly characterized by autonomic arousal. We also took into account modulation of the ANS by the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle, a factor that has not previously been considered in studies on insomnia...
October 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hiroko Kubo, Masahito Nakataki, Satsuki Sumitani, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shusuke Numata, Naomi Kameoka, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Hidehiro Umehara, Makoto Kinoshita, Masatoshi Inoshita, Mai Tamaru, Masashi Ohta, Chiaki Nakayama-Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Funakoshi, Masafumi Harada, Tetsuro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown neurophysiological abnormalities related to the glutamate (Glu)-glutamine (Gln) cycle, membrane turnover, and neuronal integrity, although the results were neither consistent nor conclusive. Recently it has been reported the Gln/Glu ratio is the most useful index, quantifying neuronal-glial interactions and the balance of glutamatergic metabolites In this MRS study, we elucidated the abnormalities of metabolites in a larger sample of patients with BD with a high-field MRI system...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Vania Polesello, Luisa Zupin, Roberto Di Lenarda, Matteo Biasotto, Gabriele Pozzato, Giulia Ottaviani, Margherita Gobbo, Sergio Crovella, Ludovica Segat
OBJECTIVES: The aetiology of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa, is not yet well understood. Since innate immunity may be hypothesized as involved in the susceptibility to OLP, we studied human beta defensin 1 (hBD-1) an antimicrobial peptide constitutively expressed in the saliva, looking at functional genetic variants possibly able to diminish hBD-1 production an consequently conferring major susceptibility to OLP. DESIGN: We analysed three DEFB1 polymorphisms at 5' UTR, -52G>A (rs1799946), -44C>G (rs1800972), -20G>A (rs11362) and two DEFB1 polymorphisms at 3'UTR, c*5G>A (rs1047031), c*87A>G (rs1800971), with the aim of correlating these genetic variants and hBD-1 salivary level in a group of OLP patients and in healthy subjects...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Jesse Mez, Jaeyoon Chung, Gyungah Jun, Joshua Kriegel, Alexandra P Bourlas, Richard Sherva, Mark W Logue, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett, Joseph D Buxbaum, Goldie S Byrd, Paul K Crane, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Denis Evans, M Daniele Fallin, Tatiana Foroud, Alison Goate, Neill R Graff-Radford, Kathleen S Hall, M Ilyas Kamboh, Walter A Kukull, Eric B Larson, Jennifer J Manly, Jonathan L Haines, Richard Mayeux, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Gerard D Schellenberg, Kathryn L Lunetta, Lindsay A Farrer
INTRODUCTION: African Americans' (AAs) late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) genetic risk profile is incompletely understood. Including clinical covariates in genetic analyses using informed conditioning might improve study power. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs employing informed conditioning in 1825 LOAD cases and 3784 cognitively normal controls. We derived a posterior liability conditioned on age, sex, diabetes status, current smoking status, educational attainment, and affection status, with parameters informed by external prevalence information...
October 19, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Jinah Jang, Hun-Jun Park, Seok-Won Kim, Heejin Kim, Ju Young Park, Soo Jin Na, Hyeon Ji Kim, Moon Nyeo Park, Seung Hyun Choi, Sun Hwa Park, Sung Won Kim, Sang-Mo Kwon, Pum-Joon Kim, Dong-Woo Cho
Stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic method for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases; however, some challenges prohibit the efficacy after cell delivery due to hostile microenvironment of the injured myocardium. 3D printed pre-vascularized stem cell patch can enhance the therapeutic efficacy for cardiac repair through promotion of rapid vascularization after patch transplantation. In this study, stem cell-laden decellularized extracellular matrix bioinks are used in 3D printing of pre-vascularized and functional multi-material structures...
October 14, 2016: Biomaterials
Vikram Shetty, Sriram S Ganapathy
Retinoblastoma (RB) is an aggressive intraocular tumor arising from cells of the retina. Infrequently, distant metastasis occurs in advanced stages of the disease. This case report describes the metastasis of the tumor to the mandible, an extremely rare phenomenon. This condition was observed for a recurrent tumor in a patient who initially underwent chemotherapy, making this case report unique and providing new insights into the behavior of this tumor. An overview of the management of a metastatic RB also is discussed...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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