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Herpes Simplex Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908958/antifungal-drug-ciclopirox-olamine-reduces-hsv-1-replication-and-disease-in-mice
#1
Kaelin M Bernier, Lynda A Morrison
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 cause painful blisters and shallow ulcers in exposed skin and mucosae during primary or recurrent infection. In addition, recurrent and potentially blinding HSV-1 infections of the eye afflict nearly half a million persons in the U.S. Current clinical therapies rely on nucleoside analog drugs such as acyclovir (ACV) or ganciclovir to ameliorate primary infections and reduce the frequency and duration of reactivations. However, these treatments do not fully suppress viral shedding and drug-resistant mutants develop in the eye and in vulnerable, immunosuppressed patients...
June 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905034/interferon-epsilon-in-the-reproductive-tract-of-healthy-and-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-infected-pregnant-women-results-of-a-pilot-study
#2
Colette Nickodem, Michael F Criscitiello, Fuller Bazer, Olayinka Abiodun-Ojo, Brandie D Taylor
PROBLEM: Recently characterized interferon epsilon (IFNe) protects against sexually transmitted infections, including genital herpes simplex virus (HSV), in animal models. There are no reports of IFNe in genital tract secretions of pregnant women, and data on IFNe in non-pregnant women are limited. This pilot study is the first to measure concentrations of IFNe in vaginal and cervical secretions during pregnancy and compare values between healthy and genital HSV-infected women. METHOD OF STUDY: Vaginal or cervical specimens from 30 pregnant women were obtained from the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS) repository...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904645/infection-triggered-autoimmunity-the-case-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-anti-nmdar-antibodies
#3
EDITORIAL
Russell C Dale, Margherita Nosadini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902492/analytical-validation-of-viral-cns-flow-chip-kit-for-detection-of-acute-meningitis-and-encephalitis
#4
Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz, Irene Pedrosa-Corral, Sara Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Cristina Gómez-Camarasa, José María Navarro-Marí
A new molecular assay (Viral CNS Flow Chip kit, Master Diagnóstica, Spain) has been developed for the detection of eight viruses causing acute meningitis and encephalitis, i.e. herpes simplex viruses 1-2, varicella zoster virus, human enterovirus, human parechovirus, Toscana virus, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus. The new assay is a multiplex one-step RT-PCR followed by automatic flow-through hybridization, colorimetric detection and image analysis. The limit of detection was 50 copies/reaction, and 10 copies/reaction for human enterovirus and the other seven viruses, respectively...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900745/a-case-report-asymptomatic-esophageal-eosinophilia-after-herpes-simplex-esophagitis-controversies-in-the-therapeutic-approach
#5
Ainara Iriarte Rodríguez, Itziar Frago Marquínez, Gina Patricia de Lima Piña
The coexistence of eosinophilic esophagitis and herpes simplex virus in patients has been published in numerous case reports in the last few years. Both entities can be diagnosed simultaneously or one prior to the other, raising a possible causal relationship. Esophageal eosinophilia is a histological finding, and its underlying cause should be investigated. Eosinophilic esophagitis is one of the most common causes of esophageal eosinophilia. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a clinicopathologic disease, which is characterized by dysphagia and food impaction...
June 14, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900087/fulminant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-encephalitis-despite-maximal-medical-therapy
#6
Nakul Katyal, Ather M Taqui, Deborah Tepper, Jonathan M Beary, Christopher R Newey
Herpes simplex-1 virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most commonly recognized cause of sporadic encephalitis in the United States. Historically HSE has been considered extremely detrimental given the associated relentless neurological deterioration secondary to cerebral edema and status epilepticus. With recent advances in antiviral therapeutics in past decades, the majority of complications can be managed effectively although the associated morbidity and mortality still remains high. The key modifiable factor determining recovery is the rapid initiation of antiviral therapy...
April 12, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899553/ubxn3b-positively-regulates-sting-mediated-antiviral-immune-responses
#7
Long Yang, Leilei Wang, Harshada Ketkar, Jinzhu Ma, Guang Yang, Shuang Cui, Tingting Geng, Dana G Mordue, Toyoshi Fujimoto, Gong Cheng, Fuping You, Rongtuan Lin, Erol Fikrig, Penghua Wang
The ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing proteins (UBXNs) are likely involved in diverse biological processes. Their physiological functions, however, remain largely unknown. Here we present physiological evidence that UBXN3B positively regulates stimulator-of-interferon genes (STING) signaling. We employ a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-LoxP approach to generate systemic Ubxn3b knockout in adult mice as the Ubxn3b-null mutation is embryonically lethal. Ubxn3b-/- , like Sting-/- mice, are highly susceptible to lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, which is correlated with deficient immune responses when compared to Ubxn3b+/+ littermates...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899106/regulation-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-protein-kinase-ul13-by-phosphorylation-and-its-role-in-viral-pathogenesis
#8
Naoto Koyanagi, Akihisa Kato, Kosuke Takeshima, Yuhei Maruzuru, Hiroko Kozuka-Hata, Masaaki Oyama, Jun Arii, Yasushi Kawaguchi
UL13 proteins are serine/threonine protein kinases encoded by herpes simplex virus HSV-1 and HSV-2. Although the downstream effects of the HSV protein kinases, mostly those of HSV-1 UL13, have been reported, there is a lack of information on how these viral protein kinases are regulated in HSV-infected cells. In this study, we used a large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis of HSV-2-infected cells to identify a physiological phosphorylation site in HSV-2 UL13 (i.e., Ser-18), and investigated the significance of phosphorylation of this site in HSV-2-infected cell cultures and mice...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899087/human-asymptomatic-epitope-peptide-cxcl10-based-prime-pull-vaccine-induces-herpes-simplex-virus-specific-gamma-interferon-positive-cd107-cd8-t-cells-that-infiltrate-the-cornea-and-trigeminal-ganglia-of-humanized-hla-transgenic-rabbits-and-protect-against-ocular
#9
Arif A Khan, Ruchi Srivastava, Hawa Vahed, Soumyabrata Roy, Sager S Walia, Grace J Kim, Mona A Fouladi, Taikun Yamada, Vincent T Ly, Cynthia Lam, Anthony Lou, Vivianna Nguyen, Undariya Boldbaatar, Roger Geertsema, Nigel W Fraser, Lbachir BenMohamed
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects the cornea causing potentially blinding herpetic disease. A clinical herpes vaccine is still lacking. In the present study, a novel prime/pull vaccine was tested in Human Leukocyte Antigen- (HLA-) transgenic rabbit model of ocular herpes (HLA Tg rabbit). Three asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptide epitopes were selected from the HSV-1 membrane glycoprotein C (UL44400-408 ), the DNA replication binding helicase (UL9196-204 ), and the tegument protein (UL25572-580 ), all preferentially recognized by CD8+ T cells from "naturally protected" HSV-1-seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who never had recurrent corneal herpetic disease)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898986/ultrasensitive-capture-of-human-herpes-simplex-virus-genomes-directly-from-clinical-samples-reveals-extraordinarily-limited-evolution-in-cell-culture
#10
Alexander L Greninger, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Hong Xie, Amanda Casto, Anne Cent, Gregory Pepper, David M Koelle, Meei-Li Huang, Anna Wald, Christine Johnston, Keith R Jerome
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are difficult to sequence due to their large DNA genome, high GC content, and the presence of repeats. To date, most HSV genomes have been recovered from culture isolates, raising concern that these genomes may not accurately represent circulating clinical strains. We report the development and validation of a DNA oligonucleotide hybridization panel to recover nearly complete HSV genomes at abundances up to 50,000-fold lower than previously reported. Using copy number information on herpesvirus and host DNA background via quantitative PCR, we developed a protocol for pooling for cost-effective recovery of more than 50 HSV-1 or HSV-2 genomes per MiSeq run...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896665/antiviral-drugs-against-alphaherpesvirus
#11
Kimiyasu Shiraki
The discovery of acyclovir and penciclovir has led to the development of a successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus infection and varicella-zoster virus infection, and the orally available prodrugs, valacyclovir and famciclovir, have improved antiviral treatment compliance. Acyclovir and penciclovir are phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase and are incorporated into the DNA chain by viral DNA polymerase, resulting in chain termination. Helicase-primase plays an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands (replication fork) and is a new target of antiviral therapy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896664/neurological-disorders-associated-with-human-alphaherpesviruses
#12
Jun-Ichi Kawada
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis worldwide, and central nervous system (CNS) involvement is observed in approximately one-third of neonatal HSV infections . In recent years, single-gene inborn errors of innate immunity have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to HSV encephalitis . Temporal lobe abnormalities revealed by magnetic resonance imaging-the most sensitive imaging method for HSV encephalitis-are considered strong evidence for the disease...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896663/oncolytic-virotherapy-by-hsv
#13
Daisuke Watanabe, Fumi Goshima
Oncolytic virotherapy is a kind of antitumor therapy using viruses with natural or engineered tumor-selective replication to intentionally infect and kill tumor cells. An early clinical trial has been performed in the 1950s using wild-type and non-engineered in vitro-passaged virus strains and vaccine strains (first generation oncolytic viruses). Because of the advances in biotechnology and virology, the field of virotherapy has rapidly evolved over the past two decades and innovative recombinant selectivity-enhanced viruses (second generation oncolytic viruses)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896662/us3-protein-kinase-encoded-by-hsv-the-precise-function-and-mechanism-on-viral-life-cycle
#14
Akihisa Kato, Yasushi Kawaguchi
All members of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily encode a serine/threonine kinase, designated Us3, which is not conserved in the other subfamilies. Us3 is a significant virulence factor for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which is one of the best-characterized members of the Alphaherpesvirinae family. Accumulating evidence indicates that HSV-1 Us3 is a multifunctional protein that plays various roles in the viral life cycle by phosphorylating a number of viral and cellular substrates. Therefore, the identification of Us3 substrates is directly connected to understanding Us3 functions and mechanisms...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896661/virus-assembly-and-egress-of-hsv
#15
Colin Crump
The assembly and egress of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a complicated multistage process that involves several different cellular compartments and the activity of many viral and cellular proteins. The process begins in the nucleus, with capsid assembly followed by genome packaging into the preformed capsids. The DNA-filled capsids (nucleocapsids) then exit the nucleus by a process of envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane followed by fusion with the outer nuclear membrane. In the cytoplasm nucleocapsids associate with tegument proteins, which form a complicated protein network that links the nucleocapsid to the cytoplasmic domains of viral envelope proteins...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896660/the-role-of-hsv-glycoproteins-in-mediating-cell-entry
#16
Jun Arii, Yasushi Kawaguchi
The successful entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into a cell is a complex process requiring the interaction of several surface viral glycoproteins with host cell receptors. These viral glycoproteins are currently thought to work sequentially to trigger fusogenic activity, but the process is complicated by the fact that each glycoprotein is known to interact with a range of target cell surface receptor molecules. The glycoproteins concerned are gB, gD, and gH/gL, with at least four host cell receptor molecules known to bind to gB and gD alone...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893649/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-feasibility-of-intratumoral-radiofrequency-hyperthermia-enhanced-herpes-simplex-virus-thymidine-kinase-gene-therapy
#17
Jiansong Ji, Qiaoyou Weng, Feng Zhang, Fu Xiong, Yin Jin, Junguo Hui, Jingjing Song, Jun Gao, Minjiang Chen, Qiang Li, David Shin, Xiaoming Yang
Purpose To validate the feasibility and efficacy of intratumoral radiofrequency hyperthermia (RFH)-enhanced herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) (hereafter, HSV-TK/GCV) gene therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods This study was performed from November 11, 2015, to April 14, 2017, and included (a) in vitro experiments with human NSCLC cells to establish the proof of principle, (b) in vivo experiments using mice with subcutaneous NSCLC to further demonstrate the principle, and (c) in vivo experiments using rats with orthotopic NSCLC to validate the technical feasibility...
June 12, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892642/-in-silico-prediction-of-cellular-gene-targets-of-herpesvirus-encoded-micrornas
#18
Afsar R Naqvi, Alexandra Seal, Jennifer Shango, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
Herpesviruses have evolved to encode multiple microRNAs [viral miRNAs (v-miRs)], a unique feature of this family of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses. However, functional role of these v-miRs in host-pathogen interaction remains poorly studied. In this data, we examined the impact of oral disease associated v-miRs viz ., miR-H1 [encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1)] and miR-K12-3 [encoded by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)] by identifying putative targets of viral miRNAs. We used our published microarray data (GSE107005) to identify the transcripts downregulated by the v-miRs...
August 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889472/a-case-with-angiographic-demonstration-of-isolated-anterior-spinal-artery-occlusion
#19
Vasfiye Burcu Dogan, Batuhan Kara, Hakan Hatem Selcuk, Ayten Ceyhan Dirican, Ayhan Koksal
Anterior spinal artery syndrome (ASAS) is a rare syndrome which occurs due to thrombosis of anterior spinal artery (ASA) which supplies anterior two thirds of the spinal cord. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to emergency clinic with sudden onset neck pain, sensory loss and weakness in proximal upper extremities which occurred at rest. Thrombophilia assessment tests were negative. Echocardiography was normal. Serum viral markers were negative. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, cell count and biochemistry was normal, oligoclonal band was negative, viral markers for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1 and type-2, Brucella, Borrellia, Treponema pallidum, Tuberculosis were negative...
March 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889070/herpes-viruses-and-senile-dementia-first-population-evidence-for-a-causal-link
#20
Ruth F Itzhaki, Richard Lathe
Three articles have very recently appeared that are of especial relevance to the causes of dementia and its potential treatment. The first two (Tsai et al., published in PLoS One in November 2017; Chen et al., published in the January/February 2018 issue of Journal of Clinical Psychiatry) demonstrate an increased risk of subsequent senile dementia (SD) development in patients with acute varicella zoster (herpes zoster) infection. These articles present data highly relevant to the third, and most important, paper-by Tzeng et al...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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