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Herpes Simplex Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458052/regulation-of-proliferation-and-functioning-of-transplanted-cells-by-using-herpes-simplex-virus-thymidine-kinase-gene-in-mice
#1
Mari Tsujimura, Kosuke Kusamori, Chihiro Oda, Airi Miyazaki, Hidemasa Katsumi, Toshiyasu Sakane, Makiya Nishikawa, Akira Yamamoto
Though cell transplantation is becoming an attractive therapeutic method, uncontrolled cell proliferation or overexpression of cellular functions could cause adverse effects. These unfavorable outcomes could be avoided by regulating the proliferation or functioning of transplanted cells. In this study, we used a combination of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene, a suicide gene, and ganciclovir (GCV) to control the proliferation and functioning of insulin-secreting cells after transplantation in diabetic mice...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454196/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-immune-activation-among-hiv-infected-but-virally-suppressed-youth-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Tanya L Kowalczyk Mullins, Su X Li, James Bethel, Maureen M Goodenow, Stephanie Hudey, John W Sleasman
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with chronic immune activation, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase immune activation. OBJECTIVES: Because HIV-infected youth are at high risk of STIs and little is known about the impact of STIs on immune activation in HIV-infected youth, we conducted an exploratory study examining the association between STIs and systemic inflammation and immune activation among HIV-infected adolescents...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453157/-the-spanish-society-of-paediatric-infectious-diseases-guidelines-on-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neonatal-herpes-simplex-infections
#3
(no author information available yet)
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. There are evidence-based interventions in pregnancy to prevent the transmission to the newborn. Caesarean section should be performed in the presence of herpetic lesions, and antiviral prophylaxis in the last weeks of pregnancy is recommended to suppress genital tract herpes simplex virus at the time of delivery...
February 13, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452403/mechanisms-controlling-nucleic-acid-sensing-toll-like-receptors
#4
Kensuke Miyake, Takuma Shibata, Umeharu Ohto, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Shin-Ichiroh Saitoh, Ryutaro Fukui, Yusuke Murakami
Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to DNA/RNA derived from pathogens and dead cells. Structural studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms by which TLRs sense NAs. Double-stranded RNA and single-stranded DNA directly bind to TLR3 and TLR9, respectively, whereas TLR7 and 8 bind to nucleosides and oligoribonucleotides derived from RNAs. Activation of ligand-bound TLRs is influenced by the functional status of TLRs. Proteolytic cleavage of NA-sensing TLRs enables ligand-dependent TLR dimerization...
February 14, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451274/helicase-primase-inhibitor-amenamevir-for-herpesvirus-infection-towards-practical-application-for-treating-herpes-zoster
#5
K Shiraki
Valacyclovir and famciclovir enabled successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection by their phosphorylation with viral thymidine kinase. Helicase-primase inhibitors (HPIs) inhibit the progression of the replication fork, an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands. The HPIs amenamevir and pritelivir have a novel mechanism of action, once-daily administration with nonrenal excretory characteristics, and clinical efficacy for genital herpes...
November 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450905/a-tramp-derived-orthotopic-prostate-syngeneic-tops-cancer-model-for-investigating-anti-tumor-treatments
#6
Justin Lardizabal, Jun Ding, Zahid Delwar, Paul S Rennie, William Jia
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced prostate cancer have limited curative options, therefore new treatments are needed. Mouse models play a pivotal role in the discovery and development of new treatments. In the present study, a TRAMP-derived Orthotopic Prostate Syngeneic (TOPS) mouse model was developed and found to provide a consistent means of monitoring tumor and metastatic responses to novel treatments. METHODS: The mouse TOPS model was generated using luciferase transduced TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cells that were orthotopically injected into Bl6 mice by ultrasound guidance...
February 16, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447697/herpes-simplex-virus-1-vp22-inhibits-aim2-dependent-inflammasome-activation-to-enable-efficient-viral-replication
#7
Yuhei Maruzuru, Takeshi Ichinohe, Ryota Sato, Kensuke Miyake, Tokuju Okano, Toshihiko Suzuki, Takumi Koshiba, Naoto Koyanagi, Shumpei Tsuda, Mizuki Watanabe, Jun Arii, Akihisa Kato, Yasushi Kawaguchi
The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447144/quickstats-age-adjusted-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-hsv-1-and-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-hsv-2-among-adolescents-and-adults-aged-14-49-years-united-states-1999-2000-through-2015-2016
#8
(no author information available yet)
During 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of HSV-1 was 48.1% among adolescents and adults aged 14-49 years (50.9% for females and 45.2% for males). Prevalence was higher for females than males in most 2-year periods from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. Also during 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of HSV-2 for those aged 14-49 years was 12.1% (15.9% among females compared to 8.2% among males) and was higher for females than males for all 2-year periods. Prevalence significantly declined from 1999-2000 through 2015-2016 for HSV-1 and HSV-2 among both males and females...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446473/a-case-of-kaposi-varicelliform-eruption-progressing-to-herpes-simplex-virus-hepatitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#9
M Okamoto, S Takahagi, A Tanaka, A Ogawa, H Nobuki, M Hide
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445265/new-frontiers-in-oncolytic-viruses-optimizing-and-selecting-for-virus-strains-with-improved-efficacy
#10
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom
Oncolytic viruses have demonstrated selective replication and killing of tumor cells. Different types of oncolytic viruses - adenoviruses, alphaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, Newcastle disease viruses, rhabdoviruses, Coxsackie viruses, and vaccinia viruses - have been applied as either naturally occurring or engineered vectors. Numerous studies in animal-tumor models have demonstrated substantial tumor regression and prolonged survival rates. Moreover, clinical trials have confirmed good safety profiles and therapeutic efficacy for oncolytic viruses...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444978/an-off-target-effect-of-bx795-blocks-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-infection-of-the-eye
#11
Dinesh Jaishankar, Abraam M Yakoub, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Alex Agelidis, Neel Thakkar, Satvik Hadigal, Joshua Ames, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes recurrent mucocutaneous lesions in the eye that may advance to corneal blindness. Nucleoside analogs exemplified by acyclovir (ACV) form the primary class of antiherpetic drugs, but this class suffers limitations due to the emergence of viral resistance and other side effects. While studying the molecular basis of ocular HSV-1 infection, we observed that BX795, a commonly used inhibitor of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), strongly suppressed infection by multiple strains of HSV-1 in transformed and primary human cells, cultured human and animal corneas, and a murine model of ocular infection...
February 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444614/in-vitro-anti-influenza-virus-effect-of-total-flavonoid-from-trollius-ledebouri-reichb
#12
Yongping Liu, Jiming Tong, Ying Tong, Ping Li, Xiaolan Cui, Hongbao Cao
Objective To investigate the in vitro antivirus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb (TFTLR). Methods Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell lines were used to test the antivirus effect of TFTLR on nine virus subtypes: four H1N1, one H3N2, and four other subtypes prevalent in North China. Tamiflu, Ribavirin and Lianhua Qingwen were used as active comparators. Comprehensive molecular pathway analyses of TFTLR-H1N1 and TFTLR-H3N2 relationships were also conducted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442994/prevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-type-2-in-persons-aged-14-49-united-states-2015-2016
#13
Geraldine McQuillan, Deanna Kruszon-Moran, Elaine W Flagg, Ryne Paulose-Ram
During 2015-2016, prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was 47.8%, and prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 11.9%. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 increased with age. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 was higher among females than males. Prevalence of HSV-1 was highest among Mexican- American persons and lowest among non-Hispanic white persons. HSV-2 prevalence was highest among non-Hispanic black persons and lowest among non-Hispanic Asian persons. Prevalence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 decreased from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016 (from 59...
February 2018: NCHS Data Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438303/cytoskeletons-in-the-closet-subversion-in-alphaherpesvirus-infections
#14
REVIEW
Christopher E Denes, Monica Miranda-Saksena, Anthony L Cunningham, Russell J Diefenbach
Actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments form the cytoskeleton of vertebrate cells. Involved in maintaining cell integrity and structure, facilitating cargo and vesicle transport, remodelling surface structures and motility, the cytoskeleton is necessary for the successful life of a cell. Because of the broad range of functions these filaments are involved in, they are common targets for viral pathogens, including the alphaherpesviruses. Human-tropic alphaherpesviruses are prevalent pathogens carried by more than half of the world's population; comprising herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2) and varicella-zoster virus, these viruses are characterised by their ability to establish latency in sensory neurons...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437966/herpes-simplex-virus-1-dramatically-alters-loading-and-positioning-of-rna-polymerase-ii-on-host-genes-early-in-infection
#15
Claire H Birkenheuer, Charles G Danko, Joel D Baines
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) transcription is mediated by cellular RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). Recent studies investigating how Pol II transcription of host genes is altered after HSV-1 are conflicting. ChIP-seq studies suggest Pol II is almost completely removed from host genes at 4 hours post infection (hpi), while 4SU labeling experiments show that host transcription termination is extended at 7 hpi implying a significant amount of Pol II remains associated with host genes in infected cells. To address this discrepancy, we used precision nuclear run on (PRO-seq) to determine the location of Pol II to single base pair resolution in combination with quantitative, reverse transcription PCR (qRTPCR) analysis 3 hpi...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429166/-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-cervix-uteri-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-69-cases
#16
X L Zhai, F Zhu, L X Wang, Y Cheng, H M Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427675/relevance-of-non-synonymous-thymidine-kinase-mutations-for-antiviral-resistance-of-recombinant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-strains
#17
Anne-Kathrin Brunnemann, Anja Hoffmann, Stefanie Deinhardt-Emmer, Claus-Henning Nagel, Ruben Rose, Helmut Fickenscher, Andreas Sauerbrei, Andi Krumbholz
Therapy or prophylaxis of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections with the nucleoside analog aciclovir (ACV) can lead to the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-2 strains, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In this context, multiple amino acid (aa) changes can accumulate in the ACV-converting viral thymidine kinase (TK) which hampers sequence-based diagnostics significantly. In this study, the so far unknown or still doubted relevance of several individual aa changes for drug resistance in HSV-2 was clarified...
February 7, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427299/herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-igg-antibodies-in-sera-of-umbilical-cord-as-a-proxy-for-placental-infection-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women
#18
Fabiana Finger-Jardim, Emiliana Claro Avila, Vanusa Pousada da Hora, Paula Costa Dos Santos, Carla Vitola Gonçalves, Gil Mor, Ana Maria Barral de Martinez, Marcelo Alves Soares
PROBLEM: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and is mainly sexually transmitted. When infecting pregnant women, HSV-2 is able to infect the placenta, can reach the fetus, and may affect the fetal development. We sought to determine the prevalence of HSV-2 infection and reactivation in asymptomatic pregnant women, the correlation between IgG in the maternal circulation and cord blood, and the correlation between circulating IgG, placental, and newborn infection (blood cord)...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426966/multi-viral-canaliculitis-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#19
Mohammad Javed Ali, Joveeta Joseph, Shweta Gupta, Sai Jeevana Madhuri Guda
AIM: To report an atypical case of multiple viruses causing canaliculitis. METHODS: Case report of a young female presenting with atypical course of refractory unilateral canaliculitis with complete mid-bicanalicular obstructions. Canalicular scrapings were subjected to immunofluorescence techniques and polymerase chain reactions to identify the viruses. RESULTS: Investigations revealed a canaliculitis of multi-viral etiology; herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus...
February 9, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426904/trim56-mediated-monoubiquitination-of-cgas-for-cytosolic-dna-sensing
#20
Gil Ju Seo, Charlotte Kim, Woo-Jin Shin, Ella H Sklan, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung
Intracellular nucleic acid sensors often undergo sophisticated modifications that are critical for the regulation of antimicrobial responses. Upon recognition of DNA, the cytosolic sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) produces the second messenger cGAMP, which subsequently initiates downstream signaling to induce interferon-αβ (IFNαβ) production. Here we report that TRIM56 E3 ligase-induced monoubiquitination of cGAS is important for cytosolic DNA sensing and IFNαβ production to induce anti-DNA viral immunity...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
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