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Herpes Simplex Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655629/intramuscular-vaccination-of-guinea-pigs-with-the-live-attenuated-human-herpes-simplex-vaccine-vc2-stimulates-a-transcriptional-profile-of-vaginal-th17-and-regulatory-tr1-responses
#1
Brent A Stanfield, Paul J F Rider, John Caskey, Fabio Del Piero, Konstantin G Kousoulas
Herpes simplex virus is a common causative agent of oral and genital diseases. Novel vaccines and therapeutics are needed to combat herpes infections especially after the failure of subunit vaccines in human clinical trials. We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. The guinea pig represents the best small animal model of genital HSV-2 disease...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652804/cerebrospinal-fluid-concentrations-of-biogenic-amines-potential-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-bacterial-and-viral-meningitis
#2
Aneela Taj, Nusrat Jamil
Catecholamine and serotonin are biogenic amines (BAs) that serve as neurotransmitters and play an important role in the regulation of cardinal functions that are mainly altered during central nervous system (CNS) infections. A total 92 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were classified into 4 groups based on their etiology. In these samples, BAs/neurotransmitters i.e., dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) were detected and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) to determine the neurophysiology of the CNS infections by bacteria ( Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm)) and herpes simplex virus (HSV)...
April 13, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643250/neuronal-subtype-determines-hsv-1-latency-associated-transcript-lat-promoter-activity-during-latency
#3
Jorge Ruben Cabrera, Audra J Charron, David A Leib
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency in neurons remains poorly understood, and the heterogeneity of the sensory nervous system complicates mechanistic studies. In this study, we used primary culture of adult trigeminal ganglion (TG) mouse neurons in microfluidic devices, and an in vivo model, to examine the subtypes of sensory neurons involved in HSV latency. HSV-infected neurofilament heavy-positive neurons (NefH+ ) were more likely to express Latency-Associated Transcripts (LATs) relative to infected neurofilament heavy-negative neurons (NefH- )...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629704/autoimmune-encephalitis-following-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-in-an-infant
#4
LETTER
Venkateswari Ramesh, Janani Sankar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629396/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-and-nonencephalitic-hsv-1-infection
#5
Amy Salovin, Jason Glanzman, Kylie Roslin, Thais Armangue, David R Lynch, Jessica A Panzer
Objective: To determine whether there is an association between nonencephalitic herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE). Methods: Antibody testing was performed using samples from 2 cohorts in a case-control observational study. The cohort "Philadelphia" included 16 serum samples of pediatric anti-NMDARE cases and 42 age-matched controls with other neuroinflammatory disorders studied at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626021/acute-encephalitis-diagnosis-and-management
#6
Mark Ellul, Tom Solomon
Encephalitis, inflammation of the brain, is most commonly caused by a viral infection (especially herpes simplex virus [HSV] type 1 in the UK) although autoimmune causes, such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis, are increasingly recognised. Most patients present with a change in consciousness level and may have fever, seizures, movement disorder or focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis hinges crucially on lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, but imaging and electroencephalography (EEG) may also be helpful...
March 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625767/review-of-mathematical-models-of-hsv-2-vaccination-implications-for-vaccine-development
#7
Ian H Spicknall, Katharine J Looker, Sami L Gottlieb, Harrell W Chesson, Joshua T Schiffer, Jocelyn Elmes, Marie-Claude Boily
Development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a life-long sexually-transmitted infection (STI), would be a major step forward in improving global sexual and reproductive health. In this review, we identified published literature of dynamic mathematical models assessing the impact of either prophylactic or therapeutic HSV-2 vaccination at the population level. We compared each study's model structure and assumptions as well as predicted vaccination impact. We examined possible causes of heterogeneity across model predictions, key gaps, and the implications of these findings for future modelling efforts...
April 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625473/corneal-epithelial-cells-exhibit-myeloid-characteristics-and-present-antigen-via-mhc-class-ii
#8
Derek J Royer, Michael H Elliott, Yun Z Le, Daniel J J Carr
Purpose: To explore the impact of ocular surface insults on the immunomodulatory capacity and phenotype of corneal epithelial cells (CECs) with a focus on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods: Corneas were harvested from mice 6 days following scratch injury, ragweed pollen-induced allergy, or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and compared to healthy tissue controls. Corneas were enzymatically digested and CECs phenotypically characterized using flow cytometry...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625169/effects-of-cationic-liposomes-with-stearylamine-against-virus-infection
#9
Kohei Tahara, Manami Kobayashi, Satoko Yoshida, Risako Onodera, Naoki Inoue, Hirofumi Takeuchi
In this study, we demonstrated that cationic liposomes with incorporated stearylamine (SA) inhibit viral infectivity without preloaded active pharmaceutical ingredients. Specifically, we correlated physiochemical properties of liposomes, such as zeta potentials and particle sizes, with virus infectivity using the BacMam™ reagent, which is based on recombinant baculovirus (BV). Compared with neutral or negatively-charged liposomes, SA liposomes suppressed BV infectivity in several mammalian cell lines, including A549 cells...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622756/hsv-infection-is-associated-with-gestational-hypertension-results-from-the-us-national-inpatient-sample
#10
Lifeng Shi, Yan Wu
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between maternal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia or gestational hypertension. The US Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was searched for women aged 15-44 years who delivered in a hospital between 2005 and 2014. The patients were categorized into those with and without HSV and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and gestational hypertension were compared between the groups. The analytic sample size (n=8 264 076) was equivalent to a population-based sample size of 40 653 030 patients...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622669/secular-trends-in-infection-related-mortality-after-kidney-transplantation
#11
Susanna Kinnunen, Pauli Karhapää, Auni Juutilainen, Patrik Finne, Ilkka Helanterä
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infections are the most common noncardiovascular causes of death after kidney transplantation. We analyzed the current infection-related mortality among kidney transplant recipients in a nationwide cohort in Finland. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Altogether, 3249 adult recipients of a first kidney transplant from 1990 to 2012 were included. Infectious causes of death were analyzed, and the mortality rates for infections were compared between two eras (1990-1999 and 2000-2012)...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622628/structure-of-the-herpes-simplex-virus-1-capsid-with-associated-tegument-protein-complexes
#12
Xinghong Dai, Z Hong Zhou
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) rely on capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) for long-range axonal transport of their genome-containing capsids between sites of infection and neuronal cell bodies. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of the HSV-1 capsid with CATC up to 3.5-angstrom resolution and atomic models of multiple conformers of capsid proteins VP5, VP19c, VP23, and VP26 and tegument proteins pUL17, pUL25, and pUL36. Crowning every capsid vertex are five copies of heteropentameric CATC, each containing a pUL17 monomer supporting the coiled-coil helix bundle of a pUL25 dimer and a pUL36 dimer, thus positioning their flexible domains for potential involvement in nuclear capsid egress and axonal capsid transport...
April 6, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622627/cryo-em-structure-of-a-herpesvirus-capsid-at-3-1-%C3%A3
#13
Shuai Yuan, Jialing Wang, Dongjie Zhu, Nan Wang, Qiang Gao, Wenyuan Chen, Hao Tang, Junzhi Wang, Xinzheng Zhang, Hongrong Liu, Zihe Rao, Xiangxi Wang
Structurally and genetically, human herpesviruses are among the largest and most complex of viruses. Using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with an optimized image reconstruction strategy, we report the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) capsid structure at 3.1 angstroms, which is built up of about 3000 proteins organized into three types of hexons (central, peripentonal, and edge), pentons, and triplexes. Both hexons and pentons contain the major capsid protein, VP5; hexons also contain a small capsid protein, VP26; and triplexes comprise VP23 and VP19C...
April 6, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620508/increasing-antigen-presentation-on-hsv-1-infected-cells-increases-lesion-size-but-does-not-alter-neural-infection-or-latency
#14
Tiffany A Russell, Thilaga Velusamy, Yeu-Yang Tseng, David C Tscharke
CD8+ T cells have a role in the control of acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and may also be important in the maintenance of latency. In this study we have explored the consequences of boosting the efficacy of CD8+ T cells against HSV by increasing the amount of an MHC I-presented epitope on the surface of infected cells. To do this we used HSVs engineered to express an extra copy of the immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitope in C57Bl/6 mice, namely gB498 (SSIEFARL). Despite greater presentation of gB498 on infected cells, CD8+ T cell responses to these viruses in mice were similar to those elicited by a control virus...
April 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619908/prevalence-of-sexually-transmitted-diseases-in-asymptomatic-renal-transplant-recipients
#15
Mehmet Sarier, Nevgun Sepin Ozen, Hicran Guler, Ibrahim Duman, Yücel Yüksel, Sabri Tekin, Asuman Havva Yavuz, Levent Yucetin, Mine Erdogan Yilmaz
OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted diseases, which may be asymptomatic, have the potential to cause serious health problems in renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in sexually active asymptomatic renal transplant patients by using real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective controlled study was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 in our hospital...
April 4, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618646/functional-relevance-of-the-transmembrane-domain-and-cytoplasmic-tail-of-the-pseudorabies-virus-glycoprotein-h-for-membrane-fusion
#16
Melina Vallbracht, Walter Fuchs, Barbara G Klupp, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Herpesvirus membrane fusion depends on the core fusion machinery comprising glycoproteins (g)B and gH/gL. Although gB structurally resembles autonomous class III fusion proteins, it strictly depends on gH/gL to drive membrane fusion. Whether the gH/gL complex needs to be membrane-anchored to fulfill its function and which role the gH cytoplasmic (CD) and transmembrane domains (TMD) play in fusion is unclear. While the gH CD and TMD play an important role during infection, soluble gH/gL of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) seems to be sufficient to mediate cell-cell fusion in transient assays arguing against an essential contribution of the CD and TMD...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617951/non-mumps-viral-parotitis-during-the-2014-2015-influenza-season-in-the-united-states
#17
Lina I Elbadawi, Pamela Talley, Melissa A Rolfes, Alexander J Millman, Erik Reisdorf, Natalie A Kramer, John R Barnes, Lenee Blanton, Jaime Christensen, Stefanie Cole, Tonya Danz, John J Dreisig, Rebecca Garten, Thomas Haupt, Beth M Isaac, Mary Anne Jackson, Anna Kocharian, Daniel Leifer, Karen Martin, Lisa McHugh, Rebecca J McNall, Jennifer Palm, Kay W Radford, Sara Robinson, Jennifer B Rosen, Senthilkumar K Sakthivel, Peter Shult, Anna K Strain, George Turabelidze, Lori A Webber, Meghan Pearce Weinberg, David E Wentworth, Brett L Whitaker, Lyn Finelli, Michael A Jhung, Ruth Lynfield, Jeffrey P Davis
Background: During the 2014-2015 US influenza season, 320 cases of non-mumps parotitis (NMP) among residents of 21 states were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We conducted an epidemiologic and laboratory investigation to determine viral etiologies and clinical features of NMP during this unusually large occurrence. Methods: NMP was defined as acute parotitis or other salivary gland swelling of >2 days duration in a person with a mumps- negative laboratory result...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617423/hiv-prevalence-by-ethnic-group-covaries-with-prevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-and-high-risk-sex-in-uganda-an-ecological-study
#18
Chris R Kenyon
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence varies from 1.7% to 14.8% between ethnic groups in Uganda. Understanding the factors responsible for this heterogeneity in HIV spread may guide prevention efforts. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by ethnic group and a range of risk factors as well as the prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), syphilis and symptomatic STIs in the 2004/2005 Uganda HIV/AIDS Sero-Behavioural Survey-a two stage, nationally representative, population based survey of 15-59-year-olds...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617372/trends-in-the-relative-prevalence-of-genital-ulcer-disease-pathogens-and-association-with-hiv-infection-in-johannesburg-south-africa-2007-2015
#19
Ranmini S Kularatne, Etienne E Muller, Dumisile V Maseko, Tendesayi Kufa-Chakezha, David A Lewis
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, treatment of genital ulcer disease (GUD) occurs in the context of syndromic management. GUD aetiological studies have been conducted in Johannesburg since 2007. We report on GUD pathogen prevalence, sero-prevalence of STI co-infections and aetiological trends among GUD patients presenting to a community-based primary healthcare facility in Johannesburg over a 9-year period. METHODS AND FINDINGS: GUD surveys were conducted from January to April each year...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615954/microbiome-mediated-upregulation-of-microrna-146a-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Yuhai Zhao, Walter J Lukiw
The first indication of a potential mechanistic link between the pathobiology of the human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract microbiome and its contribution to the pathogenetic mechanisms of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) came a scant 4 years ago (1). Ongoing research continues to strengthen the hypothesis that neurotoxic microbial-derived components of the GI tract microbiome can cross aging GI tract and blood-brain barriers and contribute to progressive proinflammatory neurodegeneration, as exemplified by the AD-process...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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