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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335552/virological-surveillance-of-influenza-a-subtypes-isolated-in-2014-from-clinical-outbreaks-in-canadian-swine
#1
Helena Grgić, Jackie Gallant, Zvonimir Poljak
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are respiratory pathogens associated with an acute respiratory disease that occurs year-round in swine production. It is currently one of the most important pathogens in swine populations, with the potential to infect other host species including humans. Ongoing research indicates that the three major subtypes of IAV-H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2-continue to expand in their genetic and antigenic diversity. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of 16 IAVs isolated from different clinical outbreaks in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan in 2014...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329005/rethinking-the-influence-of-hydroelectric-development-on-gene-flow-in-a-long-lived-fish-the-lake-sturgeon-acipenser-fulvescens
#2
Craig A McDougall, Amy B Welsh, Thierry Gosselin, W Gary Anderson, Patrick A Nelson
Many hydroelectric dams have been in place for 50 - >100 years, which for most fish species means that enough generations have passed for fragmentation induced divergence to have accumulated. However, for long-lived species such as Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, it should be possible to discriminate between historical population structuring and contemporary gene flow and improve the broader understanding of anthropogenic influence. On the Winnipeg River, Manitoba, two hypotheses were tested: 1) Measureable quantities of former reservoir dwelling Lake Sturgeon now reside downstream of the Slave Falls Generating Station, and 2) genetically differentiated populations of Lake Sturgeon occur upstream and downstream, a result of historical structuring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324922/the-clinical-significance-of-occult-gastrointestinal-primary-tumours-in-metastatic-cancer-a-population-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Malek B Hannouf, Eric Winquist, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Muriel Brackstone, Sisira Sarma, George Rodrigues, Peter K Rogan, Jeffrey S Hoch, Gregory S Zaric
Purpose: To estimate the incidence of occult gastrointestinal (GI) primary tumours in patients with metastatic cancer of uncertain primary origin and evaluate their influence on treatments and overall survival (OS). Materials and Methods: We used population heath data from Manitoba, Canada to identify all patients initially diagnosed with metastatic cancer between 2002 and 2011. We defined patients to have "occult" primary tumour if the primary was found at least 6 months after initial diagnosis...
March 21, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276598/clinical-utility-of-using-lumbar-spine-trabecular-bone-score-to-adjust-fracture-probability-the-manitoba-bmd-cohort
#4
P Martineau, W D Leslie, H Johansson, A Oden, E V McCloskey, D Hans, J A Kanis
Decreased lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS), a DXA-derived image texture measurement, is a risk factor for major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) and hip fracture (HF) independent of ten-year fracture probability estimated using FRAX(R) . We determined how often applying the TBS adjustment to fracture probability altered treatment qualification. Using a population-based registry containing all clinical DXA results for Manitoba, Canada, we identified 34,316 women with baseline spine and hip DXA, FRAX-based fracture probability measurements (computed with femoral neck bone mineral density), lumbar spine TBS, and minimum 5 years of observation (mean 8...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238957/temporal-trends-in-initiation-of-therapy-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-antagonists-for-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-population-based-analysis
#5
Laura E Targownik, Aruni Tenakaroon, Stella Leung, Lisa M Lix, Harminder Singh, Charles N Bernstein
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents are effective treatments for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to determine their patterns of use and changes in these patterns over time, as well as use of immunomodulators and corticosteroids before anti-TNF therapy for persons with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS: We used the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database to identify all anti-TNF users with CD and UC from 2001 through 2014...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238379/anthropogenic-mercury-deposition-in-flin-flon-manitoba-and-the-experimental-lakes-area-ontario-canada-a-multi-lake-sediment-core-reconstruction
#6
Johan A Wiklund, Jane L Kirk, Derek C G Muir, Marlene Evans, Fan Yang, Jonathan Keating, Matthew T Parsons
High-resolution records of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) deposition were constructed from 9 lakes located 5-75km from the Flin Flon, Manitoba smelter (formerly one of North America's largest atmospheric Hg point sources) and 5 lakes in Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario; a region remote from major Hg point sources. Anthropogenic Hg deposition, as both a flux and inventory, was determined after accounting for lake-specific natural Hg background concentrations, changes in sedimentation and sediment focusing...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224097/understanding-academic-clinicians-intent-to-treat-pediatric-obesity
#7
Claudia Frankfurter, Charles Cunningham, Katherine M Morrison, Heather Rimas, Karen Bailey
AIM: To examine the extent to which the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicts academic clinicians' intent to treat pediatric obesity. METHODS: A multi-disciplinary panel iteratively devised a Likert scale survey based on the constructs of the TPB applied to a set of pediatric obesity themes. A cross-sectional electronic survey was then administered to academic clinicians at tertiary care centers across Canada from January to April 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize demographic and item agreement data...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221251/evidence-of-bidirectional-associations-between-perceived-stress-and-symptom-activity-a-prospective-longitudinal-investigation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Kathryn A Sexton, John R Walker, Lesley A Graff, Matthew T Bernstein, Brooke Beatie, Norine Miller, Michael Sargent, Laura E Targownik
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore the relationships among perceived stress, intestinal inflammation, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symptoms over time. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a population-based registry of persons with IBD and assessed at months 0, 3, and 6. Key dependent measures were the Manitoba IBD Index (symptom activity), Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and fecal calprotectin in stool (intestinal inflammation). RESULTS: Complete data were available for 417 participants at months 0; 369 provided follow-up data...
March 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221250/factors-associated-with-discontinuation-of-anti-tnf-inhibitors-among-persons-with-ibd-a-population-based-analysis
#9
Laura E Targownik, Aruni Tennakoon, Stella Leung, Lisa M Lix, Zoann Nugent, Harminder Singh, Charles N Bernstein
INTRODUCTION: Antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) medications are known to be highly efficacious in persons with moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There is a paucity of data from population-based sources to elucidate persistence with these medications in the general population of IBD. Discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy is a marker of lack of effectiveness, intolerance, and patient/physician practice preferences. METHODS: We identified all persons with IBD in Manitoba who were dispensed infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA) between 2001 and 2014...
March 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199401/hospital-discharge-abstracts-have-limited-accuracy-in-identifying-occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-among-hospitalized-individuals-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-population-based-study
#10
Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, B Nancy Yu, Lisa M Lix, Laura Targownik, Charles Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Hospital discharge databases are used to study the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CDI in IBD is increasingly important and accurately estimating its occurrence is critical in understanding its comorbidity. There are limited data on the reliability of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) (now widely used in North America) CDI code in determining occurrence of CDI among hospitalized patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199392/comparison-of-the-population-excess-fraction-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-on-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-at-12-months-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-chlamydia-testing-and-treatment-systematic-review-and-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#11
Bethan Davies, Katy M E Turner, Stella Leung, B Nancy Yu, Maria Frølund, Thomas Benfield, James Blanchard, Henrik Westh, Helen Ward
BACKGROUND: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. METHODS: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195851/maternal-infections-that-would-warrant-antibiotic-use-antepartum-or-peripartum-are-not-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-ibd-a-population-based-analysis
#12
Charles N Bernstein, Charles Burchill, Laura E Targownik, Harminder Singh, Jean Eric Ghia, Leslie L Roos
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether maternal antenatal or perinatal infections (and thereby use of antibiotics) increase the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in their offspring. METHODS: The University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database contains records of all Manitobans diagnosed with IBD from 1984 to 2010. Each individual with IBD is matched to 10 controls. Subjects' medical system contacts are identified using a unique deidentified personal health identification number...
April 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194995/aerobic-anoxygenic-phototrophs-in-gold-mine-tailings-in-nopiming-provincial-park-manitoba-canada
#13
Elizabeth Hughes, Breanne Head, Chris Maltman, Michele Piercey-Normore, Vladimir Yurkov
A sampling trip to Central Gold Mine, Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, was taken in September 2011. Abundance, distribution, and physiology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAP) from 4 locations were studied. Enumeration revealed 14.6% of culturable microbes were AAP. Five strains (NM4.16, NM4.18, C4, C9, C11) were chosen for analysis. All grow best on complex media without vitamin requirements and with an optimal pH 7.0-8.0, with strain C4 preferring pH 6.0. Strain NM4.18 tolerates the highest pH 11.0. Optimal temperature for all is 28 °C (range of 2-37 °C except NM4...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193217/measuring-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-incident-hypertension-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Karen L Tang, Hude Quan, Doreen M Rabi
BACKGROUND: Though pharmacy claims data are commonly used to study medication adherence, there remains no standard operational definition for adherence especially for patients on multiple medications. Even when studies use the same terminology, the actual methods of calculating adherence can differ drastically. It is unclear whether the use of different definitions results in different conclusions regarding adherence and associated outcomes. The objective of our study was to compare adherence rates and associations with mortality using different operational definitions of adherence, and using various methods of handling concurrent medication use...
February 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187237/zero-inflated-spatio-temporal-models-for-disease-mapping
#15
Mahmoud Torabi
In this paper, our aim is to analyze geographical and temporal variability of disease incidence when spatio-temporal count data have excess zeros. To that end, we consider random effects in zero-inflated Poisson models to investigate geographical and temporal patterns of disease incidence. Spatio-temporal models that employ conditionally autoregressive smoothing across the spatial dimension and B-spline smoothing over the temporal dimension are proposed. The analysis of these complex models is computationally difficult from the frequentist perspective...
February 10, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182723/antibody-responses-to-borrelia-burgdorferi-detected-by-western-blot-vary-geographically-in-canada
#16
Nicholas H Ogden, Julie Arsenault, Todd F Hatchette, Samir Mechai, L Robbin Lindsay
Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177420/small-reservoirs-as-a-beneficial-management-practice-for-nitrogen-removal
#17
Raea M Gooding, Helen M Baulch
There are few beneficial management practices (BMPs) with demonstrated efficacy in snowmelt-dominated regions. Small reservoirs are a BMP that can help mitigate flooding and reduce sediment transport, while reducing export of dissolved nutrients. To understand controls on nitrate removal and assess how this ecosystem service can be optimized, denitrification activity was measured in reservoirs and stream pools of the Tobacco Creek Model Watershed (Manitoba, Canada) via the chloramphenicol-amended acetylene block technique...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166775/clinical-ethics-issues-in-hiv-care-in-canada-an-institutional-ethnographic-study
#18
Chris Kaposy, Nicole R Greenspan, Zack Marshall, Jill Allison, Shelley Marshall, Cynthia Kitson
BACKGROUND: This is a study involving three HIV clinics in the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, and Manitoba. We sought to identify ethical issues involving health care providers and clinic clients in these settings, and to gain an understanding of how different ethical issues are managed by these groups. METHODS: We used an institutional ethnographic method to investigate ethical issues in HIV clinics. Our researcher conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews, compiled participant observation notes, and studied health records in order to document ethical issues in the clinics, and to understand how health care providers and clinic clients manage and resolve these issues...
February 6, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146649/a-multimodal-intervention-for-children-with-adhd-reduces-inequity-in-health-and-education-outcomes
#19
Jennifer E Enns, Jason R Randall, Mark Smith, Dan Chateau, Carole Taylor, Marni Brownell, James M Bolton, Elaine Burland, Alan Katz, Laurence Y Katz, Nathan C Nickel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a multimodal intervention for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) resulted in better long-term health and education outcomes and reduced inequity across the socioeconomic gradient. METHOD: We analyzed administrative data held in the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository describing recipients of a combined pharmacological/behavioural intervention for ADHD. The study cohort included children aged 5 to 17 years who visited the Manitoba Adolescent Treatment Centre's ADHD intervention service at least 3 times (2007-2012)...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112077/effect-of-dietary-cholesterol-and-plant-sterol-consumption-on-plasma-lipid-responsiveness-and-cholesterol-trafficking-in-healthy-individuals
#20
Peter A S Alphonse, Vanu Ramprasath, Peter J H Jones
Dietary cholesterol and plant sterols differentially modulate cholesterol kinetics and circulating cholesterol. Understanding how healthy individuals with their inherent variabilities in cholesterol trafficking respond to such dietary sterols will aid in improving strategies for effective cholesterol lowering and alleviation of CVD risk. The objectives of this study were to assess plasma lipid responsiveness to dietary cholesterol v. plant sterol consumption, and to determine the response in rates of cholesterol absorption and synthesis to each sterol using stable isotope approaches in healthy individuals...
January 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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