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René M Malenfant, Corey S Davis, Evan S Richardson, Nicholas J Lunn, David W Coltman
Among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), fitness is dependent on body size through males' abilities to win mates, females' abilities to provide for their young, and all bears' abilities to survive increasingly longer fasting periods caused by climate change. In the Western Hudson Bay subpopulation (near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada), polar bears have declined in body size and condition, but nothing is known about the genetic underpinnings of body size variation, which may be subject to natural selection. Here, we combine a 4449-individual pedigree and an array of 5433 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to provide the first quantitative genetics study of polar bears...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Paul Komenda, Navdeep Tangri, Evan Klajncar, Amanda Eng, Michelle Di Nella, Brett Hiebert, Trevor Strome, Ricardo Lobato de Faria, James M Zacharias, Mauro Verrelli, Manish M Sood, Claudio Rigatto
IMPORTANCE: Patients on dialysis are often elderly and frail, with multiple comorbid conditions, and are heavy users of Emergency Department (ED) services. However, objective data on the frequency and pattern of ED utilization by dialysis patients are sparse. Such data could identify periods of highest risk for ED visits and inform health systems interventions to mitigate these risks and improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern and frequency of presentation to ER by dialysis patients...
2018: PloS One
Malcolm B Doupe, Jeff Poss, Peter G Norton, Allan Garland, Natalia Dik, Shauna Zinnick, Lisa M Lix
BACKGROUND: To improve care, planners require accurate information about nursing home (NH) residents and their healthcare use. We evaluated how accurately measures of resident user status and healthcare use were captured in the Minimum Data Set (MDS) versus administrative data. METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study was conducted on all NH residents (N = 8832) from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2013. Six study measures exist...
April 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Malek B Hannouf, Eric Winquist, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Muriel Brackstone, Sisira Sarma, George Rodrigues, Peter K Rogan, Jeffrey S Hoch, Gregory S Zaric
PURPOSE: Several genomic tests have recently been developed to identify the primary tumour in cancer of unknown primary tumour (CUP). However, the value of identifying the primary tumour in clinical practice for CUP patients remains questionable and difficult to prove in randomized trials. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the clinical and economic value of primary tumour identification in CUP using a retrospective matched cohort study. METHODS: We used the Manitoba Cancer Registry to identify all patients initially diagnosed with metastatic cancer between 2002 and 2011...
September 6, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Guido Filler, Tom Kovesi, Erik Bourdon, Sarah Ann Jones, Laurentiu Givelichian, Cheryl Rockman-Greenberg, Jason Gilliland, Marion Williams, Elaine Orrbine, Bruno Piedboeuf
BACKGROUND: Pediatrician and pediatric subspecialist density varies substantially among the various Canadian provinces, as well as among various states in the US. It is unknown whether this variability impacts health outcomes. To study this knowledge gap, we evaluated pediatric asthma admission rates within the 2 Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, which have similarly sized pediatric populations and substantially different physician densities. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study...
April 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Elizabeth Wall-Wieler, Leslie L Roos, Nathan C Nickel, Dan Chateau, Marni Brownell
This study examines whether mothers who had a child taken into care by child protection services have higher mortality rates compared with rates seen in their biological sisters who did not have a child taken into care. We conducted this retrospective cohort study with 3,948 mothers whose oldest child was born in Manitoba, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2015 using linkable administrative data. These mothers were from 1,974 families where one sister had a child taken into care and one sister did not...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Tracie O Afifi, Jitender Sareen, Tamara Taillieu, Sarah Turner, Janique Fortier
The gambling landscape among provinces in Canada is diverse. Yet, few studies have investigated provincial differences related to life interference due to gambling. The objectives of the current study were to examine: (1) provincial differences with regard to gambling types and (2) if gender, family history of gambling, and alcohol or drug use while gambling were related to an increased likelihood of life interference in three Canadian provinces. Data were drawn from the 2013 and 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey from Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia (n = 30,150)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Annette S H Schultz, Lindsey Dahl, Elizabeth McGibbon, R Jarvis Brownlie, Catherine Cook, Basem Elbarouni, Alan Katz, Thang Nguyen, Jo Ann Sawatzky, Moneca Sinclaire, Karen Throndson, Randy Fransoo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate recipient characteristics and rates of index angiography among First Nations (FN) and non-FN populations in Manitoba, Canada. SETTING: Population-based, secondary analysis of provincial administrative health data. PARTICIPANTS: All adults 18 years or older who received an index angiogram between 2000/2001 and 2008/2009. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Descriptive statistics for age, sex, income quintile by rural and urban residency and Charlson Comorbidity Index for FN and non-FN recipients...
March 25, 2018: BMJ Open
K S Sandhu, F M You, R L Conner, P M Balasubramanian, Anfu Hou
Seed hardness trait has a profound impact on cooking time and canning quality in dry beans. This study aims to identify the unknown genetic factors and associated molecular markers to better understand and tag this trait. An F2:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was derived from a cross between the hard and soft seeded black bean parents (H68-4 and BK04-001). Eighty-five RILs and the parental lines were grown at two locations in southern Manitoba during years 2014-2016. Seed samples were harvested manually at maturity to test for seed hardness traits...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
C A Basham, B Elias, A Fanning, C Cook, P Orr
BACKGROUND: Performance measurement assists tuberculosis (TB) programmes in understanding areas of strength and weakness, and planning for improvements. Canada currently does not have a national comprehensive system for the measurement and analysis of TB programme performance. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the performance of a Canadian provincial TB programme using measures and targets based on those published by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control for 2015...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Lesya Marushka, Xuefeng Hu, Malek Batal, Tonio Sadik, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan
We previously studied the association between fish consumption and prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Manitoba and Ontario First Nations (FNs), Canada and found different results. In this study, we used a difference in difference model to analyze the data. Dietary and health data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, a cross-sectional study of 706 Manitoba and 1429 Ontario FNs were analyzed. The consumption of fish was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Fish samples were analyzed for dichloro diphenyldichloro ethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
L A Shafer, J R Walker, T Chhibba, M Ivekovic, H Singh, L E Targownik, L Peyrin-Biroulet, C Gower-Rousseau, H Sarter, C N Bernstein
Introduction: A new clinician-administered inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Disability Index (IBDDI) was recently developed and validated among a population in France. We aimed to validate the IBDDI in a North American setting and adapt for use as a self-report tool. Methods: Persons 18-65 years old from the population-based University of Manitoba IBD Research Registry were mailed a self-administered survey. This survey included the IBDDI and several scales that should correlate with a disability measure- the World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS) 2...
March 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Jose Francois, Jeffrey Sisler, Stephanie Mowat
BACKGROUND: The Manitoba Physician Achievement Review (MPAR) is a 360-degree feedback assessment that physicians undergo every 7 years to retain licensure. Deliberate reflection on feedback has been demonstrated to encourage practice change. The MPAR Reflection Exercise (RE), a peer-assisted debriefing tool, was developed whereby the physician selects a peer with whom to review and reflect on feedback, committing to change. This qualitative study explores how physicians who had undergone the MPAR used the RE, what areas of change are identified and committed to, and what they perceived as the role of reflection in the MPAR process...
March 14, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Jonathan McGavock, Anita Durksen, Brandy Wicklow, Sayma Malik, Elizabeth Ac Sellers, Tom Blydt-Hansen, Dan Chateau, Allison Dart
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the readiness for adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors was associated with mental health and comorbid conditions in youth with T2D. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison of various measures of mental health (distress, stress, resilience) and comorbid conditions (glycated hemoglobin, adiposity, hypertension) was conducted within a cohort of indigenous youth with T2D living in Canada, stratified according to their readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors based on Prochaska's transtheoretical model...
March 13, 2018: Obesity
Ruth Ann Marrie, Stella Leung, Nancy Yu, Lawrence Elliott
Background: We compared the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) between First Nations (FN) and non-FN populations in Manitoba. Methods: We applied previously validated algorithms to population-based administrative (health claims) data from Manitoba, Canada, to identify all persons with MS from 1984 to 2011. We identified FN individuals using the Municipality of Registration field held at Manitoba Health. We compared the incidence and prevalence of MS between the FN and non-FN populations using negative binomial models...
February 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
J Wheeler, S Chan, P R Harrigan, M Becker, K Kasper, Y Keynan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
J Giese-Davis, J Sisler, L Zhong, Y Brandelli, J L McCormick, C Railton, L Shirt, H Lau, D Hao, J Chobanuk, B Walley, A A Joy, A Taylor, L Carlson
Background: No standardized measures specifically assess cancer survivors' and healthcare providers' experience of Survivor Care Plans (scps). We sought to develop two care plan evaluation (cpe) measures, one for survivors (cpe-s) and one for healthcare providers (cpe-p), examine initial psychometric qualities in Alberta, and assess generalizability in Manitoba, Canada. Methods: We developed the initial measures using convenience samples of breast ( n = 35) and head and neck ( n = 18) survivors who received scps at the end of active cancer-centre treatment...
February 2018: Current Oncology
Reza Vosoughi, Andrew Walkty, Michael A Drebot, Kamran Kadkhoda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Marni Brownell, Nathan C Nickel, Mariette Chartier, Jennifer E Enns, Dan Chateau, Joykrishna Sarkar, Elaine Burland, Douglas P Jutte, Carole Taylor, Alan Katz
The Commission on Social Determinants of Health, sponsored by the World Health Organization, has identified measuring health inequities and evaluating interventions to reduce them as important priorities. We examined whether an unconditional prenatal income supplement for low-income women was associated with reduced population-level inequities in birth outcomes. We identified all mother-newborn pairs from the period 2003-10 in Manitoba, Canada, and divided them into the following three groups: low income exposed (received the supplement); low income unexposed (did not receive the supplement); and not low income unexposed (ineligible for the supplement)...
March 2018: Health Affairs
J P Gawaziuk, R Strazar, N Cristall, S Logsetty
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a debilitating soft tissue infection that results in disfiguring scars and often amputations. While mortality rates have improved, long-term outcomes in survivors of NF are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of NF on survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) influenced by age, sex, comorbidities, %TBSA, and confidence with appearance. METHODS: We surveyed 56 adult patients with NF treated at either of two regional referral centers in Manitoba, Canada, between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2014...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
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