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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893589/leptin-status-alters-buprenorphine-induced-antinociception-in-obese-mice-with-dysfunctional-leptin-receptors
#1
Zachary Glovak, Sara Mihalko, Helen A Baghdoyan, Ralph Lydic
Buprenorphine is an opiate used for pain management and to treat opiate addiction. The cytokine leptin can modulate nociception, but the extent to which buprenorphine-induced antinociception varies as a function of leptin signaling has not been characterized. Four congenic mouse lines with phenotypes that include differences in body weight and leptin status were used to test the hypothesis that the antinociceptive effects of buprenorphine vary as function of sex and leptin signaling. Each mouse line was comprised of males (n=12) and females (n=12) for a total of 96 animals...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885516/treating-acute-pain-in-the-opiate-dependent-patient
#2
Coleen Dever
Opioid drugs, including prescription as well as heroin, have come to the national spotlight due to the unprecedented rate of overdose and addiction. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has termed this problem as an "epidemic" that has reached record numbers of deaths in 2014. Approximately half of these deaths are the result from prescribed opioids. Also on the rise are the numbers of individuals who are diagnosed with chronic pain and are treated with opioids, methadone and buprenorphine. Individuals currently taking opioids for chronic pain confound the treatment of acute pain after traumatic injury...
September 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861516/cannabis-as-a-substitute-for-opioid-based-pain-medication-patient-self-report
#3
Amanda Reiman, Mark Welty, Perry Solomon
Introduction: Prescription drug overdoses are the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. Alternatives to opioids for the treatment of pain are necessary to address this issue. Cannabis can be an effective treatment for pain, greatly reduces the chance of dependence, and eliminates the risk of fatal overdose compared to opioid-based medications. Medical cannabis patients report that cannabis is just as effective, if not more, than opioid-based medications for pain. Materials and Methods: The current study examined the use of cannabis as a substitute for opioid-based pain medication by collecting survey data from 2897 medical cannabis patients...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861501/palmitoylethanolamide-modulates-gpr55-receptor-signaling-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-to-regulate-mesolimbic-dopamine-activity-social-interaction-and-memory-processing
#4
Cecilia Kramar, Michael Loureiro, Justine Renard, Steven R Laviolette
Introduction: The GPR55 receptor has been identified as an atypical cannabinoid receptor and is implicated in various physiological processes. However, its functional role in the central nervous system is not currently understood. The presence of GPR55 receptor in neural regions such as the ventral hippocampus (vHipp), which is critical for cognition, recognition memory, and affective processing, led us to hypothesize that intra-vHipp GPR55 transmission may modulate mesolimbic activity states and related behavioral phenomena...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837946/insights-into-the-link-between-drug-use-and-criminality-lifetime-offending-of-criminally-active-opiate-users
#5
Matthias Pierce, Karen Hayhurst, Sheila M Bird, Matthew Hickman, Toby Seddon, Graham Dunn, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: We test whether the offending trajectory of those who test positive for opiates is greater than test-negative controls and whether the relationship is constant both prior to, and post, opiate initiation. We consider whether these relationships differ according to gender and offence type. METHODS: The study provides an analysis of historical offending records in adults linked to test results for opiate and cocaine metabolites. Those testing positive for opiates were linked to treatment records to retrieve data on age of opiate initiation...
August 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828225/quantifying-absolute-glutamate-concentrations-in-nucleus-accumbens-of-prescription-opioid-addicts-by-using-1-h-mrs
#6
Xi-Long Liu, Long Li, Jian-Neng Li, Ji-Hua Tang, Jia-Hui Rong, Bo Liu, Ze-Xuan Hu
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of psychoactive substance use disorders has been based primarily on descriptive, symptomatic checklist criteria. In opioid addiction, there are no objective biological indicators specific enough to guide diagnosis, monitor disease status, and evaluate efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) of the brain has potential to identify and quantify biomarkers for the diagnosis of opioid dependence. The purpose of this study was to detect the absolute glutamate concentration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of patients with prescription opioid dependence using (1)H MRS, and to analyze its clinical associations...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826827/role-of-orexin-type-1-receptors-in-paragiganto-coerulear-modulation-of-opioid-withdrawal-and-tolerance-a-site-specific-focus
#7
REVIEW
S Mohammad Ahmadi-Soleimani, Hossein Azizi, Heinrich S Gompf, Saeed Semnanian
Orexin-A and -B neuropeptides are exclusively synthesized in hypothalamic neurons. These have been implicated to play critical roles in the expression of various behavioral manifestations such as feeding, arousal, wakefulness, drug dependence and tolerance. Orexin ligands activate orexin type-1 and orexin type-2 receptors each displaying a distinct selectivity and distribution profile. Orexinergic neurons innervate various brain structures among which the locus coeruleus (LC) and the lateral paragigantocellularis (LPGi) nuclei are well established as the two key mediators of opiate dependence and tolerance...
August 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818835/src-dependent-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-at-tyr-336-modulates-opiate-withdrawal
#8
Lei Zhang, Cherkaouia Kibaly, Yu-Jun Wang, Chi Xu, Kyu Young Song, Patrick W McGarrah, Horace H Loh, Jing-Gen Liu, Ping-Yee Law
Opiate withdrawal/negative reinforcement has been implicated as one of the mechanisms for the progression from impulsive to compulsive drug use. Increase in the intracellular cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA) activities within the neurocircuitry of addiction has been a leading hypothesis for opiate addiction. This increase requires the phosphorylation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) at Tyr(336) by Src after prolonged opiate treatment in vitro Here, we report that the Src-mediated MOR phosphorylation at Tyr(336) is a prerequisite for opiate withdrawal in mice...
August 17, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814263/acute-pain-management-in-hospitalized-children
#9
Ria Dancel, Edmund Allen Liles, Darren Fiore
BACKGROUND: Acute pain in hospitalized pediatric patients is prevalent. Recent shifts in the paradigm of pediatric acute pain management focus less on reliance on opioids, due to their adverse side effects and risk of dependence, and more on multimodal pain management. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review the most recent studies on acute pain management in hospitalized pediatric patients. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database and PubMed for articles published in the past five years regarding the treatment of acute pain in pediatric patients focusing on large randomized or quasi-randomized control trials, cohort trials, and meta-analyses...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802093/clinical-aspects-of-opium-adulterated-with-lead-in-iran-a-review
#10
Samira Alinejad, Jan Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Omid Mehrpour
Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users...
August 12, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795846/a-novel-non-opioid-protocol-for-medically-supervised-opioid-withdrawal-and-transition-to-antagonist-treatment
#11
Gregory Rudolf, Jim Walsh, Abigail Plawman, Paul Gianutsos, William Alto, Lloyd Mancl, Vania Rudolf
BACKGROUND: The clinical feasibility of a novel non-opioid and benzodiazepine-free protocol was assessed for the treatment of medically supervised opioid withdrawal and transition to subsequent relapse prevention strategies. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of DSM-IV diagnosed opioid-dependent patients admitted for inpatient medically supervised withdrawal examined 84 subjects (52 males, 32 females) treated with a 4-day protocol of scheduled tizanidine, hydroxyzine, and gabapentin...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765624/metacognitive-deficiency-in-a-perceptual-but-not-a-memory-task-in-methadone-maintenance-patients
#12
Saeedeh Sadeghi, Hamed Ekhtiari, Bahador Bahrami, Majid Nili Ahmadabadi
Drug addiction has been associated with lack of insight into one's own abilities. However, the scope of metacognition impairment among drug users in general and opiate dependent individuals in particular is not fully understood. Investigating the impairments of metacognitive ability in Substance Dependent Individuals (SDIs) in different cognitive tasks could contribute to the ongoing debate over whether metacognition has domain-general or domain-specific neural substrates. We compared metacognitive self-monitoring ability of a group of SDIs during methadone maintenance treatment (n = 23) with a control group (n = 24) in a memory and a visual perceptual task...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752329/reward-and-punishment-based-compound-cue-learning-and-generalization-in-opiate-dependency
#13
Justin Mahlberg, Paul Haber, Kirsten Morley, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth, Kevin D Beck, Catherine E Myers, Ahmed A Moustafa
Substance dependence is thought to be mediated by abnormalities in cognitive abilities, but how this impacts decision-making remains unclear. This study aimed to test whether people who are opiate dependent differed from never-dependent controls in learning from reward and punishment or in the generalization of learning to novel conditions. Participants with opiate dependency consisted of 21 people who were outpatients in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 21 healthy participants with no histories of substance abuse...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742416/comparisons-of-alcohol-and-drug-dependence-in-terms-of-attachments-and-clinical-issues
#14
Dana Zeid, Joshua Carter, Marc A Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and drug dependencies are associated with different social stigmas, and some studies suggest they might exhibit different clinical presentations. Further, the treatments for each vary considerably. Alcohol versus drug use problems were compared in terms of attachment patterns and related clinical treatment issues in two interlocking studies using converging logic and designs. METHODS: In Study 1, alcohol versus drug dependence was defined in terms of a known groups design...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716791/factors-associated-with-nicotine-dependence-during-methadone-maintenance-treatment-findings-from-a-multisite-survey-in-vietnam
#15
Huyen Phuc Do, Long Hoang Nguyen, Nhung Phuong Thi Nguyen, Chau Ngo, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Giang Tong Le, Linh Khanh Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Thi Le, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Tho Dinh Tran, Carl A Latkin, Michael P Dunne
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is associated with adverse health outcomes among drug users, including those in treatment. To date, however, there has been little evidence about smoking patterns among people receiving opioid-dependence treatment in developing countries. We examined self-reported nicotine dependence and associated factors in a large sample of opioid-dependent patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in northern Vietnam. SETTING: Five clinics in Hanoi (urban area) and Nam Dinh (rural area)...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687506/effects-of-alkaloid-rich-extract-from-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-havil-on-naloxone-precipitated-morphine-withdrawal-symptoms-and-local-field-potential-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-mice
#16
Dania Cheaha, Chayaporn Reakkamnuan, Jakkrit Nukitram, Somsmorn Chittrakarn, Pimpimol Phukpattaranont, Niwat Keawpradub, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. (M. speciosa) is among the most well-known plants used in ethnic practice of Southeast Asia. It has gained increasing attention as a plant with potential to substitute morphine in addiction treatment program. However, its action on the central nervous system is controversial. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of M. speciosa alkaloid extract on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and neural signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, brain reward center) of mice...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669034/cannabinoid-reward-and-aversion-effects-in-the-posterior-ventral-tegmental-area-are-mediated-through-dissociable-opiate-receptor-subtypes-and-separate-amygdalar-and-accumbal-dopamine-receptor-substrates
#17
Tasha Ahmad, Steven R Laviolette
RATIONALE: The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its projections to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) are critical for cannabinoid-related motivational effects. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) transmission modulates VTA dopamine (DA) neuron activity and previous reports demonstrate anatomically segregated effects of CB1R transmission in the VTA. However, the underlying pharmacological and anatomical regions responsible for these effects are currently unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to characterize the motivational effects of localized anterior vs...
August 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656735/an-analysis-of-genetic-association-in-opioid-dependence-susceptibility
#18
D Nagaya, Z Zahari, M Saleem, B H Yahaya, S C Tan, N M Yusoff
WHAT IS KNOWN: Drug addiction is a novelty-seeking personality trait that is associated with the candidate genes OPRD1 (opioid delta receptors), OPRK1 (opioid kappa receptors) and PDYN (prodynorphin). However, associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1042114 (80G>T) of the OPRD1 gene, rs702764 (843 A>G) of the OPRK1 gene, and rs910080 (3' UTR _743T>C), rs1997794 (5' UTR -381A>G) and rs1022563 (3' UTR) of the PDYN gene and novelty seeking remain controversial as reported results have not been reproducible...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653079/naloxone-effects-on-extinction-of-ethanol-and-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#19
Laura Font, Christa A Houck, Christopher L Cunningham
RATIONALE: Previous studies found that naloxone (NLX) facilitated choice extinction of ethanol conditioned place preference (CPP) using long (60 min) test sessions, but there is little information on the variables determining this effect. OBJECTIVES: These studies examined repeated exposure to NLX during extinction of ethanol- or cocaine-induced CPP using both short and long tests. METHODS: DBA/2J mice were injected with NLX (0 or 10 mg/kg) before three 10- or 60-min choice extinction tests (experiment 1)...
June 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640990/opiate-antagonists-do-not-interfere-with-the-clinical-benefits-of-stimulants-in-adhd-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-the-mixed-opioid-receptor-antagonist-naltrexone
#20
Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep Bhide, Jinmin Zhu, Stephen V Faraone, Maura Fitzgerald, Amy M Yule, Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Anna M Hall, Ariana J Koster, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate activates μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. μ-Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential. This study assessed whether the combination of naltrexone with methylphenidate is well-tolerated while preserving the clinical benefits of stimulants in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate from January 2013 to July 2015...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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