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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317077/the-pruritus-of-cholestasis-from-bile-acids-to-opiate-agonists-relevant-after-all-these-years
#1
Nora V Bergasa
The pruritus of cholestasis is a maddening complication of liver disease. Increased opioidergic tone contributes to the pruritus of cholestasis, as evidenced by the amelioration of the symptom by opiate antagonists. Obeticholic acid, an agonist of the farnesoid receptor, has been approved for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis, a disease characterized by cholestasis; this drug is associated with pruritus, the cause of which is unknown. In animal models, bile acids, which accumulate in the body as a result of cholestasis, have been reported to cause scratching behavior mediated by the TGR5 receptor, in an opioid-dependent manner, in laboratory animals...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308594/evaluating-the-abuse-potential-of-opioids-and-abuse-deterrent-opioid-formulations-a-review-of-clinical-study-methodology
#2
Beatrice Setnik, Kerri A Schoedel, Naama Levy-Cooperman, Megan Shram, Glenn C Pixton, Carl L Roland
With the development of opioid abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs), there is a need to conduct well-designed human abuse potential studies to evaluate the effectiveness of their deterrent properties. Although these types of studies have been conducted for many years, largely to evaluate inherent abuse potential of a molecule and inform drug scheduling, methodological approaches have varied across studies. The focus of this review is to describe current "best practices" and methodological adaptations required to assess abuse-deterrent opioid formulations for regulatory submissions...
November 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307544/role-of-mglu7-receptor-in-morphine-rewarding-effects-is-uncovered-by-a-novel-orthosteric-agonist
#3
Zuzana Hajasova, Corinne Canestrelli, Francine Acher, Florence Noble, Nicolas Marie
Opiate dependence is a major health issue and despite the existence of opioid substitution treatment, relapse frequently occurs. Group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors has received much attention as a putative target in ethanol and cocaine addiction, but no data on opiate addiction exist. So we investigated the role of group III mGlu receptor in morphine rewarding effects through the expression and the reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) using a newly synthesized mGlu4/mGlu7 receptor orthosteric agonist, LSP2-9166...
January 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291353/fluorescently-labelled-morphine-derivatives-for-bioimaging-studies
#4
Raymond Lam, Arisbel B Gondin, Meritxell Canals, Barrie Kellam, Stephen J Briddon, Bim Graham, Peter J Scammells
Opioids, like morphine, are the mainstay analgesics for the treatment and control of pain. Despite this, they often exhibit severe side effects that limit dose; patients often become tolerant and dependent on these drugs, which remains a major health concern. The analgesic actions of opioids are primarily mediated via the μ-opioid receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Thus far, development of small molecule fluorescent ligands for this receptor has resulted in antagonists, somewhat limiting the use of these probes...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287237/a-novel-approach-of-substitution-therapy-with-inhalation-of-essential-oil-for-the-reduction-of-inhalant-craving-a-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Rasmon Kalayasiri, Wanjaree Maneesang, Michael Maes
Inhalants, which are neurotoxic central nervous system (CNS) suppressants, are frequently abused by young adults. Unlike other CNS depressants, including alcohol and opiates, no treatment is currently approved for inhalant dependence. In this report, a novel approach of substitution treatment for inhalant addiction was explored in a double-blinded, randomized, controlled crossover design to examine the effects of inhalation of essential oil and perfume on the reduction of cue-induced craving for inhalant in thirty-four Thai males with inhalant dependence...
December 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284807/a-clinical-study-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-a-tertiary-care-center-of-eastern-india
#6
Satyakam Mohapatra, Mihir Ranjan Nayak, Manaswini Dash
Background: Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based intervention for opiate-dependent persons that replaces illicit drug use with medically prescribed, orally administered opiates such as buprenorphine and methadone. OST reduces HIV risk behaviors and harms associated with injecting opioid. Most of the evidence for OST effectiveness has been generated in middle- and high-income countries where programs are mostly located in dedicated health-care settings; evidence regarding the outcomes of OST programs in low-income countries where OST is often provided in grassroots settings such as drop-in centers is limited...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275046/plasma-testosterone-and-sexual-function-in-southeast-asian-men-receiving-methadone-and-buprenorphine-maintenance-treatment
#7
Anne Yee, Huai Seng Loh, Mahmoud Danaee, Shahrzad Riahi, Chong Guan Ng, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Methadone has been recognized as an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. However, its use is associated with several complications, including sexual dysfunction in men. AIM: To assess plasma testosterone and sexual function in Southeast Asian men on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT). METHODS: 76 sexually active men on MMT (mean age = 43.30 ± 10.32 years) and 31 men on BMT (mean age = 41...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260792/a-novel-role-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-opcs-and-sox10-in-mediating-cellular-and-behavioral-responses-to-heroin
#8
Jennifer A Martin, Aaron Caccamise, Craig T Werner, Rathipriya Viswanathan, Jessie J Polanco, Andrew F Stewart, Shruthi A Thomas, Fraser J Sim, David M Dietz
Opiate abuse and addiction have become a worldwide epidemic with great societal and financial burdens, highlighting a critical need to understand the neurobiology of opiate addiction. While several studies have focused on drug-dependent changes in neurons, the role of glia in opiate addiction remains largely unstudied. RNA sequencing pathway analysis from the prefrontal cortex of male rats revealed changes in several genes associated with oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation following heroin self-administration...
December 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249862/celiac-plexus-block-and-neurolysis-in-the-management-of-chronic-upper-abdominal-pain
#9
REVIEW
Joshua Cornman-Homonoff, Daniel J Holzwanger, Kyungmouk S Lee, David C Madoff, David Li
Chronic upper abdominal pain occurs as a complication of various malignant and benign diseases including pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis, and when present may contribute to lower quality of life and higher mortality. Though various pain management strategies are available as part of a multimodal approach, they are often incompletely effective and accompanied by side effects. Pain originating in upper abdominal viscera is transmitted through the celiac plexus, which is an autonomic plexus located in the retroperitoneum at the root of the celiac trunk...
December 2017: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247974/evidence-of-validity-and-reliability-of-the-opiate-dosage-adequacy-scale-odas-in-a-sample-of-heroin-addicted-patients-in-buprenorphine-naloxone-maintenance-treatment
#10
Francisco González-Saiz, Oscar Lozano Rojas, Joan Trujols, Saul Alcaraz, Núria Siñol, José Pérez de Los Cobos
OBJECTIVE: The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale (ODAS) is a clinical tool to individually measure the "adequacy" of opioid doses in patients on maintenance treatment. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the ODAS in a sample of patients in buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N) maintenance treatment. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of B/N-treated patients (n = 316) from four Autonomous Communities in Spain...
December 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220602/an-observational-study-of-treatment-seeking-users-of-natural-opiates-from-india
#11
Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar, Ravindra Rao
BACKGROUND: The type of opioid used influences the severity and complications experienced. Natural opiates (opium and poppy husk) use is a socio-culturally accepted phenomenon reported in India. However, studies on their profile, quality of life, and addiction severity are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to assess the socio-demographic profile, clinical profile, addiction severity, and quality of life of treatment-seeking natural opiate users...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216892/opiate-agonist-treatment-to-improve-health-of-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-lebanon
#12
Ali Ghaddar, Zeinab Abbas, Ramzi Haddad
BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapy has been widely used to reduce harms among individuals with opioid use disorder but its effectiveness has not been evaluated in the Middle East North African (MENA) region. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a program using opioid agonist therapy in combination with psychosocial support on improving psychological and social well-being, reducing arrest, and reducing risky behavior in individuals with opioid use disorder in Lebanon. METHODS: A one-group pre-test post-test design study was performed at SKOUN Lebanese Addiction Centre between January 2013 and December 2014...
December 8, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214743/gc-ms-ms-detects-potential-pregabalin-abuse-in-susceptible-subjects-hair
#13
Federica Ianni, Kyriaki Aroni, Alessio Gili, Roccaldo Sardella, Mauro Bacci, Massimo Lancia, Benedetto Natalini, Cristiana Gambelunghe
Pregabalin, a GABA analogue, binds to the alpha 2 delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. It is recognized as efficacious in pathologies such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain and anxiety disorders. Since pregabalin prescriptions have increased worldwide, reports of its abuse have been accumulating, mainly in patients with opioid abuse disorders. The present study investigated potential pregabalin abuse by means of hair analysis, a matrix that provides valuable retrospective information. Half of the pool of 280 susceptible patients had been occasional drug users and were being monitored for driving licence renewals...
December 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211804/the-cardio-metabolic-impact-of-taking-commonly-prescribed-analgesic-drugs-in-133-401-uk-biobank-participants
#14
Sophie Cassidy, Michael I Trenell, Kirstie N Anderson
OBJECTIVE: There has been a significant increase in the prescribing of medication for chronic non-cancer pain. In a UK population sample, we aimed to assess cardio-metabolic (CM) health in those taking these chronic pain medications. METHODS: 133,401 participants from the UK Biobank cohort were studied. BMI, waist cm and hypertension were compared between those on drugs prescribed for chronic pain and CM drugs to those on CM drugs only. Multiple confounders were controlled for...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200559/a-comparative-study-of-factors-associated-with-relapse-in-alcohol-dependence-and-opioid-dependence
#15
Maithili Kadam, Ankita Sinha, Swateja Nimkar, Yusuf Matcheswalla, Avinash De Sousa
Background: Alcohol and opiates are among the most addictive substances posing significant public health problems due to the biopsychosocial impact that they have on individuals. Research shows that majority of abstinent alcohol and/or opioid dependence subjects relapse within 1 year. It has also been estimated that 26-36 million people worldwide abuse opiates, with exceptionally high-relapse rates. The purpose of this study was to compare the sociodemographic factors and correlates relapse in alcohol dependence and opioid dependence...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179227/-on-the-risk-of-dependence-on-gabapentinoids
#16
Udo Bonnet, Norbert Scherbaum
In the last ten years, the prescriptions of the gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin increased largely also in Germany. Since several national and international pharmacovigilance-databases have warned for abuse liabilities and overdose fatalities in association with both gabapentinoids, which moreover, became to be sold on internet and black-markets, their addictive power has been subject to an ongoing clinical debate. As pre- and post-approval clinical trials did not reveal significant signs of dependence on gabapentin or pregabalin, we systematically searched in PubMed and Scopus for clinical studies and case reports being associated with abuse of and dependence on these drugs...
November 27, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141650/neuropsychological-function-is-improved-among-opioid-dependent-adults-who-adhere-to-opiate-agonist-treatment-with-buprenorphine-naloxone-a-preliminary-study
#17
Travis M Scott, Monica Rivera Mindt, Chinazo O Cunningham, Franchesca Arias, Kelly Coulehan, Aprille Mangalonzo, Pat Olsen, Julia H Arnsten
BACKGROUND: Among persons with opioid use disorder (OUD), neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with depression, and better neuropsychological function is associated with opioid abstinence. However, it is unknown whether depressive symptomatology or adherence to opiate agonist treatment are associated with neuropsychological change over time. METHODS: We recruited 20 buprenorphine/naloxone-treated adults with OUD (M Age = 45.2 years [SD = 8.1]; 25% female) to complete baseline and 6 month visits containing a neuropsychological test battery and self-reported measures of depressive symptomatology and medication adherence...
November 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112770/interactive-effects-of-morphine-and-dopamine-receptor-agonists-on-spatial-recognition-memory-in-mice
#18
Yanmei Chen, Yu Fu, Yingjie Ann, Jianhong Wang, Jichuan Zhang
Both opiates and dopamine play important roles in learning and memory. Although synergistic action between these two neurotransmitters has been found, their functional roles remain unclear. Here, low dose morphine (2.5 mg/kg) and low dose dopamine receptor agonists (apomorphine: 0.05 mg/kg; SKF38393: 0.01 mg/kg; bromocriptine: 0.05 mg/kg), which have no effects on spatial recognition memory, were injected intraperitoneally into mice 30 min before a memory test in a two-trial recognition Y-maze. The Y-maze is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments and is therefore suitable for exploring the effects of morphine on learning and memory...
November 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111854/the-effect-of-morphine-upon-dna-methylation-in-ten-regions-of-the-rat-brain
#19
Timothy M Barrow, Hyang-Min Byun, Xinyan Li, Chris Smart, Yong-Xiang Wang, Yacong Zhang, Andrea A Baccarelli, Liqiong Guo
Morphine is one of the most effective analgesics in medicine. However, its use is associated with the development of tolerance and dependence. Recent studies demonstrating epigenetic changes in the brain after exposure to opiates have provided insight into mechanisms possibly underlying addiction. In this study, we sought to identify epigenetic changes in ten regions of the rat brain following acute and chronic morphine exposure. We analyzed DNA methylation of six nuclear-encoded genes implicated in brain function (Bdnf, Comt, Il1b, Il6, Nr3c1, and Tnf) and three mitochondrially-encoded genes (Mtco1, Mtco2, and Mtco3), and measured global 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels...
November 7, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111148/effects-of-opioid-and-nonopioid-analgesics-on-canine-wheal-formation-and-cultured-human-mast-cell-degranulation
#20
Eric Schmidt-Rondon, Zhenping Wang, Shelle A Malkmus, Anna Di Nardo, Keith Hildebrand, Linda Page, Tony L Yaksh
Mast cell (MC) degranulation has been implicated in the side effect profile of a variety of clinically useful agents. Thus, after intrathecal delivery, formation of space-occupying, meningeally-derived masses may be related to local MC degranulation. We systematically characterized degranulating effects of opioid and nonopioid analgesics on cutaneous flares in the dog and in primary human MC (hMC) cultures. METHODS: Dogs were anesthetized with IV propofol and received intradermal (ID) injections (50μL)...
October 27, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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