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Opiate dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790354/-opioids-and-new-trends-in-pain-therapy
#1
Jan Lejčko
Opioids are well known for their ability to reduce the perception of pain without a loss of consciousness. However, the influence of opioids on organism is very complex. Clinical pharmacology of currently available opioid analgesics is determined by three major factors - their opioid receptor properties, pharmacokinetic properties and genetic polymorphism in the opiate receptor and cytochrome P450 isoform. In acute severe pain are opioids very efficient. Long-term experience with opioid analgesia in patients with cancer pain has shown high favorable risk/benefit ratio...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782451/the-efficacy-of-regional-anesthesia-techniques-to-control-postoperative-pain-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#2
Cecilia Otten, Karen S Dunn
BACKGROUND: Choosing the most effective type of anesthesia for controlling postoperative pain is paramount for improving patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. Most often, the type of anesthesia selected is dependent on the duration and type of surgical procedure and anesthesiologist/surgeon preference. Using a combination of regional anesthesia techniques, however, remains the cornerstone of multimodal analgesia for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine what regional anesthesia techniques and/or combinations of regional anesthesia techniques provided the best postoperative pain control in patients who had undergone a total knee arthroplasty...
May 2018: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779229/codeinone-reductase-isoforms-with-differential-stability-efficiency-and-product-selectivity-in-opium-poppy
#3
Mehran Dastmalchi, Limei Chang, Miguel A Torres, Kenneth K S Ng, Peter J Facchini
Codeinone reductase (COR) catalyzes the reversible NADPH-dependent reduction of codeinone to codeine as the penultimate step of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). COR also irreversibly reduces neopinone, which forms by spontaneous isomerization in aqueous solution from codeinone, to neopine. In a parallel pathway involving 3-O-desmethylated analogs, COR converts morphinone to morphine, and neomorphinone to neomorphine. Similar to neopine, neomorphine formation by COR is irreversible...
May 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779198/redeveloping-substance-abuse-treatment-for-military-personnel
#4
REVIEW
Christian Schrader, Antoinette Lenton, Peter Gertonson, Alexander Rahimi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the prevailing evidence surrounding treatment of substance use disorder (SUD), with specific focus on alcohol, tobacco, and prescription opiates, and how it informs guidelines for treating active duty military. We survey the evidence regarding preventive screening, treatment, and relapse prevention in substance misuse as it pertains to patient-centered care of the service member. RECENT FINDINGS: Holistic, patient-centered care with an emphasis on identifying maladaptive use or dependence prior to progression to chronic disease is now recognized as the evidenced approach to treating substance use disorders...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769809/managing-infants-born-to-mothers-who-have-used-opioids-during-pregnancy
#5
Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil, Pat O'Flaherty
The incidence of infant opioid withdrawal has grown rapidly in many countries, including Canada, in the last decade, presenting significant health and early brain development concerns. Increased prenatal exposure to opioids reflects rising prescription opioid use as well as the presence of both illegal opiates and opioid-substitution therapies. Infants are at high risk for experiencing symptoms of abstinence or withdrawal that may require assessment and treatment. This practice point focuses specifically on the effect(s) of opioid withdrawal and current management strategies in the care of infants born to mothers with opioid dependency...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760180/the-affective-and-neural-correlates-of-heroin-vs-cocaine-use-in-addiction-are-influenced-by-environmental-setting-but-in-opposite-directions
#6
Silvana De Pirro, Gaspare Galati, Luigi Pizzamiglio, Aldo Badiani
Previous studies have shown that individuals with heroin and cocaine addiction prefer to use these drugs in distinct settings: mostly at home in the case of heroin and mostly outside the home in the case of cocaine. Here we investigated whether the context would modulate the affective and neural responses to these drugs in a similar way. First, we used a novel emotional task to assess the affective state produced by heroin or cocaine in different settings, based on the recollections of male and female drug users...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748103/gabapentin-as-an-adjunct-to-standard-postoperative-pain-management-protocol-in-lower-extremity-surgery
#7
REVIEW
P Andrew Crisologo, Erik K Monson, Said A Atway
Postoperative pain is a problem that plagues physicians and has since the dawn of the surgical arts. Many interventions are available and used as the standard such as preoperative local anesthetic blocks, opiates, both oral and intravenous, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Although the temptation often exists to increase the postoperative opiate dose, opiate abuse is an increasing problem. This abuse has fueled the search for nonopiate pain adjuncts. Gabapentinoids have been shown to both decrease postoperative pain and, secondarily, decrease opiate dependence...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728647/opiate-associated-contextual-memory-formation-and-retrieval-are-differentially-modulated-by-dopamine-d1-and-d2-signaling-in-hippocampal-prefrontal-connectivity
#8
Yunpeng Wang, Hongying Zhang, Jingjing Cui, Jing Zhang, Fangyuan Yin, Hao Guo, Jianghua Lai, Bo Xing
Contextual memory driven by abused drugs such as opiates has a central role in maintenance and relapse of drug-taking behaviors. Although dopamine (DA) signaling favors memory storage and retrieval via regulation of hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity, its role in modulating opiate-associated contextual memory is largely unknown. Here, we report roles of DA signaling within the hippocampal-prefrontal circuit for opiate-related memories. Combining-conditioned place preference (CPP) with molecular analyses, we investigated the DA D1 receptor (D1R) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signaling, as well as DA D2 receptor (D2R) and protein kinase B (PKB or Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling in the ventral hippocampus (vHip) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the formation of opiate-related associative memories...
April 17, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727363/benzodiazepines-and-development-of-delirium-in-critically-ill-children-estimating-the-causal-effect
#9
Kalgi Mody, Savneet Kaur, Elizabeth A Mauer, Linda M Gerber, Bruce M Greenwald, Gabrielle Silver, Chani Traube
OBJECTIVES: Benzodiazepine use may be associated with delirium in critically ill children. However, benzodiazepines remain the first-line sedative choice in PICUs. Objectives were to determine the temporal relationship between administration of benzodiazepines and delirium development, control for time-varying covariates such as mechanical ventilation and opiates, and evaluate the association between dosage of benzodiazepines and subsequent delirium. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study...
May 4, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716637/is-intravenously-administered-subdissociative-dose-ketamine-non-inferior-to-morphine-for-prehospital-analgesia-the-ketamorph-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Clément Le Cornec, Said Lariby, Vivien Brenckmann, Jean Benoit Hardouin, Claude Ecoffey, Marion Le Pottier, Philippe Fradin, Hélène Broch, Amine Kabbaj, Yannick Auffret, Florence Deciron, Céline Longo, François Javaudin, Quentin Le Bastard, Joël Jenvrin, Emmanuel Montassier
BACKGROUND: Acute pain is a common condition among prehospital patients and prompt management is pivotal. Opioids are the most frequently analgesics used in the prehospital setting. However, opioids are highly addictive, and some patients may develop opioid dependence, even when they are exposed to brief opioid treatments. Therefore, alternative non-opioid analgesia should be developed to manage pain in the prehospital setting. Used at subdissociative doses, ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate and glutamate receptor antagonist, provides analgesic effects accompanied by preservation of protective airway reflexes...
May 2, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704853/postmortem-blood-alcohol-content-among-late-middle-aged-and-older-suicide-decedents-associations-with-suicide-precipitating-risk-factors-means-and-other-drug-toxicology
#11
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, Atami O Sagna, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: This study examined blood alcohol content (BAC) among suicide decedents aged 50+ and its associations with suicide precipitating/risk factors, means, and other drug toxicology. METHODS: The National Violent Death Reporting System, 2005-2015, provided data (N = 56,118 for all suicide decedents and N = 29,115 with alcohol test results). We used logistic regression models, with BAC > 0.0 (BAC positive) and BAC > = 0.08 (intoxication) as the dependent variables...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693427/characteristics-and-experiences-of-buprenorphine-naloxone-use-among-polysubstance-users
#12
Robert Walker, T K Logan, Quintin T Chipley, Jaime Miller
BACKGROUND: With a rise in overdoses and medical emergencies related to opioids, buprenorphine-naloxone (bup-nx) is seen as a preferred treatment for opioid dependence. However, the research examining experiences with bup-nx among polysubstance users who may or may not be opioid dependent has been limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine use, characteristics of users, and experiences of bup-nx use among polysubstance users entering drug-free recovery programs...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686048/fear-memory-recall-potentiates-opiate-reward-sensitivity-through-dissociable-dopamine-d1-vs-d4-receptor-dependent-memory-mechanisms-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Jing Jing Li, Hanna Szkudlarek, Justine Renard, Roger Hudson, Walter Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Disturbances in prefrontal cortical (PFC) dopamine (DA) transmission are well-established features of psychiatric disorders involving pathological memory processing, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid addiction. Transmission through PFC DA D4 receptors (D4R) has been shown to potentiate the emotional salience of normally non-salient emotional memories whereas transmission through PFC DA D1 receptors (D1R) has been demonstrated to selectively block recall of reward or aversion-related associative memories...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684892/effects-of-anxiety-and-mood-disorders-on-craving-and-substance-use-among-patients-with-substance-use-disorder-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#14
Melina Fatseas, Fuschia Serre, Joel Swendsen, Marc Auriacombe
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the negative impact of psychiatric comorbidity on addictive disorders, the mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. The present investigation applied mobile technologies to examine the effect of comorbid mood or anxiety disorders on craving intensity and substance use within the natural conditions of daily life. METHODS: A total of 159 participants were recruited from a French outpatient addiction clinic and completed two weeks of computerized ambulatory monitoring of daily life experiences using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA)...
June 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676223/opiate-free-tricuspid-valve-replacement-case-report
#15
Jeffrey P Cardinale, George Gilly
The utility of opioid pain medications for perioperative analgesia is well described. However, opioids have many dangerous side effects including respiratory depression, acute tolerance, hyperalgesia, and chronic opioid dependence. Multimodal approaches continue to be used in more invasive and complex surgical procedures for enhanced recovery and decreased postoperative complications from opioid administration. The current case report centers on a 30-year-old male recovering from opioid addiction presenting with severe tricuspid regurgitation scheduled to undergo a tricuspid valve replacement...
April 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667304/inhibition-of-alpha7-nicotinic-receptors-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-selectively-attenuates-reinstatement-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-and-associated-changes-in-ampa-receptor-binding
#16
Victoria L Wright, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexis Bailey, David J Heal, Christopher P Bailey, Susan Wonnacott
Recurrent relapse is a major problem in treating opiate addiction. Pavlovian conditioning plays a role in recurrent relapse whereby exposure to cues learned during drug intake can precipitate relapse to drug taking. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in attentional aspects of cognition and mechanisms of learning and memory. In this study we have investigated the role of α7 nAChRs in morphine-conditioned place preference (morphine-CPP). CPP provides a model of associative learning that is pertinent to associative aspects of drug dependence...
April 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658501/-anhedonia-depression-anxiety-and-craving-in-opioid-dependent-patients-stabilized-on-oral-naltrexone-or-naltrexone-implant
#17
E M Krupitsky, E E Zvartau, E A Blokhina, E V Verbitskaya, V Yu Wahlgren, M V Tsoy-Podosenin, N M Bushara, A M Burakov, D V Masalov, T N Romanova, A A Tiurina, V Ya Palatkin, T S Yaroslavtseva, G Yu Sulimov, A Pecoraro, G Woody
AIM: To assess the relationship between long-term naltrexone treatment and anxiety, depression and craving in opioid dependent individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Opioid dependent patients (n=306) were enrolled in a three cell (102ss/cell) randomized, double blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled 6-month trial comparing extended release implantable naltrexone with oral naltrexone and placebo (oral and implant). Monthly assessments of affective responses used a Visual Analog Scale for opioid craving, the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, and the Ferguson and Chapman Anhedonia Scales...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618978/is-there-a-potential-of-misuse-for-venlafaxine-and-bupropion
#18
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini
Objective: Traditionally, studies on the non-medical use of pharmaceutical products have focused on controlled substances; e.g., opiates/opioids; and benzodiazepines. Although both bupropion and venlafaxine have been reported as being misused, only anecdotal reports have been made available so far. Hence, the European Monitoring Agency (EMA) Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), misuse/abuse/dependence and withdrawal, venlafaxine- and bupropion-related, database was here analyzed. Methods: All EMA spontaneous reports relating to venlafaxine (2005-2016) and bupropion (2003-2016) notifications were here analyzed, to provide a descriptive analysis by source, gender, age, and type of report...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594216/a-predictive-model-for-residual-disease-after-chemo-radiotherapy-in-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-combined-radiological-and-clinical-evaluation-of-tumor-response
#19
Zeno A R Gouw, Bas Jasperse, Jan-Jakob Sonke, Wilma D Heemsbergen, Arash Navran, Olga Hamming-Vrieze, Jan Paul de Boer, Michiel W M van den Brekel, Abrahim Al-Mamgani
Background and purpose: Early detection of Residual disease (RD) is vital for salvage possibilities after (chemo) radiatiotherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). We standardized clinical investigation to test its added value to MRI response evaluation and investigated the benefit of FDG-PET/CT. Materials and methods: Radiological response evaluation using Ojiri-score was done for 234 patients with OPC, using MRI 12 weeks after (chemo) radiotherapy between 2010 and 2014...
October 2017: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593550/naltrexone-reverses-ethanol-preference-and-protein-kinase-c-activation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Rajeswari Koyyada, Nilesh Latchooman, Julius Jonaitis, Samir S Ayoub, Olivia Corcoran, Stefano O Casalotti
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE) in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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