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Opiate dependence

Maria Elena Giusepponi, Carlo Cifani, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Laura Mattioli, Alan Hudson, Eleonora Diamanti, Fabio Del Bello, Mario Giannella, Valerio Mammoli, Corinne Dalila Paoletti, Alessandro Piergentili, Maria Pigini, Wilma Quaglia
Tolerance and dependence associated with chronic opioid exposure result from molecular, cellular, and neural network adaptations. Such adaptations concern opioid and nonopioid systems, including α2-adrenoceptors (α2-ARs) and I1- and I2-imidazoline binding sites (IBS). Agmatine, one of the hypothesized endogenous ligands of IBS, targeting several systems including α2-ARs and IBS, proved to be able to regulate opioid-induced analgesia and to attenuate the development of tolerance and dependence. Interested in the complex pharmacological profile of agmatine and considering the nature of its targets, we evaluated two series of imidazolines, rationally designed to simultaneously interact with I1-/I2-IBS or I1-/I2-IBS/α2-ARs...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Daniel Fuster, Arantza Sanvisens, Ferran Bolao, Paola Zuluaga, Inmaculada Rivas, Magi Farré, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
BACKGROUND: The health burden of cannabis use in patients with other substance dependencies is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cannabis use as secondary drug on mortality of patients with other major substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with opiate, cocaine, or alcohol dependence admitted to detoxification from 2001 to 2010 at a teaching hospital in Badalona, Spain. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, medical comorbidities, and urine drug screens were obtained at admission...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Maryam Farahmandfar, Mehdi Kadivar, Sareh Rastipisheh
Behavioral abnormalities associated with opiate addiction include memory and learning deficits, which are the result of some alterations in the neuromodulatory systems. Recently, orexin has shown to influence drug addiction neural circuitry, specifically in mediating reward-related perception and memory. To explore the possible interaction of orexinergic and opioidergic system on modulation of learning and memory, we have investigated the effects of intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) administration of orexin-1 receptor agonist and the competitive orexin-1 antagonist, SB-334867, on morphine-induced memory impairment by using step-down passive avoidance task in mice...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
Marcelina Jasmine Silva, Andrea Rubinstein
Buprenorphine, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative, is a unique opioid, as it has activity at multiple receptors, including mu (partial agonist), kappa (antagonist), OLR-1 (agonist), and delta (antagonist). Because buprenorphine's pharmacology is relatively complex, misconceptions about its actions are common. Most other opioids act solely or predominately as full mu receptor agonists. Common practice at many institutions calls for the cessation of regular buprenorphine use 48-72 hours prior to surgery. This practice is based on three foundational theories that have come from scant data about the properties of buprenorphine: (1) that buprenorphine is only a partial mu agonist and therefore is not a potent analgesic; (2) because buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression, it also has a ceiling effect on analgesia; and (3) that buprenorphine acts as a "blockade" to the analgesic effects of other opiates when coadministered due to its strong binding affinity...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal-associated aversive memories might trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. However, changes in structural and synaptic plasticity, as well as epigenetic mechanisms, which may be critical for long-term aversive memory, have yet to be elucidated. We used male Wistar rats and performed conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to uncover the role of glucocorticoids (GCs) on plasticity-related processes that occur within the dentate gyrus (DG) during opiate-withdrawal conditioning (memory formation-consolidation) and after reactivation by re-exposure to the conditioned environment (memory retrieval)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Fair M Vassoler, David J Oliver, Cristina Wyse, Ashley Blau, Michael Shtutman, Jill R Turner, Elizabeth M Byrnes
The United States is in the midst of an opiate epidemic, with abuse of prescription and illegal opioids increasing steadily over the past decade. While it is clear that there is a genetic component to opioid addiction, there is a significant portion of heritability that cannot be explained by genetics alone. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal exposure to opioids prior to pregnancy alters abuse liability in subsequent generations. Female adolescent Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine at increasing doses (5-25 mg/kg, s...
October 8, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal aversive memories generate a motivational state leading to compulsive drug taking, with plasticity changes in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) being essential in aversive motivational learning. The conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm allows for measuring the negative affective component of drug withdrawal. First, CPA triggers association between negative affective consequences of withdrawal with context (memory consolidation). Afterwards, when the animals are re-exposed to the paired environment, they avoid it due to the association between the context and aversive memories (memory retrieval)...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ilias Goranitis, Joanna Coast, Ed Day, Alex Copello, Nick Freemantle, Jennifer Seddon, Carmel Bennett, Emma Frew
BACKGROUND: Measuring outcomes in economic evaluations of social care interventions is challenging because both health and well-being benefits are evident. The ICEpop CAPability instrument for adults (ICECAP-A) and the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) are measures potentially suitable for the economic evaluation of treatments for substance use disorders. Evidence for their validity in this context is, however, lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the construct validity of the ICECAP-A and the EQ-5D-5L in terms of convergent and discriminative validity and sensitivity to change on the basis of standard clinical measures (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure, Treatment Outcomes Profile, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, and Social Satisfaction Questionnaire)...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. METHODS: Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy...
August 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
Nihit Kumar, Zachary N Stowe, Xiaotong Han, Michael J Mancino
BACKGROUND: Early adverse life events such as childhood trauma have been linked to development of substance use disorders. The prevalence and impact on treatment of early childhood trauma in opioid-dependent individuals has received limited research attention. The present study examined reported childhood trauma and its relation to retention and adherence in an outpatient buprenorphine treatment program. METHODS: Medical records of individuals who completed childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) were reviewed to extract baseline data and demographics (N = 113)...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Liam J Nestor, Anna Murphy, John McGonigle, Csaba Orban, Laurence Reed, Eleanor Taylor, Remy Flechais, Louise M Paterson, Dana Smith, Edward T Bullmore, Karen D Ersche, John Suckling, Roger Tait, Rebecca Elliott, Bill Deakin, Ilan Rabiner, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David J Nutt, Barbara Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
There is a concerted research effort to investigate brain mechanisms underlying addiction processes that may predicate the development of new compounds for treating addiction. One target is the brain's opioid system, because of its role in the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse. Substance-dependent populations have increased numbers of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) in fronto-striatal regions that predict drug relapse, and demonstrate disturbances in these regions during the processing of non-drug rewards...
September 6, 2016: Addiction Biology
J G Jones, K A J White, M B Delgado-Charro
It has been shown that prolonged systemic presence of a drug can cause a build-up of that drug in the skin. This drug 'reservoir', if properly understood, could provide useful information about recent drug-taking history of the patient. We create a pair of coupled mathematical models which combine to explore the potential for a drug reservoir to establish based on the kinetic properties of the drug. The first compartmental model is used to characterise time-dependent drug concentrations in plasma and tissue following a customisable drug regimen...
November 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Zhong-Guo Chen, Xing Liu, Weisheng Wang, Fan Geng, Jing Gao, Chen-Ling Gan, Jing-Rui Chai, Ling He, Gang Hu, Hu Zhou, Jing-Gen Liu
Addiction is characterized by drug craving, compulsive drug taking and relapse, which is attributed to aberrant neuroadaptation in brain regions implicated in drug addiction, induced by changes in gene and protein expression in these regions after chronic drug exposure. Accumulating evidence suggests that the dorsal hippocampus (DH) plays an important role in mediating drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior and relapse. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects of the DH are unclear. In the present study, we employed a label-free quantitative proteomic approach to analyze the proteins altered in the DH of heroin self-administering rats...
August 22, 2016: Addiction Biology
U Barahmand, E Tavakolian, A Khazaee, K Mohammadi
CONTEXT: Methadone maintenance is a standard treatment for opiate-dependent individuals. However, deficits in cognitive functioning have been associated with this treatment. AIM: This study aimed to determine the dose and treatment duration-related effects of methadone on executive functions. SETTING AND DESIGN: Pure male opioid users with no considerable history of other drug abuse, undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) were recruited from a major government-run de-addiction center...
September 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Jeffrey M Galecki, Martin F Sherman, Jason M Prenoveau, Kitty S Chan
The present study extends the item-level psychometric information of the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ; Raistrick et al., 1994) that has been purported to measure psychological dependence and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th edition substance dependence criteria. Prior research on the LDQ has not established item-level properties or the degree of differential item functioning (DIF) by gender and substance type. Principal component and Mokken scale analyses were used to assess unidimensionality and monotonicity of the responses to the scale items, respectively...
September 2016: Psychological Assessment
Daniel Nicoara, Yangmiao Zhang, Jordan T Nelson, Abigail L Brewer, Prianka Maharaj, Shea N DeWald, Donald Y Shirachi, Raymond M Quock
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy reportedly reduces opiate withdrawal in human subjects. The purpose of this research was to determine whether HBO2 treatment could suppress physical signs of withdrawal in opiate-dependent mice. Male NIH Swiss mice were injected s.c. with morphine sulfate twice a day for 4 days, the daily dose gradually increasing from 50mg/kg on day 1 to 125mg/kg on day 4. On day 5, withdrawal was precipitated by i.p. injection of 5.0mg/kg naloxone. Mice were observed for physical withdrawal signs, including jumping, forepaw tremor, wet-dog shakes, rearing and defecation for 30min...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Joon S Kim, Colin H Brown, Greg M Anderson
Neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and NPFFR2) have been proposed to possess anti-opioid properties, and be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence. However, there is no evidence to date supporting such opioid effects at the cellular level in vivo. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings from vasopressin and oxytocin neurons in the supraoptic nucleus, we aimed to determine the effects of NPFFRs on opiate inhibition, tolerance, and dependence at a cellular level. Both vasopressin and oxytocin neurons are acutely inhibited by opioids and develop opiate tolerance...
October 2016: Endocrinology
James W Price
INTRODUCTION: If employee drug use plays a significant part in the incidence of workplace accidents, one would anticipate the positivity rates of postaccident drug tests to be higher than the positivity rates for random tests. Past studies examined the difference of a dichotomous outcome between 2 groups. Dichotomous (positive or negative) categorization may have been a source of systemic error, which minimized the difference between random and postaccident groups. METHODS: This is a study exploring the difference of urine drug concentrations between random and postaccident groups...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Georgi Vasilev, Svetla Milcheva, Jasmin Vassileva
The global prevalence in the use of opiates and opioids has remained stable, though there were some unprecedented recent increases in opioid use and associated mortality and morbidity in the United States. Internationally, there is a strong tendency for consolidation of drug treatment strategies in favor of more systematic, structured and balanced approaches to regional and national drug policies. However, there are considerable differences in the scope, focus, and implementation of national drug policies and the political context is shaping drug prevention, treatment and rehabilitation efforts to an extent not typically observed in other public health domains...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
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