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Julia Pakpoor, Michael Goldacre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Yannis K Valtis, Maggie F Cochran, Louine Martineau, Bregenet Lamour, Jeffrey B Mendel, Aaron L Berkowitz
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is often unavailable in low-income countries, creating challenges for precise diagnosis of neurologic disease in individual patients, and impeding acquisition of precise neuroepidemiologic data for program and policy development. METHODS: We analyzed reports from 3614 head CTs performed between July 2013 and January 2016 at Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais, a public academic hospital in rural Haiti, extracting patients' age, study indication, and radiologic findings...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Kristin J Heaton, Alexis L Maule, Kristen W Smith, Ema G Rodrigues, Michael D McClean, Susan P Proctor
Petroleum-based fuels such as jet propellant (JP) 4, JP5, JP8, and jet A1 (JetA) are among the most common occupational chemical exposures encountered by military and civilian workforces. Although acute toxicity following high-level exposures to JP8 and similar chemical mixtures has been reported, the relationship between persistent low-level occupational exposures to jet fuels and both acute and longer-term central nervous system (CNS) function has been comparatively less well characterized. This paper describes results of neurocognitive assessments acquired repeatedly across a work week study design (Friday to Friday) as part of the Occupational JP8 Exposure Neuroepidemiology Study (OJENES) involving U...
September 2017: Neurotoxicology
George A Jelinek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
V Tapiainen, S Hartikainen, H Taipale, J Tiihonen, A-M Tolppanen
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating psychiatric disorders as Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors have yielded heterogeneous findings. Differences in time windows between the exposure and outcome could be one explanation. We examined whether (1) mental and behavioral disorders in general or (2) specific mental and behavioral disorder categories increase the risk of AD and (3) how the width of the time window between the exposure and outcome affects the results. METHODS: A nationwide nested case-control study of all Finnish clinically verified AD cases, alive in 2005 and their age, sex and region of residence matched controls (n of case-control pairs 27,948)...
March 9, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Eric J Kildebeck, Ram Narayan, Avindra Nath, Howard Weiner, Shin Beh, Peter A Calabresi, Lawrence Steinman, Eugene O Major, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurology
David S Younger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Albert S Favate, David S Younger
Ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder recognized by the sudden onset of neurologic signs related directly to the sites of injury in the brain where the morbid process occurs. The evaluation of complex neurologic disorders, such as stroke, in which multiple genetic and epigenetic factors interact with environmental risk factors to increase the risk has been revolutionized by the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach. This article reviews salient aspects of ischemic stroke emphasizing the impact of neuroepidemiology and GWAS...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Andrea Lee, Rebecca M Gilbert
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative condition, causing both motor and non motor symptoms. Motor symptoms include stiffness, slowness, rest tremor and poor postural reflexes, whereas nonmotor symptoms include abnormalities of mood, cognition, sleep and autonomic function. Affected patients show cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein into intracellular structures called Lewy bodies, within specific brain regions. The main known non modifiable risk factor is age...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
David S Younger
Medical science is just now realizing the full importance of the microbial world. Thanks to developments such as low-cost high-throughput sequencing of microbial communities comprising the human microbiome, the identity and function of unculturable microbes are being unveiled. Public health officials and neuroepidemiology researchers will be called on to guide the understanding of I-Cubed illnesses and the implications of the human microbiome for communicable and noncommunicable diseases, as the natural history is appreciated and the responsiveness of given medical and neurologic disorders to a variety of medical approaches, including strong antibiotics and immune-modulatory therapy is established...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
David S Younger
Headache disorders cause significant disability. The public and most health professionals tend to perceive migraine as a minor or trivial complaint. In the past decade, important epidemiologic studies enjoining extensive surveys, pathophysiologic and genetic insights, and revised headache classification paradigms have produced clear evidence of the public health importance of headache disorders. The Global Campaign to reduce the burden of headache worldwide known as "Lifting the Burden" was launched in 2004 by the World Health Organization, the International Headache Society, the World Headache Alliance, and the European Headache Federation...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
David S Younger, Xiaoling Chen
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states and in specified populations and the application to control health problems. Classified as either descriptive or analytical, a variety of epidemiologic approaches can be used to allow assessment of hypothesized risk factor exposure with disease outcomes. This article reviews salient aspects of epidemiologic research methods that are used repeatedly in articles in this volume on public health, neuroepidemiology, and health systems...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Rita Nguyen, Kirsten M Fiest, Jane McChesney, Churl-Su Kwon, Nathalie Jette, Alexandra D Frolkis, Callie Atta, Sarah Mah, Harinder Dhaliwal, Aylin Reid, Tamara Pringsheim, Jonathan Dykeman, Clare Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Understanding the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is essential to shape public health policy, implement prevention strategies, and justify allocation of resources toward research, education, and rehabilitation in TBI. There is not, to our knowledge, a systematic review of population-based studies addressing the epidemiology of TBI that includes all subtypes. We performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of the worldwide incidence of TBI. METHODS: A search was conducted on May 23, 2014, in Medline and EMBASE according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
P Jean-Pierre, B C McDonald
Cancer and treatment-related neurocognitive dysfunction (CRND) - impairments in aspects of cognition commonly including attention and memory, information-processing speed, and executive functioning - can negatively affect patients' and survivors' participation in routine activities of daily living and overall quality of life. CRND can be enduring, and varies in severity level. The epidemiology of CRND is not yet clearly established; reported incidence has ranged from 17% to 75% among patients and survivors of noncentral nervous system malignancies, including breast, prostate, cervical, and colorectal cancers...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
K R Peck, Y L Johnson, T A Smitherman
This chapter presents an overview of migraine epidemiology and mechanisms. Migraine is a common and disabling neurologic disorder characterized by episodic attacks of severe head pain and other symptoms, including interference with activity, nausea, and sensitivity to light and sound. A number of risk factors for migraine onset and progression have been identified, including the presence of comorbid disorders and overuse of acute headache medications. Though the pathophysiology of migraine is complex and incompletely understood, advances in genetics research and clinical trials methodology offer promise for better understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A J Gardner, R Zafonte
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. TBI is defined as an acute brain injury resulting from mechanical energy to the head from external physical forces. Some of the leading causes of TBI include falls, assaults, motor vehicle or traffic accidents, and sport-related concussion. Two of the most common identified risk factors are sex (males are nearly three times more likely to suffer a TBI than females); and a bimodal age pattern (persons 65 years and older, and children under 14 years old)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M W Vernooij, M de Groot, D Bos
Neuroepidemiologic studies have traditionally focused on studying associations between determinants and neurologic outcomes, while treating the pathway in between both as a "black box." With the rise of noninvasive, advanced neuroimaging techniques, it has become possible to directly study brain changes occurring in this "black box." This importantly aids to unravel disease pathways, find new markers of disease, or identify subjects at risk of disease. Imaging in neuroepidemiologic studies is also called population neuroimaging...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Keiichi Kumai, Kenichi Meguro, Mari Kasai, Kei Nakamura, Masahiro Nakatsuka
BACKGROUND: Recently, the concept of motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome was proposed, where slow gait is considered a risk factor for conversion to dementia. AIM: To retrospectively investigate the characteristics of MCR among a population aged 75+ years, focusing on the aspects of epidemiology and neurobehavioral characteristics. METHOD: The participants were 590 residents aged 75+ years living in Kurihara who underwent MRI and neurobehavioral assessments including walking velocity...
May 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Elliot M Frohman, Olaf Stüve, Teresa C Frohman, Robert Lisak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: JAMA Neurology
Dragutin Kadojić, Vida Demarin, Marinko Dikanović, Ivo Lusić, Lidija Tuskan-Mohar, Zlatko Trkanjec, Ivan Mihaljević, Mira Kadojić, Milan Bitunjac, Zeljko Vranjes
The aim of this population based neuroepidemiological study was to establish the real incidence rates of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD): stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the Republic of Croatia. Multicentric study included 89 501 persons of all ages in four regional centres in Croatia: Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod, Rijeka and Split. The following incidence rates of stroke, expressed at population of 100 000, have been established: Zagreb 290.52, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 302.14, Rijeka 219...
September 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
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