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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321249/facing-each-other-mammal-mothers-and-infants-prefer-the-position-favouring-right-hemisphere-processing
#1
Andrey Giljov, Karina Karenina, Yegor Malashichev
The right hemisphere plays a crucial role in social processing. Human mothers show a robust left cradling/holding bias providing greater right-hemispheric involvement in the exchange of social information between mother and infant. Here, we demonstrate that a similar bias is evident in face-to-face spatial interactions in marine and terrestrial non-primate mammals. Walruses and Indian flying foxes showed a significant population-level preference for the position which facilitates the use of the left visual field in both mother and infant...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297843/short-duration-immobilization-of-atlantic-walrus-odobenus-rosmarus-rosmarus-with-etorphine-and-reversal-with-naltrexone
#2
Rolf-Arne Ølberg, Kit M Kovacs, Mads F Bertelsen, Varvara Semenova, Christian Lydersen
Forty adult, male Atlantic walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) were successfully immobilized for the attachment of global positioning system loggers on their tusks and collection of various biological samples. A standard dose of 7.8 mg etorphine was used for each animal, regardless of body size. All animals were reversed with an iv or im injection of 250 mg naltrexone, immediately after tag attachment. Twenty-seven of the animals were intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen during the recovery period. The induction time was, on average, 4 min 51 sec ± 1 min 46 sec...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297810/sarcocystis-neurona-associated-meningoencephalitis-in-a-pacific-walrus-odobendus-rosmarus-divergens
#3
Lana Krol, Vanessa Fravel, Diana G Procter, Kathleen M Colegrove
A 21-yr-old intact male walrus ( Odobendus rosmarus divergens) presented with acute onset of shifting lameness, initially associated with breeding behaviors. Further clinical signs manifested, including muscle tremors, anorexia, hematuria, and coughing. Diagnostics were limited, as the animal would not offer behaviors for voluntary sample collection. Signs were addressed with anti-inflammatories, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics. The walrus developed cluster seizures and ultimately, respiratory and cardiac arrest...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151185/mercury-in-organs-of-pacific-walruses-odobenus-rosmarus-divergens-from-the-bering-sea
#4
Alexey M Trukhin, Mikhail V Simokon
The Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) is still used as an important source of protein-rich food by indigenous peoples of Chukotka, Alaska, and other Arctic regions. Total mercury (THg) concentration was measured in eight internal organs of walruses. Samples were taken from 22 individuals (11 males and 11 females). Age of the animals ranged from 1 to 30 years. All the walruses were harvested by local hunters from the coastal waters off the Chukchi Peninsula (Russia) during the autumn of 2011. Total mercury concentration in the samples was determined by atomic absorption method...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022935/researchgate-lawsuit-walrus-spat-and-a-second-world-war-shipwreck
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924092/extralobar-pulmonary-sequestration-in-two-pinniped-species
#6
Shotaro Nakagun, Hirotaka Watanabe, Kenji Ochiai, Kaoru Kohyama, Wataru Goshima, Yoko Goto, Yumi Kobayashi, Kennichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Jun Sasaki, Masanobu Goryo, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
Two cases of extralobar pulmonary sequestrations from a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) are described in the present study. Grossly, an independent, soft unilocular cystic mass was found within the abdominal cavities of both animals, adherent to the diaphragm in O. rosmarus and attached to the cardia of the stomach in E. jubatus. Histopathologically, the cysts were lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with abundant goblet cells, while the wall comprised of glands, hyaline cartilage, bronchiole- and alveolus-like structures, smooth muscles, and large, well-developed elastic and muscular arteries...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683055/two-outbreaks-of-trichinellosis-linked-to-consumption-of-walrus-meat-alaska-2016-2017
#7
Yuri P Springer, Shannon Casillas, Kathryn Helfrich, Deanna Mocan, Marscleite Smith, Gabriela Arriaga, Lyndsey Mixson, Louisa Castrodale, Joseph McLaughlin
During 1975-2012, CDC surveillance identified 1,680 trichinellosis cases in the United States with implicated food items; among these cases, 1,219 were attributed to consumption of raw or pork products, and 461 were attributed to nonpork products. Although trichinellosis in the United States has historically been associated with consumption of pork, multiple nonporcine species of wild game also are competent hosts for Trichinella spp. and have been collectively implicated in the majority of trichinellosis cases since the late 1990s (1-4) (Figure 1)...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679462/analysis-of-zp1-gene-reveals-differences-in-zona-pellucida-composition-in-carnivores
#8
C Moros-Nicolás, A Leza, P Chevret, A Guillén-Martínez, L González-Brusi, F Boué, M Lopez-Bejar, J Ballesta, M Avilés, M J Izquierdo-Rico
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals...
July 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550467/resource-partitioning-between-pacific-walruses-and-bearded-seals-in-the-alaska-arctic-and-sub-arctic
#9
L E Oxtoby, L Horstmann, S M Budge, D M O'Brien, S W Wang, T Schollmeier, M J Wooller
Climate-mediated changes in the phenology of Arctic sea ice and primary production may alter benthic food webs that sustain populations of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). Interspecific resource competition could place an additional strain on ice-associated marine mammals already facing loss of sea ice habitat. Using fatty acid (FA) profiles, FA trophic markers, and FA stable carbon isotope analyses, we found that walruses and bearded seals partitioned food resources in 2009-2011...
June 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528412/bioindicators-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-the-sea-of-okhotsk-and-the-western-bering-sea
#10
Vasiliy Yu Tsygankov, Margarita D Boyarova, Olga N Lukyanova, Nadezhda K Khristoforova
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O...
August 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302954/contamination-status-and-accumulation-characteristics-of-heavy-metals-and-arsenic-in-five-seabird-species-from-the-central-bering-sea
#11
Chihiro Ishii, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yared Beyene Yohannes, Yutaka Watanuki, Masaaki Fukuwaka, Mayumi Ishizuka
Seabirds are marine top predators and accumulate high levels of metals and metalloids in their tissues. Contamination by metals in the highly productive offshore region has become a matter of public concern. It is home to 80% of the seabird population in the U.S.A., 95% of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), and major populations of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and whales. Here, the concentrations of eight heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) and a metalloid (As) in the liver and kidneys of the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris), tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) collected in the Bering Sea were measured...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260820/the-impact-of-climate-change-on-metal-transport-in-a-lowland-catchment
#12
René R Wijngaard, Marcel van der Perk, Bas van der Grift, Ton C M de Nijs, Marc F P Bierkens
This study investigates the impact of future climate change on heavy metal (i.e., Cd and Zn) transport from soils to surface waters in a contaminated lowland catchment. The WALRUS hydrological model is employed in a semi-distributed manner to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes in the Dommel catchment in the Netherlands. The model is forced with climate change projections and the simulated fluxes are used as input to a metal transport model that simulates heavy metal concentrations and loads in quickflow and baseflow pathways...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080908/antidog-igg-secondary-antibody-successfully-detects-igg-in-a-variety-of-aquatic-mammals
#13
Katherine Roehl, Mark Jankowski, Erik Hofmeister
Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#14
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993597/a-comparison-of-blood-nitric-oxide-metabolites-and-hemoglobin-functional-properties-among-diving-mammals
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Angela Fago, Daniel Garcia Parraga, Elin E Petersen, Niels Kristensen, Lea Giouri, Frank B Jensen
The ability of marine mammals to hunt prey at depth is known to rely on enhanced oxygen stores and on selective distribution of blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms regulating blood flow and oxygen transport remain unresolved. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that may be important in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNO), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their dive duration: bottlenose dolphin, South American sea lion, harbor seal, walrus and beluga whale...
March 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939627/hydrology-and-phosphorus-transport-simulation-in-a-lowland-polder-by-a-coupled-modeling-system
#16
Renhua Yan, Jiacong Huang, Lingling Li, Junfeng Gao
Modeling the rain-runoff processes and phosphorus transport processes in lowland polders is critical in finding reasonable measures to alleviate the eutrophication problem of downstream rivers and lakes. This study develops a lowland Polder Hydrology and Phosphorus modeling System (PHPS) by coupling the WALRUS-paddy model and an improved phosphorus module of a Phosphorus Dynamic model for lowland Polder systems (PDP). It considers some important hydrological characteristics, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, groundwater-surface water feedback, human-controlled irrigation and discharge, and detailed physical and biochemical cycles of phosphorus in surface water...
August 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878087/collateral-damage-to-marine-and-terrestrial-ecosystems-from-yankee-whaling-in-the-19th-century
#17
Joshua Drew, Elora H López, Lucy Gill, Mallory McKeon, Nathan Miller, Madeline Steinberg, Christa Shen, Loren McClenachan
Yankee whalers of the 19th century had major impacts on populations of large whales, but these leviathans were not the only taxa targeted. Here, we describe the "collateral damage," the opportunistic or targeted taking of nongreat whale species by the American whaling industry. Using data from 5,064 records from 79 whaling logs occurring between 1840 and 1901, we show that Yankee whalers captured 5,255 animals across three large ocean basins from 32 different taxonomic categories, including a wide range of marine and terrestrial species...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824339/dna-evidence-of-bowhead-whale-exploitation-by-greenlandic-paleo-inuit-4-000-years-ago
#18
Frederik Valeur Seersholm, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Martin Jensen Søe, Hussein Shokry, Sarah Siu Tze Mak, Anthony Ruter, Maanasa Raghavan, William Fitzhugh, Kurt H Kjær, Eske Willerslev, Morten Meldgaard, Christian M O Kapel, Anders Johannes Hansen
The demographic history of Greenland is characterized by recurrent migrations and extinctions since the first humans arrived 4,500 years ago. Our current understanding of these extinct cultures relies primarily on preserved fossils found in their archaeological deposits, which hold valuable information on past subsistence practices. However, some exploited taxa, though economically important, comprise only a small fraction of these sub-fossil assemblages. Here we reconstruct a comprehensive record of past subsistence economies in Greenland by sequencing ancient DNA from four well-described midden deposits...
November 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547372/dietary-habits-of-polar-bears-in-foxe-basin-canada-possible-evidence-of-a-trophic-regime-shift-mediated-by-a-new-top-predator
#19
Melissa P Galicia, Gregory W Thiemann, Markus G Dyck, Steven H Ferguson, Jeff W Higdon
Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations in several areas with seasonal sea ice regimes have shown declines in body condition, reproductive rates, or abundance as a result of declining sea ice habitat. In the Foxe Basin region of Nunavut, Canada, the size of the polar bear subpopulation has remained largely stable over the past 20 years, despite concurrent declines in sea ice habitat. We used fatty acid analysis to examine polar bear feeding habits in Foxe Basin and thus potentially identify ecological factors contributing to population stability...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530539/dental-and-temporomandibular-joint-pathology-of-the-walrus-odobenus-rosmarus
#20
J N Winer, B Arzi, D M Leale, P H Kass, F J M Verstraete
Maxillae and/or mandibles from 76 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. The museum specimens were acquired between 1932 and 2014. Forty-five specimens (59.2%) were from male animals, 29 (38.2%) from female animals and two (2.6%) from animals of unknown sex, with 58 adults (76.3%) and 18 young adults (23.7%) included in this study. The number of teeth available for examination was 830 (33.6%); 18.5% of teeth were absent artefactually, 3.3% were deemed to be absent due to acquired tooth loss and 44...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
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