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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571365/organochlorine-pesticide-accumulation-in-seabirds-and-marine-mammals-from-the-northwest-pacific
#1
Vasiliy Yu Tsygankov, Olga N Lukyanova, Margarita D Boyarova
Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides by marine organisms is one of the methods of environmental quality. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (HCH isomers (α-, β-, γ-HCH), p,p'-DDT and its metabolites (p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE)) in samples of seabirds (Northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, Crested auklet Aethia cristatella, Auklet-crumb Aethia pusilla, Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, and Gray petrel Oceanodroma furcate) and marine mammals (Gray whales Eschrichtius robustus and Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens) were measured by a GC-MS...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516444/is-sustainable-resource-utilisation-a-relevant-concept-in-avanersuaq-the-walrus-case
#2
Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Janne Flora
This article addresses the role of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in present-day Avanersuaq from anthropological and biological perspectives, and asks whether or not sustainable resource utilisation is a useful concept in northwest Greenland. We describe the relations that unfold around walrus and walrus hunting, in the communities living adjacent to the North Water polynya on the eastern side of Smith Sound. We examine the interplay of walrus population abundance, hunting practices, uses, and formal (governmental) and informal (traditional) ways of regulating the hunt, and we analyse how walruses acquire multiple values as they circulate in different networks...
April 2018: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516441/walrus-history-around-the-north-water-human-animal-relations-in-a-long-term-perspective
#3
Anne Birgitte Gotfredsen, Martin Appelt, Kirsten Hastrup
This article highlights the relationship between walruses and humans in and around the North Water polynya in a long-term perspective. The present study draws on a combination of biological, archaeological, archaeo-zoological, historical, and ethnographic sources covering the period from the 8th century AD to the late 20th century. The study demonstrates that the walrus was an important resource of meat, blubber, and other products throughout all the studied periods, if always supplemented by other kinds of game...
April 2018: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372970/-genetic-diversity-of-the-pacific-walrus-odobenus-rosmarus-divergens-in-the-western-part-of-the-chukchi-sea
#4
M V Shitova, A A Kochnev, O G Dolnikova, N V Kryukova, T V Malinina, A A Pereverzev
We study 117 Pacific walrus samples from three rookeries within the western part of Chukchi Sea (Cape Vankarem, Cape Serdtse-Kamen, and Kolyuchin Island). We analyze the variability of nuclear (20 microsatellite loci) and mitochondrial DNA (three fragments). Two microsatellite loci which are described as microsatellites for the first time are used in this study: repeated sequences within introns of Coro1c and Plod2 genes. A high degree of genetic diversity is demonstrated for both nuclear and mitochondrial markers compared to Atlantic walrus...
February 2017: Genetika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356864/ceci-n-est-pas-un-walrus-lexical-processing-in-vigilance-performance
#5
Alexis R Neigel, Victoria L Claypoole, Gabriella M Hancock, Nicholas W Fraulini, James L Szalma
Vigilance, or the ability to sustain attention for extended periods of time, has traditionally been examined using a myriad of symbolic, cognitive, and sensory tasks. However, the current literature indicates a relative lack of empirical investigation on vigilance performance involving lexical processing. To address this gap in the literature, the present study examined the effect of stimulus meaning on vigilance performance (i.e., lure effects). A sample of 126 observers completed a 12-min lexical vigilance task in a research laboratory...
March 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352457/geographic-vocal-variation-and-perceptual-discrimination-abilities-in-male-australian-sea-lions
#6
Heidi Ahonen, Robert G Harcourt, Adam J Stow, Isabelle Charrier
Vocal characteristics can vary among and within populations. In species with geographic variation in the structure of vocalizations, individuals may have the ability to discriminate between calls from local and non-local individuals. The ability to distinguish differences in acoustic signals is likely to have a significant influence on the outcome of social interactions between individuals, including potentially mate selection and breeding success. Pinnipeds (seals, fur seals, sea lions and walruses) are highly vocal yet the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) is the only eared seal known to show geographic vocal variation in male barks...
March 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321249/facing-each-other-mammal-mothers-and-infants-prefer-the-position-favouring-right-hemisphere-processing
#7
Andrey Giljov, Karina Karenina, Yegor Malashichev
The right hemisphere plays a crucial role in social processing. Human mothers show a robust left cradling/holding bias providing greater right-hemispheric involvement in the exchange of social information between mother and infant. Here, we demonstrate that a similar bias is evident in face-to-face spatial interactions in marine and terrestrial non-primate mammals. Walruses and Indian flying foxes showed a significant population-level preference for the position which facilitates the use of the left visual field in both mother and infant...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297843/short-duration-immobilization-of-atlantic-walrus-odobenus-rosmarus-rosmarus-with-etorphine-and-reversal-with-naltrexone
#8
Rolf-Arne Ølberg, Kit M Kovacs, Mads F Bertelsen, Varvara Semenova, Christian Lydersen
Forty adult, male Atlantic walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) were successfully immobilized for the attachment of global positioning system loggers on their tusks and collection of various biological samples. A standard dose of 7.8 mg etorphine was used for each animal, regardless of body size. All animals were reversed with an iv or im injection of 250 mg naltrexone, immediately after tag attachment. Twenty-seven of the animals were intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen during the recovery period. The induction time was, on average, 4 min 51 sec ± 1 min 46 sec...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297810/sarcocystis-neurona-associated-meningoencephalitis-in-a-pacific-walrus-odobendus-rosmarus-divergens
#9
Lana Krol, Vanessa Fravel, Diana G Procter, Kathleen M Colegrove
A 21-yr-old intact male walrus ( Odobendus rosmarus divergens) presented with acute onset of shifting lameness, initially associated with breeding behaviors. Further clinical signs manifested, including muscle tremors, anorexia, hematuria, and coughing. Diagnostics were limited, as the animal would not offer behaviors for voluntary sample collection. Signs were addressed with anti-inflammatories, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics. The walrus developed cluster seizures and ultimately, respiratory and cardiac arrest...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151185/mercury-in-organs-of-pacific-walruses-odobenus-rosmarus-divergens-from-the-bering-sea
#10
Alexey M Trukhin, Mikhail V Simokon
The Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) is still used as an important source of protein-rich food by indigenous peoples of Chukotka, Alaska, and other Arctic regions. Total mercury (THg) concentration was measured in eight internal organs of walruses. Samples were taken from 22 individuals (11 males and 11 females). Age of the animals ranged from 1 to 30 years. All the walruses were harvested by local hunters from the coastal waters off the Chukchi Peninsula (Russia) during the autumn of 2011. Total mercury concentration in the samples was determined by atomic absorption method...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022935/researchgate-lawsuit-walrus-spat-and-a-second-world-war-shipwreck
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924092/extralobar-pulmonary-sequestration-in-two-pinniped-species
#12
Shotaro Nakagun, Hirotaka Watanabe, Kenji Ochiai, Kaoru Kohyama, Wataru Goshima, Yoko Goto, Yumi Kobayashi, Kennichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Jun Sasaki, Masanobu Goryo, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
Two cases of extralobar pulmonary sequestrations from a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) are described in the present study. Grossly, an independent, soft unilocular cystic mass was found within the abdominal cavities of both animals, adherent to the diaphragm in O. rosmarus and attached to the cardia of the stomach in E. jubatus. Histopathologically, the cysts were lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with abundant goblet cells, while the wall comprised of glands, hyaline cartilage, bronchiole- and alveolus-like structures, smooth muscles, and large, well-developed elastic and muscular arteries...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683055/two-outbreaks-of-trichinellosis-linked-to-consumption-of-walrus-meat-alaska-2016-2017
#13
Yuri P Springer, Shannon Casillas, Kathryn Helfrich, Deanna Mocan, Marscleite Smith, Gabriela Arriaga, Lyndsey Mixson, Louisa Castrodale, Joseph McLaughlin
During 1975-2012, CDC surveillance identified 1,680 trichinellosis cases in the United States with implicated food items; among these cases, 1,219 were attributed to consumption of raw or pork products, and 461 were attributed to nonpork products. Although trichinellosis in the United States has historically been associated with consumption of pork, multiple nonporcine species of wild game also are competent hosts for Trichinella spp. and have been collectively implicated in the majority of trichinellosis cases since the late 1990s (1-4) (Figure 1)...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679462/analysis-of-zp1-gene-reveals-differences-in-zona-pellucida-composition-in-carnivores
#14
C Moros-Nicolás, A Leza, P Chevret, A Guillén-Martínez, L González-Brusi, F Boué, M Lopez-Bejar, J Ballesta, M Avilés, M J Izquierdo-Rico
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals...
January 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550467/resource-partitioning-between-pacific-walruses-and-bearded-seals-in-the-alaska-arctic-and-sub-arctic
#15
L E Oxtoby, L Horstmann, S M Budge, D M O'Brien, S W Wang, T Schollmeier, M J Wooller
Climate-mediated changes in the phenology of Arctic sea ice and primary production may alter benthic food webs that sustain populations of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). Interspecific resource competition could place an additional strain on ice-associated marine mammals already facing loss of sea ice habitat. Using fatty acid (FA) profiles, FA trophic markers, and FA stable carbon isotope analyses, we found that walruses and bearded seals partitioned food resources in 2009-2011...
June 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528412/bioindicators-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-the-sea-of-okhotsk-and-the-western-bering-sea
#16
Vasiliy Yu Tsygankov, Margarita D Boyarova, Olga N Lukyanova, Nadezhda K Khristoforova
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as HCHs and DDTs, are still used as pesticides in the Southern Hemisphere and can reach the North Pacific due to long range atmospheric transfer. Marine mammals (Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus), the seabirds (Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, crested auklet Aethia cristatella, auklet crumb Aethia pusilla, northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and grey petrel Oceanodroma furcata) and Pacific salmon (pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum O...
August 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302954/contamination-status-and-accumulation-characteristics-of-heavy-metals-and-arsenic-in-five-seabird-species-from-the-central-bering-sea
#17
Chihiro Ishii, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yared Beyene Yohannes, Yutaka Watanuki, Masaaki Fukuwaka, Mayumi Ishizuka
Seabirds are marine top predators and accumulate high levels of metals and metalloids in their tissues. Contamination by metals in the highly productive offshore region has become a matter of public concern. It is home to 80% of the seabird population in the U.S.A., 95% of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), and major populations of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) and whales. Here, the concentrations of eight heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) and a metalloid (As) in the liver and kidneys of the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris), tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) collected in the Bering Sea were measured...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260820/the-impact-of-climate-change-on-metal-transport-in-a-lowland-catchment
#18
René R Wijngaard, Marcel van der Perk, Bas van der Grift, Ton C M de Nijs, Marc F P Bierkens
This study investigates the impact of future climate change on heavy metal (i.e., Cd and Zn) transport from soils to surface waters in a contaminated lowland catchment. The WALRUS hydrological model is employed in a semi-distributed manner to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes in the Dommel catchment in the Netherlands. The model is forced with climate change projections and the simulated fluxes are used as input to a metal transport model that simulates heavy metal concentrations and loads in quickflow and baseflow pathways...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080908/antidog-igg-secondary-antibody-successfully-detects-igg-in-a-variety-of-aquatic-mammals
#19
Katherine Roehl, Mark Jankowski, Erik Hofmeister
Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#20
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
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