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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335243/nephronectin-regulates-mesangial-cell-adhesion-and-behavior-in-glomeruli
#1
Susan E Zimmerman, Chitkale Hiremath, Jun Tsunezumi, Zhufeng Yang, Bronwyn Finney, Denise K Marciano
A critical aspect of kidney function occurs at the glomerulus, the capillary network that filters the blood. The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a key component of filtration, yet our understanding of GBM interactions with mesangial cells, specialized pericytes that provide structural stability to glomeruli, is limited. We investigated the role of nephronectin (Npnt), a GBM component and known ligand of α8β1 integrin. Immunolocalization and in situ hybridization studies in kidneys of adult mice revealed that nephronectin is produced by podocytes and deposited into the GBM...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328541/gm-csf-ameliorates-micro-vascular-barrier-integrity-via-pericytes-derived-ang-1-in-wound-healing
#2
Min Yan, Yange Hu, Min Yao, Shisan Bao, Yong Fang
BACKGROUND: Skin wound healing involves complex coordinated interactions of cells, tissues and mediators. Maintaining microvascular barrier integrity is one of the key events for endothelial homeostasis during wound healing. Vasodilation is observed after vasoconstriction, which causes blood vessels to become porous, facilitates leukocyte infiltration and aids angiogenesis at the wound-area, post-injury. Eventually, vessel integrity has to be re-established for vascular maturation. Numerous studies have found that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) accelerates wound healing by inducing recruitment of repair cells into the injury area and releases of cytokines...
January 12, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314444/a-kinase-anchor-protein-12-is-required-for-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-adult-white-matter
#3
Takakuni Maki, Yoon Kyung Choi, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Akihiro Shindo, Anna C Liang, Bum Ju Ahn, Emiri T Mandeville, Seiji Kaji, Kanako Itoh, Ji Hae Seo, Irwin H Gelman, Josephine Lok, Ryosuke Takahashi, Kyu-Won Kim, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to oligodendrocytes in cerebral white matter. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain to be fully defined, especially in adult brains. Recently, it has been suggested that signaling via A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12), a scaffolding protein that associates with intracellular molecules such as protein kinase A, may be involved in Schwann cell homeostasis and peripheral myelination. Here, we asked whether AKAP12 also regulates the mechanisms of myelination in the CNS...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310805/basic-components-of-vascular-connective-tissue-and-extracellular-matrix
#4
Jaroslava Halper
Though the composition of the three layers constituting the blood vessel wall varies among the different types of blood vessels, and some layers may even be missing in capillaries, certain basic components, and properties are shared by all blood vessels, though each histologically distinct layer contains a unique complement of extracellular components, growth factors and cytokines, and cell types as well. The structure and composition of vessel layers informs and is informed by the function of the particular blood vessel...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309307/a-distinct-malignant-epithelioid-neoplasm-with-gli1-gene-rearrangements-frequent-s100-protein-expression-and-metastatic-potential-expanding-the-spectrum-of-pathologic-entities-with-actb-malat1-ptch1-gli1-fusions
#5
Cristina R Antonescu, Narasimhan P Agaram, Yun-Shao Sung, Lei Zhang, David Swanson, Brendan C Dickson
ACTB-GLI1 fusions have been reported as the pathognomonic genetic abnormality defining an unusual subset of actin-positive, perivascular myoid tumors, known as "pericytoma with the t(7;12) translocation." In addition, GLI1 oncogenic activation through a related MALAT1-GLI1 gene fusion has been recently reported in 2 unrelated gastric tumors, namely plexiform fibromyxoma and gastroblastoma. Triggered by unexpected targeted RNA-sequencing results detecting GLI1-related fusions in a group of malignant neoplasms with round to epithelioid morphology, and frequently strong S100 protein immunoreactivity, we investigated their clinicopathologic features in relation to other known pathologic entities sharing similar genetics...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307447/microvascular-mural-cell-organotypic-heterogeneity-and-functional-plasticity
#6
REVIEW
Annegret Holm, Tina Heumann, Hellmut G Augustin
Microvascular mural cells (MMCs), comprising pericytes and microvascular smooth muscle cells, are of increasing interest in multiple fields of research for their plasticity and their organotypic functional roles in microvascular homeostasis and disease. They have been described as a heterogeneous cell population constituting a continuum of cell phenotypes along the microvascular bed with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) at one end of the spectrum and pericytes at the other end. MMC organotypic subpopulations have been suggested to function in a tissue-context-dependent manner, thereby contributing to organ-specific functional roles...
January 4, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306934/gliotransmitters-and-cytokines-in-the-control-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#7
REVIEW
Elena D Osipova, Oxana V Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Andrey V Morgun, Natalia V Pisareva, Natalia A Malinovskaya, Elizaveta B Boitsova, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga A Belova, Vladimir V Salmin, Tatiana E Taranushenko, Mami Noda, Alla B Salmina
The contribution of astrocytes and microglia to the regulation of neuroplasticity or neurovascular unit (NVU) is based on the coordinated secretion of gliotransmitters and cytokines and the release and uptake of metabolites. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and angiogenesis are influenced by perivascular cells contacting with the abluminal side of brain microvessel endothelial cells (pericytes, astrocytes) or by immune cells existing (microglia) or invading the NVU (macrophages) under pathologic conditions...
January 8, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303444/reductions-in-brain-pericytes-are-associated-with-arteriovenous-malformation-vascular-instability
#8
Ethan A Winkler, Harjus Birk, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Xiaolin Chen, John K Yue, Diana Guo, W Caleb Rutledge, George F Lasker, Carlene Partow, Tarik Tihan, Edward F Chang, Hua Su, Helen Kim, Brian P Walcott, Michael T Lawton
OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are rupture-prone tangles of blood vessels with direct shunting of blood flow between arterial and venous circulations. The molecular and/or cellular mechanisms contributing to bAVM pathogenesis and/or destabilization in sporadic lesions have remained elusive. Initial insights into AVM formation have been gained through models of genetic AVM syndromes. And while many studies have focused on endothelial cells, the contributions of other vascular cell types have yet to be systematically studied...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298435/dynamic-remodeling-of-pericytes-in%C3%A2-vivo-maintains-capillary-coverage-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#9
Andrée-Anne Berthiaume, Roger I Grant, Konnor P McDowell, Robert G Underly, David A Hartmann, Manuel Levy, Narayan R Bhat, Andy Y Shih
Direct contact and communication between pericytes and endothelial cells is critical for maintenance of cerebrovascular stability and blood-brain barrier function. Capillary pericytes have thin processes that reach hundreds of micrometers along the capillary bed. The processes of adjacent pericytes come in close proximity but do not overlap, yielding a cellular chain with discrete territories occupied by individual pericytes. Little is known about whether this pericyte chain is structurally dynamic in the adult brain...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296234/the-pyrazolyl-urea-gege3-inhibits-tumor-angiogenesis-and-reveals-dystrophia-myotonica-protein-kinase-dmpk-1-as-a-novel-angiogenesis-target
#10
Elda Meta, Beat A Imhof, Patricia Ropraz, Richard J Fish, Chiara Brullo, Olga Bruno, Adama Sidibé
The limitation of targeting VEGF/VEGFR2 signalling to stop angiogenesis in cancer therapy has been blamed on re-activation of alternative receptor tyrosine kinases by compensatory angiogenic factors. Targeting MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in endothelial cells may be an alternative or complementary approach. Herein we aimed to evaluate the antitumor and antiangiogenic potential of a novel pyrazolyl-urea kinase inhibitor, GeGe3, and to identify its kinase targets. We found GeGe3 to inhibit the proliferation of HUVEC and endothelial tube formation...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288385/the-pulmonary-vascular-barrier-insights-into-structure-function-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#11
Kaushik Parthasarathi
Pulmonary blood vessels act as a well-regulated barrier to the flux of fluid and solutes between the lumen and the air space. Perturbation of the barrier function results in excessive fluid leak into the interstitium and alveoli, and impairs gas exchange. Recent studies provide deeper insight into the precise control mechanisms involved in the regulation of the barrier. This chapter will highlight these mechanisms and discuss the current understanding on the fluid and solute transport pathways across the vascular endothelial layer...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286468/analysis-of-immune-cells-in-single-sciatic-nerves-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-from-a-single-mouse-using-flow-cytometry
#12
Asa S Hidmark, Peter P Nawroth, Thomas Fleming
Nerve-resident immune cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential to maintaining neuronal integrity in a healthy nerve. The immune cells of the PNS are affected by injury and disease, affecting the nerve function and the capacity for regeneration. Neuronal immune cells are commonly analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF). While IF is essential for determining the location of the immune cells in the nerve, IF is only semi-quantitative and the method is limited to the number of markers that can be analyzed simultaneously and the degree of surface expression...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286323/fibrocytes-a-novel-stromal-cells-to-regulate-resistance-to-anti-angiogenic-therapy-and-cancer-progression
#13
REVIEW
Hisatsugu Goto, Yasuhiko Nishioka
An adequate blood supply is essential for cancer cells to survive and grow; thus, the concept of inhibiting tumor angiogenesis has been applied to cancer therapy, and several drugs are already in clinical use. It has been shown that treatment with those anti-angiogenic drugs improved the response rate and prolonged the survival of patients with various types of cancer; however, it is also true that the effect was mostly limited. Currently, the disappointing clinical results are explained by the existence of intrinsic or acquired resistance to the therapy mediated by both tumor cells and stromal cells...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283016/pericytes-make-spinal-cord-breathless-after-injury
#14
Viviani M Almeida, Ana E Paiva, Isadora F G Sena, Akiva Mintz, Luiz Alexandre V Magno, Alexander Birbrair
Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that leads to significant neurological deficits and reduced quality of life. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord lesions are designed to address multiple aspects of the secondary damage. However, the lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular changes that occur after spinal cord injury restricts the design of effective treatments. Li and colleagues using a rat model of spinal cord injury and in vivo microscopy reveal that pericytes play a key role in the regulation of capillary tone and blood flow in the spinal cord below the site of the lesion...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282647/pericytes-the-role-of-multipotent-stem-cells-in-vascular-maintenance-and-regenerative-medicine
#15
Toka A Ahmed, Nagwa El-Badri
Blood vessels consist of an inner endothelial cell layer lining the vessel wall and perivascular pericytes, also known as mural cells, which envelop the vascular tube surface. Pericytes have recently been recognized for their central role in blood vessel formation. Pericytes are multipotent cells that are heterogeneous in their origin, function, morphology and surface markers. Similar to other types of stem cells, pericytes act as a repair system in response to injury by maintaining the structural integrity of blood vessels...
December 28, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282392/diffuse-dermal-angiomatosis-of-the-breast-a-distinct-entity-in-the-spectrum-of-cutaneous-reactive-angiomatoses-clinicopathologic-study-of-two-cases-and-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#16
Jörg Galambos, Claudia Meuli-Simmen, Regula Schmid, Lisa S Steinmann, Werner Kempf
Diffuse dermal angiomatosis (DDA) is a rare reactive angioproliferation in the skin and considered to be a subtype in the group of cutaneous reactive angiomatoses. DDA is clinically characterized by livedoid patches and plaques with tender ulceration. Its histologic features are a reactive diffuse proliferation of bland endothelial cells and pericytes within the dermis, forming small capillary vessels. Previously described cases of DDA most commonly involved the limbs and were associated with a wide spectrum of predisposing comorbidities, especially advanced atherosclerotic vascular disease and arteriovenous fistula...
September 2017: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279310/proliferating-ng2-cell-dependent-angiogenesis-and-scar-formation-alter-axon-growth-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#17
Z C Hesp, R Y Yoseph, R Suzuki, C Wilson, A Nishiyama, D M McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a centralized fibrotic scar surrounded by a reactive glial scar at the lesion site. The origin of these scars is thought to be perivascular cells entering lesions on ingrowing blood vessels and reactive astrocytes, respectively. However, two NG2-expressing cell populations (pericytes and glia) also may influence scar formation. In the periphery, new blood vessel growth requires proliferating NG2+ pericytes; if also true in the CNS, then the fibrotic scar would depend on dividing NG2+ pericytes...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277270/human-predecidual-stromal-cells-have-distinctive-characteristics-of-pericytes-cell-contractility-chemotactic-activity-and-expression-of-pericyte-markers-and-angiogenic-factors
#18
Raquel Muñoz-Fernández, Claudia de la Mata, Alejandro Prados, Ana Perea, María José Ruiz-Magaña, Tatiana Llorca, Pablo Fernández-Rubio, Osmany Blanco, Ana C Abadía-Molina, Enrique G Olivares
INTRODUCTION: Human decidual stromal cells (DSCs) play a key role in maternal-fetal interactions. Precursors of DSCs (preDSCs) localize around vessels in both the endometrium and decidua. Previous studies suggested a relationship between preDSCs and pericytes because these cells share a perivascular location, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SM actin) expression and the ability to contract under the effects of cytokines. METHODS: To further study this relationship, we established 15 human preDSC lines and 3 preDSC clones...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274061/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-reinforces-pericyte-properties-of-the-non-endocrine-mouse-pituitary-cell-line-ttt-gf
#19
Takehiro Tsukada, Saishu Yoshida, Keiji Kito, Ken Fujiwara, Hideji Yako, Kotaro Horiguchi, Yukinobu Isowa, Takashi Yashiro, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
The non-endocrine TtT/GF mouse pituitary cell line was derived from radiothyroidectomy-induced pituitary adenoma. In addition to morphological characteristics, because the cells are S100β-positive, they have been accepted as a model of folliculostellate cells. However, our recent microarray analysis indicated that, in contrast to folliculostellate cells, TtT/GF cells might not be terminally differentiated, as they share some properties with stem/progenitor cells, vascular endothelial cells and pericytes. The present study investigates whether transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) can elicit further differentiation of these cells...
December 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259701/quantitative-assessment-of-angiogenesis-and-pericyte-coverage-in-human-cell-derived-vascular-sprouts
#20
Jan Eglinger, Haiko Karsjens, Eckhard Lammert
Background: Pericytes, surrounding the endothelium, fulfill diverse functions that are crucial for vascular homeostasis. The loss of pericytes is associated with pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, there exists a need for an experimental system that combines pharmacologic manipulation and quantification of pericyte coverage during sprouting angiogenesis. Here, we describe an in vitro angiogenesis assay that develops lumenized vascular sprouts composed of endothelial cells enveloped by pericytes, with the additional ability to comparatively screen the effect of multiple small molecules simultaneously...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
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