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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920202/the-translational-significance-of-the-neurovascular-unit-a-mini-review
#1
Heather L McConnell, Cymon N Kersch, Randall L Woltjer, Edward A Neuwelt
The mammalian brain is supplied with blood by specialized vasculature that is structurally and functionally distinct from that of the periphery. A defining feature of this vasculature is a physical blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB separates blood components from the brain microenvironment, regulating the entry and exit of ions, nutrients, macromolecules, and energy metabolites. Over the last two decades, physiological studies of cerebral blood flow dynamics have demonstrated that substantial intercellular communication occurs between cells of the vasculature and the neurons and glia that abut the vasculature...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918469/dietary-compound-chrysin-inhibits-retinal-neovascularization-with-abnormal-capillaries-in-db-db-mice
#2
Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Yun-Ho Kim, Eun-Jung Lee, Lucia Dwi Antika, Dong Yeon Kim, Yean-Jung Choi, Young-Hee Kang
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) develops in a significant proportion of patients with chronic diabetes, characterized by retinal macular edema and abnormal retinal vessel outgrowth leading to vision loss. Chrysin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid found in herb and honeycomb, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. This study sought to determine the protective effects of chrysin on retinal neovascularization with abnormal vessels and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in 33 mM glucose-exposed human retinal endothelial cells and in db/db mouse eyes...
December 3, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916973/fibrosis-pericyte-myd88-and-irak4-signalling-in-fibrosis
#3
Susan J Allison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916653/pericytes-an-overlooked-player-in-vascular-pathobiology
#4
REVIEW
David Ferland-McCollough, Sadie Slater, Jai Richard, Carlotta Reni, Giuseppe Mangialardi
Pericytes are a heterogeneous population of cells located in the blood vessel wall. They were first identified in the 19(th) century by Rouget, however their biological role and potential for drug targeting have taken time to be recognised. Isolation of pericytes from several different tissues has allowed a better phenotypic and functional characterization. These findings revealed a tissue-specific, multi-functional group of cells with multilineage potential. Given this emerging evidence, pericytes have acquired specific roles in pathobiological events in vascular diseases...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916652/exploring-pericyte-and-cardiac-stem-cell-secretome-unveils-new-tactics-for-drug-discovery
#5
REVIEW
Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Paolo Madeddu
Ischaemic diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite continuous advancements in medical and interventional treatments. Moreover, available drugs reduce symptoms associated with tissue ischaemia, without providing a definitive repair. Cardiovascular regenerative medicine is an expanding field of research that aims to improve the treatment of ischaemic disorders through restorative methods, such as gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. Stem cell transplantation has salutary effects through direct and indirect actions, the latter being attributable to growth factors and cytokines released by stem cells and influencing the endogenous mechanisms of repair...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913637/mural-endothelial-cell-cell-interactions-stabilize-the-developing-zebrafish-dorsal-aorta
#6
Amber N Stratman, Sofia A Pezoa, Olivia M Farrelly, Daniel Castranova, Louis E Dye, Matthew G Butler, Harwin Sidik, William S Talbot, Brant M Weinstein
Mural cells (vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes) play a critical role in the development of the vasculature, promoting vascular quiescence and long-term vessel stabilization through their interactions with endothelial cells. However, the mechanistic details of how mural cells stabilize vessels are not fully understood. We have examined the emergence and functional role of mural cells investing the dorsal aorta during early development using the zebrafish. Consistent with previous literature, our data suggest that cells ensheathing the dorsal aorta emerge from a sub-population of cells in the adjacent sclerotome...
December 2, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908803/pericytes-integral-components-of-adult-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niches
#7
REVIEW
D Sá da Bandeira, J Casamitjana, M Crisan
The interest in perivascular cells as a niche for adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is significantly growing. In the adult bone marrow (BM), perivascular cells and HSCs cohabit. Among perivascular cells, pericytes are precursors of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. In situ, pericytes are recognised by their localisation to the abluminal side of the blood vessel wall, closely associated with endothelial cells in combination with the expression of markers such as CD146, neural glial 2 (NG2), platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), nestin (Nes) and/or leptin receptor (LepR)...
November 28, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889329/perivascular-cells-and-tissue-engineering-current-applications-and-untapped-potential
#8
REVIEW
Elisa Avolio, Valeria V Alvino, Mohamed T Ghorbel, Paola Campagnolo
The recent development of tissue engineering provides exciting new perspectives for the replacement of failing organs and the repair of damaged tissues. Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes and other tissue specific populations residing around blood vessels, have been isolated from many organs and are known to participate to the in situ repair process and angiogenesis. Their potential has been harnessed for cell therapy of numerous pathologies; however, in this Review we will discuss the potential of perivascular cells in the development of tissue engineering solutions for healthcare...
November 23, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885901/the-bone-marrow-pericyte-an-orchestrator-of-vascular-niche
#9
Giuseppe Mangialardi, Andrea Cordaro, Paolo Madeddu
The concept of pericyte has been changing over years. This cell type was believed to possess only a function of trophic support to endothelial cells and to maintain vasculature stabilization. In the last years, the discovery of multipotent ability of perivascular populations led to the concept of vessel/wall niche. Likewise, several perivascular populations have been identified in animal and human bone marrow. In this review, we provide an overview on bone marrow perivascular population, their cross-talk with other niche components, relationship with bone marrow stromal stem cells, and similarities and differences with the perivascular population of the vessel/wall niche...
December 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884833/pericytes-new-epo-producing-cells-in-the-brain
#10
Peng Ji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884306/commentary-for-human-kidney-pericytes-produce-renin
#11
Armin Kurtz
Renin-secreting cells of the kidney display several particularities, including their intrarenal localization in the fetal and in the adult kidney, their ultrastructure, and the mode by which they secrete renin into circulation to trigger the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The cell type from which renin cells differentiate has long been subject to speculation. The paper by Stefanska et al. now strongly suggests that renin cells are or derive from pericytes.
December 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871176/in-vivo-angiogenic-capacity-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-with-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#12
Ji-Hye Kim, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Hee Jang Pyeon, Jae Cheoun Lee, Gene Lee, Hyun Nam
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized tissue requiring adequate blood supply for successful regeneration. In this study, we investigated the functional role of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) as a perivascular source for in vivo formation of vessel-like structures. Primarily isolated SHEDs showed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics including the expression of surface antigens and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Moreover, SHEDs were positive for NG2, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), and CD146 as pericyte markers...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869651/pericyte-myd88-and-irak4-control-inflammatory-and-fibrotic-responses-to-tissue-injury
#13
Irina A Leaf, Shunsaku Nakagawa, Bryce G Johnson, Jin Joo Cha, Kristen Mittelsteadt, Kevin M Guckian, Ivan G Gomez, William A Altemeier, Jeremy S Duffield
Fibrotic disease is associated with matrix deposition that results in the loss of organ function. Pericytes, the precursors of myofibroblasts, are a source of pathological matrix collagens and may be promising targets for treating fibrogenesis. Here, we have shown that pericytes activate a TLR2/4- and MyD88-dependent proinflammatory program in response to tissue injury. Similarly to classic immune cells, pericytes activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. Released IL-1β signals through pericyte MyD88 to amplify this response...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868196/differential-regulation-of-blood-flow-induced-neovascularisation-and-mural-cell-recruitment-by-vegf-and-angiopoietin-signalling
#14
Oliver A Stone, James G Carter, P Charles Lin, Ewa Paleolog, Maria J C Machado, David O Bates
Signalling through VEGF receptors and the Tie2 receptor by angiopoietins is required in combination with blood flow for the formation of a functional vascular network. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF and Ang1 contribute differentially to neovascularization induced by nitric oxide (NO) mediated vasodilatation, by comparing the phenotype of new microvessels in the mesentery during induction of vascular remodelling by over-expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the fat pad of the adult rat mesentery during inhibition of Angiopoietin signalling with soluble Tie2 and VEGF signalling with sFlt1...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867386/immune-regulation-by-pericytes-modulating-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Rocío Navarro, Marta Compte, Luis Álvarez-Vallina, Laura Sanz
Pericytes (PC) are mural cells that surround endothelial cells in small blood vessels. PC have traditionally been credited with structural functions, being essential for vessel maturation and stabilization. However, an accumulating body of evidence suggests that PC also display immune properties. They can respond to a series of pro-inflammatory stimuli and are able to sense different types of danger due to their expression of functional pattern-recognition receptors, contributing to the onset of innate immune responses...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866851/inhibition-of-the-glycolytic-activator-pfkfb3-in-endothelium-induces-tumor-vessel-normalization-impairs-metastasis-and-improves-chemotherapy
#16
Anna Rita Cantelmo, Lena-Christin Conradi, Aleksandra Brajic, Jermaine Goveia, Joanna Kalucka, Andreas Pircher, Pallavi Chaturvedi, Johanna Hol, Bernard Thienpont, Laure-Anne Teuwen, Sandra Schoors, Bram Boeckx, Joris Vriens, Anna Kuchnio, Koen Veys, Bert Cruys, Lise Finotto, Lucas Treps, Tor Espen Stav-Noraas, Francesco Bifari, Peter Stapor, Ilaria Decimo, Kim Kampen, Katrien De Bock, Guttorm Haraldsen, Luc Schoonjans, Ton Rabelink, Guy Eelen, Bart Ghesquière, Jalees Rehman, Diether Lambrechts, Asrar B Malik, Mieke Dewerchin, Peter Carmeliet
Abnormal tumor vessels promote metastasis and impair chemotherapy. Hence, tumor vessel normalization (TVN) is emerging as an anti-cancer treatment. Here, we show that tumor endothelial cells (ECs) have a hyper-glycolytic metabolism, shunting intermediates to nucleotide synthesis. EC haplo-deficiency or blockade of the glycolytic activator PFKFB3 did not affect tumor growth, but reduced cancer cell invasion, intravasation, and metastasis by normalizing tumor vessels, which improved vessel maturation and perfusion...
November 8, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866791/mesenchymal-stem-cells-the-roles-and-functions-in-cutaneous-wound-healing-and-tumor-growth
#17
REVIEW
Sei-Ichiro Motegi, Osamu Ishikawa
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow-derived non-hematopoietic progenitor cells. MSCs are able to differentiate into various types of cells, including chondrocytes, adipocytes, osteocytes, myocytes, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes. There is increasing evidence that MSCs might be located external to the vasculature, and that perivascular cells in the skin, generally called as "pericytes", might include MSCs. It has been suggested that MSCs localized around blood vessels might migrate into wounds and contribute to the restoration of injured tissues...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864848/age-related-small-vessel-disease-a-potential-contributor-to-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Ruth Geraldes, Margaret M Esiri, Gabriele C DeLuca, Jacqueline Palace
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system wherein, after an initial phase of transient neurological defects, slow neurological deterioration due to progressive neuronal loss ensues. Age is a major determinant of MS progression onset and disability. Over the past years, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the key drivers of neurodegeneration and disability accumulation in MS. However, the effect of commonly encountered age-related cerebral vessel disease, namely small vessel disease (SVD), has been largely neglected and constitutes the aim of this review...
November 19, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858364/the-rip1tag2-transgenic-mouse-model
#19
Ruben Bill, Gerhard Christofori
The Rip1Tag2 transgenic mouse model of β-cell carcinogenesis has been instrumental in studying various aspects of tumor angiogenesis and in investigating the response to anti-angiogenic therapeutics. Thereby, the in-depth assessment of blood and lymphatic vessel phenotypes and functionality represents key experimental analyses. In this chapter, we describe basic protocols to assess tumor blood vessel morphology (pericyte coverage), functionality (perfusion, leakiness, and hypoxia), lymphatic tumor coverage, and tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis based on immunofluorescence microscopy analysis...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858356/the-aortic-ring-assay-and-its-use-for-the-study-of-tumor-angiogenesis
#20
Alfred C Aplin, Roberto F Nicosia
This chapter describes protocols developed in our laboratory to prepare and analyze angiogenic cultures of rat aorta. Rings of rat aorta cultured in collagen gels produce neovessel outgrowths which reproduce ex vivo key steps of the angiogenic process including endothelial migration, proliferation, proteolytic digestion of the extracellular matrix, capillary tube formation, pericyte recruitment, and vascular regression. The angiogenic response of aortic explants can be stimulated with growth factors or inhibited with anti-angiogenic molecules...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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