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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429070/properties-of-synchronous-spontaneous-ca-2-transients-in-the-mural-cells-of-rat-rectal-arterioles
#1
Retsu Mitsui, Hikaru Hashitani
Synchrony of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients among venular mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) in visceral organs relies on the intercellular spread of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (LVDCC)-dependent depolarisations. However, the mechanisms underlying the synchrony of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients between arteriolar mural cells are less understood. The spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics of arteriolar mural cells in the rat rectal submucosa were visualised by Cal-520 Ca(2+) imaging to analyse their synchrony...
April 21, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428220/cmtm3-cklf-like-marvel-transmembrane-domain-3-mediates-angiogenesis-by-regulating-cell-surface-availability-of-ve-cadherin-in-endothelial-adherens-junctions
#2
Ihsan Chrifi, Laura Louzao-Martinez, Maarten Brandt, Christian G M van Dijk, Petra Burgisser, Changbin Zhu, Johan M Kros, Dirk J Duncker, Caroline Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Decrease in VE-cadherin adherens junctions reduces vascular stability, whereas disruption of adherens junctions is a requirement for neovessel sprouting during angiogenesis. Endocytosis plays a key role in regulating junctional strength by altering bioavailability of cell surface proteins, including VE-cadherin. Identification of new mediators of endothelial endocytosis could enhance our understanding of angiogenesis. Here, we assessed the function of CMTM3 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain 3), which we have previously identified as highly expressed in Flk1(+) endothelial progenitor cells during embryonic development...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428179/adamts13-controls-vascular-remodeling-by-modifying-vwf-reactivity-during-stroke-recovery
#3
Haochen Xu, Yongliang Cao, Xing Yang, Ping Cai, Lijing Kang, Ximin Zhu, Haiyu Luo, Lu Lu, Lixiang Wei, Xiaofei Bai, Yuanbo Zhu, Bing-Qiao Zhao, Wenying Fan
Angiogenic response is essential for ischemic brain repair. However, the mechanisms leading to postischemic neovascularization have not been established, and no therapies have been identified. The VWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 is required for endothelial tube formation in vitro However, there is currently no in vivo evidence supporting a function of ADAMTS13 in angiogenesis. Here we show that mice deficient in ADAMTS13 exhibited significantly reduced neovascularization, brain capillary perfusion, pericyte and smooth muscle cell coverage on microvessels, expression of the tight junction and basement membrane proteins, and accelerated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and extravascular deposits of serum proteins in the peri-infarct cortex at 14 days after stroke...
April 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427981/ultrastructure-of-pericystic-or-intracystic-blood-vessels-in-epidermoid-cysts-a-transmission-electron-microscopy-study-laboratory-investigation
#4
Xiao-Hui Ren, Jun Ma, Chun Zeng, Yi-Lin Sun, Song Lin
OBJECTIVES: Recently, we reported the tendency towards the spontaneous hemorrhage in both pre- and post-operative periods of patients with intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). According to our experience this tendency of spontaneous hemorrhage was partly due to the pathologic blood vessels adjacent to the EC. This article was designed to testify this hypothesis. MATERIALS & METHODS: 23 removable pericystic or intracystic blood vessels from 17 EC patients were collected during surgery, and then were examined by transmission electron microscope...
April 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427343/loss-of-pericyte-smoothened-activity-in-mice-with-genetic-deficiency-of-leptin
#5
Guanhua Xie, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, Mark L Jewell, Mariana Verdelho Machado, Gregory A Michelotti, Richard T Premont, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with multiple diseases, but it is unclear how obesity promotes progressive tissue damage. Recovery from injury requires repair, an energy-expensive process that is coupled to energy availability at the cellular level. The satiety factor, leptin, is a key component of the sensor that matches cellular energy utilization to available energy supplies. Leptin deficiency signals energy depletion, whereas activating the Hedgehog pathway drives energy-consuming activities...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424632/pro-angiogenic-role-of-insulin-from-physiology-to-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Carlos A Escudero, Kurt Herlitz, Felipe Troncoso, Katherine Guevara, Jesenia Acurio, Claudio Aguayo, Alejandro S Godoy, Marcelo González
The underlying molecular mechanisms involve in the regulation of the angiogenic process by insulin are not well understood. In this review article, we aim to describe the role of insulin and insulin receptor activation on the control of angiogenesis and how these mechanisms can be deregulated in human diseases. Functional expression of insulin receptors and their signaling pathways has been described on endothelial cells and pericytes, both of the main cells involved in vessel formation and maturation. Consequently, insulin has been shown to regulate endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and in vitro tubular structure formation through binding to its receptors and activation of intracellular phosphorylation cascades...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420427/isolation-and-characterization-of-equine-native-msc-populations
#7
Cristina L Esteves, Tara A Sheldrake, Simone P Mesquita, Juan J Pesántez, Timothy Menghini, Lucy Dawson, Bruno Péault, F Xavier Donadeu
BACKGROUND: In contrast to humans in which mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) therapies are still largely in the clinical trial phase, MSCs have been used therapeutically in horses for over 15 years, thus constituting a valuable preclinical model for humans. In human tissues, MSCs have been shown to originate from perivascular cells, namely pericytes and adventitial cells, which are identified by the presence of the cell surface markers CD146 and CD34, respectively. In contrast, the origin of MSCs in equine tissues has not been established, preventing the isolation and culture of defined cell populations in that species...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418194/accelerated-tumor-metastasis-due-to-ifn%C3%AE-receptor-mediated-dissociation-of-perivascular-cells-from-blood-vessels
#8
Chen Ni, Pan Ma, Liwei Qu, Fan Wu, Junfeng Hao, Ruirui Wang, Yu Lu, Wei Yang, Ulrike Erben, Zhihai Qin
Angiostasis mediated by IFNγ is a key mechanism of anti-tumor immunity; however, the effect of IFNγ on host VEGFA-expressing cells during tumor progression is still elusive. Here, we developed transgenic mice with IFNγ receptor (IFNγR) expression under control of the Vegfa promoter (V-γR). In these mice, the IFNγ responsiveness of VEGFA -expressing cells led to a dramatic growth suppression of transplanted lung carcinoma cells. Surprisingly, increased mortality and tumor metastasis were observed in the tumor-bearing V-γR mice, in comparison to the control wild type and IFNγR-deficient mice...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417191/mapping-of-estradiol-binding-sites-through-receptor-micro-autoradiography-in-the-endometrial-stroma-of-early-pregnant-mice
#9
Telma M T Zorn, Rodolfo R Favaro, Mauricio Soto-Suazo, Walter E Stumpf
Estradiol triggers key biological responses in the endometrium, which rely on the presence and levels of its cognate receptors on target cells. Employing the receptor micro-autoradiography (RMAR) technique, we aimed to provide a temporal and spatial map of the functional binding sites for estradiol in the mouse endometrial stroma during early pregnancy. Uterine samples from days 1.5 to 7.5 of pregnancy were collected 1 h after tritiated- (3H-) estradiol administration and prepared for RMAR analysis. Autoradiographic incorporation of 3H-thymidine (after 1-h pulse) was evaluated over the same gestational interval...
April 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411206/type-1-t-helper-cells-promote-tumor-vessel-normalization
#10
(no author information available yet)
TH1 cells promote tumor vessel pericyte coverage and vessel normalization to suppress metastasis.
April 14, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408317/involvement-of-puma-in-pericyte-migration-induced-by-methamphetamine
#11
Yanhong Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Ying Bai, Jie Chao, Gang Hu, Xufeng Chen, Honghong Yao
Mounting evidence indicates that methamphetamine causes blood-brain barrier damage, with emphasis on endothelial cells. The role of pericytes in methamphetamine-induced BBB damage remains unknown. Our study demonstrated that methamphetamine increased the migration of pericytes from the endothelial basement membrane. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Thus, we examined the molecular mechanisms involved in methamphetamine-induced pericyte migration. The results showed that exposure of C3H/10T1/2 cells and HBVPs to methamphetamine increased PUMA expression via activation of the sigma-1 receptor, MAPK and Akt/PI3K pathways...
April 10, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407791/accelerated-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells
#12
Emma K Hollmann, Amanda K Bailey, Archit V Potharazu, M Diana Neely, Aaron B Bowman, Ethan S Lippmann
BACKGROUND: Due to their ability to limitlessly proliferate and specialize into almost any cell type, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to generate human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which compose the blood-brain barrier (BBB), for research purposes. Unfortunately, the time, expense, and expertise required to differentiate iPSCs to purified BMECs precludes their widespread use. Here, we report the use of a defined medium that accelerates the differentiation of iPSCs to BMECs while achieving comparable performance to BMECs produced by established methods...
April 13, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405689/differential-effects-of-sulforaphane-in-regulation-of-angiogenesis-in-a-co-culture-model-of-endothelial-cells-and-pericytes
#13
Yichong Wang, Zhigang Zhou, Wei Wang, Ming Liu, Yongping Bao
Aberrant neovascularization supports nutrients and the oxygen microenvironment in tumour growth, invasion and metastasis. Recapitulation of functional microvascular structures in vitro could provide a platform for the study of vascular conditions. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate, has been reported to possess chemopreventive properties. In the present study, the effects of SFN on cell proliferation and tubular formation have been investigated using endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes in coculture. SFN showed a dose-dependent inhibition on the growth of ECs and pericytes with IC50 values 46...
May 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405524/therapeutic-efficacy-of-combined-vaccination-against-tumor-pericyte-associated-antigens-dlk1-and-dlk2-in-mice
#14
Kellsye Paula L Fabian, Nina Chi-Sabins, Jennifer L Taylor, Ronald Fecek, Aliyah Weinstein, Walter J Storkus
When compared with vascular cells in normal tissues, pericytes and vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in tumor blood vessels exhibit altered morphology and epigenetic programming that leads to the expression of unique antigens that allow for differential recognition by CD8(+) T cells. We have previously shown that the Notch antagonist delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) is a tumor pericyte-associated antigen expressed in setting of melanoma and a range of carcinomas. In this report, we show that therapeutic vaccination against DLK1 in murine models results in slowed tumor growth, but also to the compensatory expression of the DLK1 homolog, DLK2, by tumor-associated pericytes...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402942/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-therapeutic-applications-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
REVIEW
Fei Mao, Qiang Tu, Li Wang, Fuliang Chu, Xia Li, Haiyan S Li, Wenrong Xu
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic stem cells that facilitate tissue regeneration through mechanisms involving self-renewal and differentiation, supporting angiogenesis and tissue cell survival, and limiting inflammation. MSCs were originally identified and expanded in long-term cultures of cells from bone marrow and other organs; and their native identity was recently confined into pericytes and adventitial cells in vascularized tissue. The multipotency, as well as the trophic and immunosuppressive effects, of MSCs have prompted the rapid development of clinical applications for many diseases involving tissue inflammation and immune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398169/paving-the-way-towards-complex-blood-brain-barrier-models-using-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Karin Lauschke, Lise Frederiksen, Vanessa J Hall
A tissue with great need to be modelled in vitro is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a tight barrier that covers all blood vessels in the brain and separates the brain microenvironment from the blood system. It consists of three cell types (neurovascular unit (NVU)) that contribute to the unique tightness and selective permeability of the BBB and has been shown to be disrupted in many diseases and brain disorders, such as, vascular dementia, stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Given the progress that pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have made in the last two decades, it is now possible to produce many cell types from the BBB and even partially recapitulate this complex tissue in vitro...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397247/isogenic-blood-brain-barrier-models-based-on-patient-derived-stem-cells-display-inter-individual-differences-in-cell-maturation-and-functionality
#17
Ronak Patel, Shyanne Page, Abraham Jacob Al-Ahmad
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes an important component of the neurovascular unit formed by specialized brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) surrounded by astrocytes, pericytes and neurons. Recently, isogenic in vitro models of the BBB based on human pluripotent stem cells have been documented, yet the impact of inter-individual variability on the yield and phenotype of such models remains to be documented. In this study, we investigated the impact of inter-individual variability on the yield and phenotype of isogenic models of the BBB, using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397199/proliferation-and-maturation-of-intratumoral-blood-vessels-in-women-with-malignant-ovarian-tumors-assessed-with-cancer-stem-cells-marker-nestin-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-pdgf-b
#18
Sylwia Czekierdowska, Norbert Stachowicz, Mieczysław Chróściel, Artur Czekierdowski
OBJECTIVES: Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) and nestin have been suggested to be useful in the assessment of neoangiogenesis in malignant ovarian masses. We aimed to investigate a possible association of these markers with newly formed microcapillaries and perivascular cells in ovarian tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microvessel density (MVD) and pericytes were studied in 82 women with ovarian neoplasms, including 7 benign cysts, 7 borderline masses, 64 epithelial ovarian cancers and 4 other malignant ovarian tumors...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391346/what-can-target-kidney-fibrosis
#19
Irina A Leaf, Jeremy S Duffield
Fibrosis, a characteristic of all chronic kidney diseases, is now recognized to be an independent predictor of disease progression. Deposition of pathological matrix in the walls of glomerular capillaries, the interstitial space and around arterioles both predicts and contributes to functional demise of the nephron and its surrounding vasculature. Recent identification of the major cell populations of fibroblast precursors in the kidney interstitium as pericytes and tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells, and in the glomerulus as podocytes, parietal epithelial and mesangial cells, has enabled the study of the fibrogenic process in much greater depth directly in the fibroblast precursors...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377744/non-neuronal-cells-in-the-hypothalamic-adaptation-to-metabolic-signals
#20
REVIEW
Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Pilar Argente-Arizón, Jesús Argente, Luis Miguel García-Segura, Julie A Chowen
Although the brain is composed of numerous cell types, neurons have received the vast majority of attention in the attempt to understand how this organ functions. Neurons are indeed fundamental but, in order for them to function correctly, they rely on the surrounding "non-neuronal" cells. These different cell types, which include glia, epithelial cells, pericytes, and endothelia, supply essential substances to neurons, in addition to protecting them from dangerous substances and situations. Moreover, it is now clear that non-neuronal cells can also actively participate in determining neuronal signaling outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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