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Luis Alarcon-Martinez, Sinem Yilmaz-Ozcan, Muge Yemisci, Jesse Schallek, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Alp Can, Adriana Di Polo, Turgay Dalkara
Recent evidence suggests that capillary pericytes are contractile and play a crucial role in the regulation of microcirculation. However, failure to detect components of the contractile apparatus in capillary pericytes, most notably α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), has questioned these findings. Using strategies that allow rapid filamentous-actin (F-actin) fixation (i.e. snap freeze fixation with methanol at -20°C) or prevent F-actin depolymerization (i.e. with F-actin stabilizing agents), we demonstrate that pericytes on mouse retinal capillaries, including those in intermediate and deeper plexus, express α-SMA...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Guo Nan Yin, Hai-Rong Jin, Min-Ji Choi, Anita Limanjaya, Kalyan Ghatak, Nguyen Nhat Minh, Jiyeon Ock, Mi-Hye Kwon, Kang-Moon Song, Heon Joo Park, Ho Min Kim, Young-Guen Kwon, Ji-Kan Ryu, Jun-Kyu Suh
Penile erection requires well-coordinated interactions between vascular and nervous system. Penile neurovascular dysfunction is a major cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients with diabetes, which causes poor response to oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Dickkopf2 (DKK2), a Wnt antagonist, is known to promote angiogenesis. Here, using DKK2-Tg mice or DKK2 protein administration, we demonstrate that overexpression of DKK2 in diabetic mice enhances penile angiogenesis and neural regeneration and restores erectile function...
March 20, 2018: Diabetes
Alexandra M Durrant, Matthew N Swift, Nicholas Beazley-Long
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative conditions is becoming increasingly apparent, yet very little is known about these neurovascular functions in nonmalignant disease chronic pain. Neural tissue pericytes play critical roles in the formation and maintenance of the BBB. Herein, we review the important roles of neural pericytes and address their potential role in chronic pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Pericytes are implicated in the function of neural microvasculature, including BBB permeability, neuroimmune factor secretion and leukocyte transmigration...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Salma H Azam, Mitchell Smith, Vivek Somasundaram, Chad V Pecot
Angiogenesis is the growth of new vessels from pre-existing vasculature and is an important component of many biological processes, including embryogenesis and development, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis, and ocular and cardiovascular diseases. Effective in vitro models that recapitulate the biology of angiogenesis are needed to appropriately study this process and identify mechanisms of regulation that can be ultimately targeted for novel therapeutic strategies. The bead angiogenesis assay has been previously demonstrated to recapitulate the multiple stages of endothelial sprouting in vitro...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kavi Devraj, Sylvaine Guérit, Jakranka Macas, Yvonne Reiss
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized barrier that protects the brain microenvironment from toxins and pathogens in the circulation and maintains brain homeostasis. The principal sites of the barrier are endothelial cells of the brain capillaries whose barrier function results from tight intercellular junctions and efflux transporters expressed on the plasma membrane. This function is regulated by pericytes and astrocytes that together form the neurovascular unit (NVU). Several neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tumors are associated with an impaired BBB function...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Paola Campagnolo, Rajesh Katare, Paolo Madeddu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Stephen E McGowan, Diann M McCoy
Secondary alveolar septa are mostly generated after birth in humans and in mice this is completely accomplished postnatally, when mechanical stresses vary as airspace pressure oscillates. Alveolar mesenchymal cells deposit elastic fibers which limit cellular strain, but while the elastic fiber network is incomplete, this function is also served by the intracellular cytoskeleton. Intermediate filament proteins support deformation during cellular division and migration, which occur during septal elongation. Because platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFRα) signaling is essential for alveolar septation, we hypothesized that neuropilin-1 (NRP1) may link PDGFRα to cytoskeletal deformation...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Aleksandra Klimczak, Urszula Kozlowska, Maciej Kurpisz
Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines...
March 13, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Hai-Bin Tang, Xiao-Jian Jiang, Chen Wang, Shi-Chang Liu
Pericytes have long been regarded merely to maintain structural and functional integrity of blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nevertheless, it has also been identified as a component of scar-forming stromal cells after spinal cord injury (SCI). In process of enlargement of spinal cavity after SCI, the number of pericytes increased and outnumbered astrocytes. However, the mechanism of proliferation of pericytes remains unclear. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been reported to play important roles in the formation of glia scar, but previous studies had paid more attention to the astrocytes...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
M M Jamil Al-Obaidi, A Bahadoran, S M Wang, R Manikam, Ch S Raju, S D Sekaran
The blood brain barrier consisting of astrocytes, pericytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses by controlling the access of circulating molecules, immune cells or viruses into the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier is not impenetrable and neuroviruses have evolved to disrupt and evade it. This review aims to describe the underlying entry mechanisms of several neuroviruses such as (Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Nipah virus (NiV), Rabies virus (RABV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) into the CNS through BBB disruption...
2018: Acta Virologica
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Vladislav Volarevic
BACKGROUND: Pericytes are multipotent cells present in every vascularized tissue in the body. Despite the fact that they are well-known for more than a century, pericytes are still representing cells with intriguing properties. This is mainly because of their heterogeneity in terms of definition, tissue distribution, origin, phenotype and multi-functional properties. The body of knowledge illustrates importance of pericytes in the regulation of homeostatic and healing processes in the body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Robert Carlsson, Ilknur Özen, Marco Barbariga, Abderahim Gaceb, Michaela Roth, Gesine Paul
Brain pericytes are important to maintain vascular integrity of the neurovascular unit under both physiological and ischemic conditions. Ischemic stroke is known to induce an inflammatory and hypoxic response due to the lack of oxygen and glucose in the brain tissue. How this early response to ischemia is molecularly regulated in pericytes is largely unknown and may be of importance for future therapeutic targets. Here we evaluate the transcriptional responses in in vitro cultured human brain pericytes after oxygen and/or glucose deprivation...
2018: PloS One
Rebecca Liu, Jonathan Merola, Thomas D Manes, Lingfeng Qin, Gregory T Tietjen, Francesc López-Giráldez, Verena Broecker, Caodi Fang, Catherine Xie, Ping-Min Chen, Nancy C Kirkiles-Smith, Dan Jane-Wit, Jordan S Pober
Early acute rejection of human allografts is mediated by circulating alloreactive host effector memory T cells (TEM). TEM infiltration typically occurs across graft postcapillary venules and involves sequential interactions with graft-derived endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes (PCs). While the role of ECs in allograft rejection has been extensively studied, contributions of PCs to this process are largely unknown. This study aimed to characterize the effects and mechanisms of interactions between human PCs and allogeneic TEM...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Joana Almaça, Jonathan Weitz, Rayner Rodriguez-Diaz, Elizabeth Pereira, Alejandro Caicedo
Efficient insulin secretion requires a well-functioning pancreatic islet microvasculature. The dense network of islet capillaries includes the islet pericyte, a cell that has barely been studied. Here we show that islet pericytes help control local blood flow by adjusting islet capillary diameter. Islet pericytes cover 40% of the microvasculature, are contractile, and are innervated by sympathetic axons. Sympathetic adrenergic input increases pericyte activity and reduces capillary diameter and local blood flow...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Yeon-Hee Yoon, Ji Yoon Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Sung-Wook Nam, Hee-Jung Cho, Suho Lee, Ho Young Chung, Hyun-Shik Lee, Mae-Ja Park
Celecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that selectively inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 and is prescribed for severe pain and inflammation. The excellent therapeutic effects of celecoxib mean that it is frequently used clinically, including for women of child-bearing age. However, the prenatal effects of this compound have not been studied extensively in vertebrates. The present study examined the developmental toxicity of celecoxib using a frog embryo teratogenic assay-Xenopus (FETAX). In addition, we examined its effects on cell migration using co-cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and 10T1/2 cells...
March 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
David Oliveira Dias, Hoseok Kim, Daniel Holl, Beata Werne Solnestam, Joakim Lundeberg, Marie Carlén, Christian Göritz, Jonas Frisén
CNS injury often severs axons. Scar tissue that forms locally at the lesion site is thought to block axonal regeneration, resulting in permanent functional deficits. We report that inhibiting the generation of progeny by a subclass of pericytes led to decreased fibrosis and extracellular matrix deposition after spinal cord injury in mice. Regeneration of raphespinal and corticospinal tract axons was enhanced and sensorimotor function recovery improved following spinal cord injury in animals with attenuated pericyte-derived scarring...
February 21, 2018: Cell
Carmen Belli, Dario Trapani, Giulia Viale, Paolo D'Amico, Bruno Achutti Duso, Paolo Della Vigna, Franco Orsi, Giuseppe Curigliano
Tumorigenesis is a complex and dynamic process involving different cellular and non-cellular elements composed of tumor microenvironment (TME). The interaction of TME with cancer cells is responsible for tumor development, progression and drug resistance. TME consists of non malignant cells of the tumor such as cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells and pericytes composing tumor vasculature, immune and inflammatory cells, bone marrow derived cells, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) establishing a complex cross-talk with tumor...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Kelley E McQueeney, Joseph M Salamoun, James C Burnett, Nektarios Barabutis, Paula Pekic, Sophie L Lewandowski, Danielle C Llaneza, Robert Cornelison, Yunpeng Bai, Zhong-Yin Zhang, John D Catravas, Charles N Landen, Peter Wipf, John S Lazo, Elizabeth R Sharlow
Overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP4A oncoproteins is common in many human cancers and is associated with poor patient prognosis and survival. We observed elevated levels of PTP4A3 phosphatase in 79% of human ovarian tumor samples, with significant overexpression in tumor endothelium and pericytes. Furthermore, PTP4A phosphatases appear to regulate several key malignant processes, such as invasion, migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting a pivotal regulatory role in cancer and endothelial signaling pathways...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Yi-Chen Sun, Li-Chuan Yang, Fung-Rong Hu, Chung-Tien Lin, Yan-Ming Chen, Wei-Li Chen
OBJECTIVES: In vivo confocal microscopy was used to observe the morphological presentations and anatomical correlations between corneal neovascularization (NV) and intracorneal lipid deposition in a rabbit model of contact lens (CL)-induced lipid keratopathy secondary to corneal NV. METHODS: Rabbits were divided into 3 groups: (1) 8-week normal diet, (2) 8-week high-cholesterol diet, and (3) 4-week normal diet followed by 4-week high-cholesterol diet. Corneal NV was induced by closed-eye CL...
February 27, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Lucio Díaz-Flores, Ricardo Gutiérrez, M ª Pino García, M González-Gómez, Francisco J Sáez, Lucio Díaz-Flores, José Luis Carrasco, Juan F Madrid
Sinusoidal hemangioma, characterized by interconnecting thin-walled vascular spaces, may present papillae/pseudo-papillae and zones that resemble intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH). Our objectives are to explore the existence of zones in IPEH with sinusoidal hemangioma characteristics, the mechanism of papillary and septa formation in sinusoidal hemangioma and the comparison of this mechanism with that in IPEH. For these purposes, specimens of 4 cases of each entity were selected and studied by serial histologic sections and by immunochemistry and immunofluorescence procedures...
February 25, 2018: Acta Histochemica
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