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Blood labyrinth barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693517/carbenoxolone-exposure-during-late-gestation-in-rats-alters-placental-expressions-of-p53-and-estrogen-receptors
#1
Maie D Al-Bader, Sara A Jasem, Narayana Kilarkaje
Gestational carbenoxolone exposure inhibits placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD), the physiological barrier for glucocorticoids, which increases fetal exposure to glucocorticoids and induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that carbenoxolone exposure influences the expression of placental estrogen receptors-α and β (ERα & ERβ) and p53 leading to inhibited fetal and placental growth. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice daily with either carbenoxolone (10mg/kg; s...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600399/contributions-of-mouse-and-human-hematopoietic-cells-to-remodeling-of-the-adult-auditory-nerve-after-neuron-loss
#2
Hainan Lang, Eishi Nishimoto, Yazhi Xing, LaShardai N Brown, Kenyaria V Noble, Jeremy L Barth, Amanda C LaRue, Kiyoshi Ando, Bradley A Schulte
The peripheral auditory nerve (AN) carries sound information from sensory hair cells to the brain. The present study investigated the contribution of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cellular diversity in the AN following the destruction of neuron cell bodies, also known as spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Exposure of the adult mouse cochlea to ouabain selectively killed type I SGNs and disrupted the blood-labyrinth barrier. This procedure also resulted in the upregulation of genes associated with hematopoietic cell homing and differentiation, and provided an environment conducive to the tissue engraftment of circulating stem/progenitor cells into the AN...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256854/blood-labyrinth-barrier-permeability-in-meni%C3%A3-re-disease-and-idiopathic-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-findings-on-delayed-postcontrast-3d-flair-mri
#3
M N Pakdaman, G Ishiyama, A Ishiyama, K A Peng, H J Kim, W B Pope, A R Sepahdari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Menière disease and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss can have overlapping clinical presentation and may have similar pathophysiology. Prior studies using postcontrast 3D-FLAIR MR imaging suggest abnormal blood-labyrinth barrier permeability in both conditions, but the 2 diseases have not been directly compared by using the same imaging techniques. We hypothesized that delayed postcontrast 3D-FLAIR MR imaging would show differences in blood-labyrinth barrier permeability between Menière disease and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss...
June 2, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203844/cochlear-implant-impedance-fluctuation-in-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-a-case-study
#4
Celene McNeill, Kate Eykamp
OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of hearing fluctuation in Ménière's disease (MD) by disseminating a case study of a cochlear implanted ear with ongoing fluctuation of electrode impedances with episodic tinnitus and no associated vestibular symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral audiology clinic. PATIENT: Man, born in 1936, with a total hearing loss in the right ear because of Mumps at age 8 years and a fluctuating progressive hearing loss in the left ear because of Ménière's disease since age 63 years...
August 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26905306/intracochlear-drug-injections-through-the-round-window-membrane-measures-to-improve-drug-retention
#5
Stefan K Plontke, Jared J Hartsock, Ruth M Gill, Alec N Salt
The goal of this study was to develop an appropriate methodology to apply drugs quantitatively to the perilymph of the ear. Intratympanic applications of drugs to the inner ear often result in variable drug levels in the perilymph and can only be used for molecules that readily permeate the round window (RW) membrane. Direct intracochlear and intralabyrinthine application procedures for drugs, genes or cell-based therapies bypass the tight boundaries at the RW, oval window, otic capsule and the blood-labyrinth barrier...
2016: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802581/pathophysiology-of-the-cochlear-intrastrial-fluid-blood-barrier-review
#6
REVIEW
Xiaorui Shi
The blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) in the stria vascularis is a highly specialized capillary network that controls exchanges between blood and the intrastitial space in the cochlea. The barrier shields the inner ear from blood-born toxic substances and selectively passes ions, fluids, and nutrients to the cochlea, playing an essential role in the maintenance of cochlear homeostasis. Anatomically, the BLB is comprised of endothelial cells (ECs) in the strial microvasculature, elaborated tight and adherens junctions, pericytes (PCs), basement membrane (BM), and perivascular resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms), which together form a complex "cochlear-vascular unit" in the stria vascularis...
August 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26778584/the-basal-chorionic-trophoblast-cell-layer-an-emerging-coordinator-of-placenta-development
#7
Katharina Walentin, Christian Hinze, Kai M Schmidt-Ott
During gestation, fetomaternal exchange occurs in the villous tree (labyrinth) of the placenta. Development of this structure depends on tightly coordinated cellular processes of branching morphogenesis and differentiation of specialized trophoblast cells. The basal chorionic trophoblast (BCT) cell layer that localizes next to the chorioallantoic interface is of critical importance for labyrinth morphogenesis in rodents. Gcm1-positive cell clusters within this layer initiate branching morphogenesis thereby guiding allantoic fetal blood vessels towards maternal blood sinuses...
March 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26747254/3d-flair-sequence-at-3t-in-cochlear-otosclerosis
#8
Francesco Lombardo, Sara De Cori, Gayane Aghakhanyan, Domenico Montanaro, Daniele De Marchi, Francesca Frijia, Susanna Fortunato, Francesca Forli, Dante Chiappino, Stefano Berrettini, Raffaello Canapicchi
PURPOSE: To assess the capability of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) sequences in detecting signal alterations of the endolabyrinthine fluid in patients with otosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D-FLAIR before and after (-/+) gadolinium (Gd) administration was added to the standard MR protocol and acquired in 13 patients with a clinical/audiological diagnosis of severe/profound hearing loss in otosclerosis who were candidates for cochlear implantation and in 11 control subjects using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment...
October 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246657/nimodipine-in-otolaryngology-from-past-evidence-to-clinical-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
D Monzani, E Genovese, L A Pini, F Di Berardino, M Alicandri Ciufelli, G M Galeazzi, L Presutti
As L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) control Ca(2+) influx and depolarisation of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle, they represent a specific therapeutic target for calcium channel blockers (CCBs), which are approved and widely used to treat hypertension, myocardial ischaemia and arrhythmias. L-type currents also play a role in calcium entry in the sensory cells of the inner ear. In hair cells of both cochlea and labyrinth, calcium cytoplasmic influx is the first physiological process that activates complex intracellular enzymatic reactions resulting in neurotransmitter release...
June 2015: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26223301/endotoxemia-mediated-inflammation-potentiates-aminoglycoside-induced-ototoxicity
#10
Ja-Won Koo, Lourdes Quintanilla-Dieck, Meiyan Jiang, Jianping Liu, Zachary D Urdang, Jordan J Allensworth, Campbell P Cross, Hongzhe Li, Peter S Steyger
The ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotics are essential to treat severe bacterial infections, particularly in neonatal intensive care units. Using a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) experimental model of sepsis, we tested whether LPS-mediated inflammation potentiates cochlear uptake of aminoglycosides and permanent hearing loss in mice. Using confocal microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found that low-dose LPS (endotoxemia) greatly increased cochlear concentrations of aminoglycosides and resulted in vasodilation of cochlear capillaries without inducing paracellular flux across the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) or elevating serum concentrations of the drug...
July 29, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26042029/nanoparticle-mediated-drug-delivery-of-rolipram-to-tyrosine-kinase-b-positive-cells-in-the-inner-ear-with-targeting-peptides-and-agonistic-antibodies
#11
Rudolf Glueckert, Christian O Pritz, Soumen Roy, Jozsef Dudas, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer
AIM: Systemic pharmacotherapies have limitation due to blood-labyrinth barrier, so local delivery via the round window membrane opens a path for effective treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticle (NP)-mediated cell specific drug delivery may enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. Different NPs with ligands to target TrkB receptor were tested. Distribution, uptake mechanisms, trafficking, and bioefficacy of drug release of rolipram loaded NPs were evaluated. METHODS: We tested lipid based nanocapsules (LNCs), Quantum Dot, silica NPs with surface modification by peptides mimicking TrkB or TrkB activating antibodies...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25815897/lipopolysaccharide-induced-middle-ear-inflammation-disrupts-the-cochlear-intra-strial-fluid-blood-barrier-through-down-regulation-of-tight-junction-proteins
#12
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Zhiqiang Hou, Jing Cai, Mingmin Dong, Xiaorui Shi
Middle ear infection (or inflammation) is the most common pathological condition that causes fluid to accumulate in the middle ear, disrupting cochlear homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide, a product of bacteriolysis, activates macrophages and causes release of inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that lipopolysaccharides cause functional and structural changes in the inner ear similar to that of inflammation. However, it is specifically not known how lipopolysaccharides affect the blood-labyrinth barrier in the stria vascularis (intra-strial fluid-blood barrier), nor what the underlying mechanisms are...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25746077/-pneumococcal-meningitis-with-accompanying-severe-hearing-loss-3d-flair-imaging-of-the-inner-ear-and-treatment
#13
Naoyuki Hara, Taijun Yunoki, Satoshi Kubo, Hiroki Fujii, Kazuhiro Takamatu, Akio Tanaka, Masaru Kuriyama
A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of unconsciousness. He was diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis and treated with a combination of antibiotics (meropenem hydrate), dexamethasone, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Although he gradually regained consciousness, he started showing signs of hearing disturbance. Measurement of auditory brainstem response revealed severe sensorineural hearing loss. The patient then underwent three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed increased signals in the cochlea and the vestibuum, and their enhancement after gadolinium administration...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25740201/structural-changes-in-thestrial-blood-labyrinth-barrier-of-aged-c57bl-6-mice
#14
Lingling Neng, Jinhui Zhang, Ju Yang, Fei Zhang, Ivan A Lopez, Mingmin Dong, Xiaorui Shi
Tight control over cochlear blood flow (CoBF) and the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) in the striavascularis is critical for maintaining the ionic, fluid and energy balance necessary for hearing function. Inefficient CoBF and disruption of BLB integrity have long been considered major etiologic factors in a variety of hearing disorders. In this study, we investigate structural changes in the BLB of the striavascularis in age-graded C57BL/6 mice (1 to 21 months) with a focus on changes in two blood barrier accessory cells, namely pericytes (PCs) and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms)...
September 2015: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25539640/noise-alters-guinea-pig-s-blood-labyrinth-barrier-ultrastructure-and-permeability-along-with-a-decrease-of-cochlear-claudin-5-and-occludin
#15
Yong-Xiang Wu, Guo-Xia Zhu, Xin-Qin Liu, Fei Sun, Ke Zhou, Shuang Wang, Chun-Mei Wang, Jin-Wen Jia, Jian-Tao Song, Lian-Jun Lu
BACKGROUND: Noise exposure (NE) is a severe modern health hazard that induces hearing impairment. However, the noise-induced ultrastructural changes of blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) and the potential involvements of tight junction proteins (TJP) remain inconclusive. We investigated the effects of NE on not only the ultrastructure of cochlea and permeability of BLB but also the expression of TJP within the guinea pig cochlea. RESULTS: Male albino guinea pigs were exposed to white noise for 4 h or 2 consecutive days (115 dB sound pressure level, 6 hours per day) and the hearing impairments and light microscopic change of BLB were evaluated with auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and the cochlear sensory epithelia surface preparation, respectively...
2014: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25346568/vascular-pathophysiology-in-hearing-disorders
#16
Dennis R Trune, Anh Nguyen-Huynh
The inner ear vasculature is responsible for maintenance of the blood-labyrinth barrier, transport of systemic hormones for ion homeostasis, and supplying nutrients for metabolic functions. Unfortunately, these blood vessels also expose the ear to circulating inflammatory factors resulting from systemic diseases. Thus, while the inner ear blood vessels are critical for normal function, they also are facilitating pathologic mechanisms that result in hearing and vestibular dysfunction. In spite of these numerous critical roles of inner ear vasculature, little is known of its normal homeostatic functions and how these are compromised in disease...
August 2012: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25241866/-effects-of-sildenafil-citrate-on-mice-hearing
#17
Xiaoqin Luo, Xuyao Guo, Lin Chen, Xiaohong Chen, Xueyuan Zhang, Wei Yuan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of the Sildenafil citrate on mice hearing. METHODS: Seven-week-old adult male Kunming mice were used. The mice were randomly divided into four groups with 10 mice in each group.Sildenafil groups were orally administered daily with sildenafil [0.1 mg/(kg·d), 1 mg/(kg·d), 10 mg/(kg·d)] and control group was orally administered with normal saline. Then mice were tested for auditory brainstem response (ABR) to observe the changes of ABR's thresholds at before administration and 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 day afterwards...
June 2014: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25219202/-effects-of-acetamidophenol-on-auditory-in-mice
#18
Lin Chen, Xiaoqin Luo, Xiaohong Chen, Xueyuan Zhang, Wei Yuan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to observe the effects of the Acetaminophen on auditory in mice. METHOD: Regardless of male and female mice, healthy seven-year-old C57 mice were randomly divided into Acetaminophen low-dose group (150 mg/kg), Acetaminophen medium-dose group (300 mg/kg), Acetaminophen high-dose group(600 mg/kg) and control group. Then mice were tested for ABR to observe the changes of ABR's threshold in the zero, second, fourth and ninth day separately...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24952083/systemic-lipopolysaccharide-compromises-the-blood-labyrinth-barrier-and-increases-entry-of-serum-fluorescein-into-the-perilymph
#19
Keiko Hirose, Jared J Hartsock, Shane Johnson, Peter Santi, Alec N Salt
The blood vessels that supply the inner ear form a barrier between the blood and the inner ear fluids to control the exchange of solutes, protein, and water. This barrier, called the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is analogous to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which plays a critical role in limiting the entry of inflammatory and infectious agents into the central nervous system. We have developed an in vivo method to assess the functional integrity of the BLB by injecting sodium fluorescein into the systemic circulation of mice and measuring the amount of fluorescein that enters perilymph in live animals...
October 2014: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24948605/essential-role-of-the-erk-mapk-pathway-in-blood-placental-barrier-formation
#20
Valérie Nadeau, Jean Charron
The mammalian genome contains two ERK/MAP kinase kinase genes, Map2k1 and Map2k2, which encode dual-specificity kinases responsible for ERK activation. Loss of Map2k1 function in mouse causes embryonic lethality due to placental defects, whereas Map2k2 mutants have a normal lifespan. The majority of Map2k1(+/-) Map2k2(+/-) embryos die during gestation from the underdevelopment of the placenta labyrinth, demonstrating that both kinases are involved in placenta formation. Map2k1(+/-) Map2k2(+/-) mutants show reduced vascularization of the labyrinth and defective formation of syncytiotrophoblast layer II (SynT-II) leading to the accumulation of multinucleated trophoblast giant cells (MTGs)...
July 2014: Development
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