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Cardiac ultrasound

Jacob J Glaser, Cassandra Cardarelli, Samuel Galvagno, Thomas M Scalea, Sarah B Murthi
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound often includes cardiac ultrasound. It is commonly used to evaluate cardiac function in critically ill patients but lacks the specific quantitative anatomic assessment afforded by standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We developed the Focused Rapid Echocardiographic Examination (FREE), a hybrid between a cardiac ultrasound and TTE that places an emphasis on cardiac function rather than anatomy. We hypothesized that data obtained from FREE correlate well with TTE while providing actionable information for clinical decision making...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
C Roehrig, M Govier, J Robinson, A Aneman
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether measuring carotid arterial flow by the time velocity integral using vascular Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor cardiac output and volume responsiveness. METHODS: The carotid Doppler flow (time velocity integral and peak flow velocity variation) was assessed in triplicate by an intensivist with formal vascular ultrasound training. Thirty-three patients admitted following coronary by-pass surgery were studied before and after a passive leg-raising manoeuvre to investigate volume responsiveness (more than 10% increase in cardiac output) along with indices of arterial load measuring cardiac output by thermodilution...
October 21, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Bo Xu, Björn Redfors, Yuejin Yang, Shubin Qiao, Yongjian Wu, Jilin Chen, Haibo Liu, Jue Chen, Liang Xu, Yanyan Zhao, Changdong Guan, Runlin Gao, Philippe Généreux
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of operator experience on prognosis after left main coronary artery (LM) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: LM PCI can be technically challenging and potentially risky considering the amount of supplied myocardium. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent unprotected LM PCI at a single institution were included and compared according to whether the primary operator was an experienced, high-volume LM operator (defined as an operator who performed at least 15 LM PCIs per year for at least 3 consecutive years) or not...
October 24, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Gerhard Batz, Michael Dinkel
Echocardiography as an imaging method in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine has enabled a new dimension of hemodynamic monitoring: the direct visualization of the cardiac function and its disruptions. Preconditions for a broad application in this area was the development of mobile, high-definition ultrasonic devices and the origination of focused examination techniques. A successful application of this method requires the respective know-how of the examiner, in order to take relevant decisions and avoid misdiagnoses...
October 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Jie Zhao, Guolin Wang
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the inferior vena cava respirophasic variation (IVC collapsibility index [IVCCI]) and the general heart end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI). By determining the above relationship, we could evaluate the utility of IVCCI as an indicator. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-two septic patients were finally enrolled in this study. The inferior vena cava's diameter was measured with the largest at the end of expiration (IVC3) and with the smallest at the end of inspiration (IVCi) on the ultrasound (IVCCI=[(IVCD e - IVCD i)/IVCD e] ×100%)...
October 20, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Zebin Wang, Yueqiang Wen, Jianbo Liang, Xinling Liang, Wei Shi
Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function was found to be a significant predictor of cardiovascular events and general mortality in dialysis. Studies have indicated that dialysate calcium concentrations were significantly associated with cardiac function. However, the relationship between low calcium dialysate and LV diastolic function has not been clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of low calcium dialysate on cardiac function in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. A total of 60 PD patients were enrolled in this study, with a calcium content of the PD solution of 1...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Dae Young Hyun, Myung Ho Jeong, Doo Sun Sim, Yun Ah Jeong, Kyung Hoon Cho, Min Chul Kim, Hyun Kuk Kim, Hae Chang Jeong, Keun Ho Park, Young Joon Hong, Jun Han Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Jung Chaee Kang
Background/Aims: This study appraised the long term clinical outcomes of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. There are limited data regarding long-term clinical outcomes after PCI for ULMCA disease. Methods: From 2001 to 2011, a total of 448 patients who underwent PCI for ULMCA disease and had 2-year clinical follow-up, were analyzed. The study patients were divided into two groups: group I (stable angina pectoris [SAP], n = 60, 48 men, 62 ± 10 years) and group II (acute coronary syndrome [ACS], n = 388, 291 men, 64 ± 10 years)...
October 18, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Donghoon Choi
: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is an increasingly recognized medical problem especially in elderly patients. It commonly occurs with systemic manifestations including hypertension (HTN), chronic kidney disease (CKD) or atherosclerotic diseases including coronary or peripheral artery disease. Significant renal artery stenosis may result in HTN, ischemic nephropathy, however it is still in debate about the benefit of revascularization. Although several randomized controlled trials including Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) study has failed to reveal a significant benefit of angioplasty, angioplasty with medical therapy is increasingly accepted in some patients with certain clinical conditions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Livija Sušić, Vedrana Baraban, Josip Vincelj, Lana Maričić, Jasmina Ćatić, Robert Blažeković, Spomenka Manojlović
Detection of an intracardiac mass always represents a clinical challenge. We present a 61-year-old female patient with symptoms of New York Heart Association class III. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography revealed a hypoechogenic mass in the cavity of the dilated right ventricle (RV). Cardiac MRI described a pathologic structure of the RV free wall with pedunculated tumor in its cavity. Three months later, on a repeated echocardiography, there were three individual masses. The patient underwent surgery and the pathohistologic report demonstrated thrombotic masses...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Jessica H Rankin, Marsha Elkhunovich, Dina Seif, Mikaela Chilstrom
Neonatal respiratory distress is an emergent condition with a wide differential diagnosis. A 12-day-old newborn presented to the emergency department in respiratory distress. Point-of-care ultrasound allowed clinicians to rapidly exclude cardiac disease and pneumothorax as possible causes of the patient's respiratory distress, and expedited the identification of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The ultrasound findings and technique, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and radiological diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia are reviewed...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Julie L Huffmyer, Lucas G Fernandez, Cyrus Haghighian, Abdullah S Terkawi, Danja S Groves
BACKGROUND: The Quantra Hemostasis Analyzer is a novel diagnostic device that uses an ultrasound-based technology, sonic estimation of elasticity via resonance (SEER) sonorheometry, to characterize the dynamic changes in viscoelastic properties of a blood sample during coagulation. Cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a significant impact on the coagulation system and can result in perioperative coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to correlate SEER sonorheometry results to corresponding rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and laboratory parameters obtained before, during, and after CPB...
October 4, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Dong-Ho Shin, Sung-Jin Hong, Gary S Mintz, Jung-Sun Kim, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Donghoon Choi, Yangsoo Jang, Myeong-Ki Hong
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided new-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation using a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data from randomized trials. BACKGROUND: Published randomized trials that compare IVUS-guided versus angiography-guided new-generation DES implantation are scarce. METHODS: Searches of the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were performed to find randomized trials that compared IVUS-guided versus angiography-guided new-generation DES implantation...
October 6, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Guillaume Zahnd, Kostas Kapellas, Martijn van Hattem, Anouk van Dijk, André Sérusclat, Philippe Moulin, Aad van der Lugt, Michael Skilton, Maciej Orkisz
The aim of this study was to introduce and evaluate a contour segmentation method to extract the interfaces of the intima-media complex in carotid B-mode ultrasound images. The method was applied to assess the temporal variation of intima-media thickness during the cardiac cycle. The main methodological contribution of the proposed approach is the introduction of an augmented dimension to process 2-D images in a 3-D space. The third dimension, which is added to the two spatial dimensions of the image, corresponds to the tentative local thickness of the intima-media complex...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Matteo Ciocci, Egidio Iorio, Felicia Carotenuto, Haneen A Khashoggi, Francesca Nanni, Sonia Melino
The improvement of solubility and/or dissolution rate of poorly soluble natural compounds is an ideal strategy to make them optimal candidates as new potential drugs. Accordingly, the allyl sulfur compounds and omega-3 fatty acids are natural hydrophobic compounds that exhibit two important combined properties: cardiovascular protection and antitumor activity. Here, we have synthesized and characterized a novel formulation of diallyl disulfide (DADS) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) as protein-nanoemulsions (BAD-NEs), using ultrasounds...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Silvana Arciniegas Rodriguez, Tony Zitek, Richard Sterett, David G Nelson
In the pediatric population, cardiac tamponade may present with altered mental status without any clear signs of trauma. Bedside ultrasound is essential to the early diagnosis of this condition. We describe the case of a 5-year-old boy who sustained a potentially fatal, unrecognized trauma to his chest resulting in cardiac tamponade.
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Anu K Kaskinen, Laura Martelius, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasounds show vertical artifacts known as B-lines in the presence of increased extravascular lung water (EVLW). We aimed to investigate whether lung ultrasound could estimate EVLW after congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised 61 children (age range 3 days to 7.4 years) undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. We compared postoperative B-line scores from lung ultrasounds, early postoperative ultrasound as our primary interest, with corresponding postoperative chest radiography (CXR) lung edema scores, with static lung compliance, and with short-term clinical outcome interpreted as time on mechanical ventilation and length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Douglas Wildes, Warren Lee, Bruno Haider, Scott Cogan, Krishnakumar Sundaresan, David Mills, Christopher Yetter, Patrick Hart, Christopher Haun, Mikael Concepcion, Johan Kirkhorn, Marc Bitoun
We developed a 2.5 x 6.6 mm 2D array transducer with integrated transmit/receive ASIC for 4D ICE (real-time 3D IntraCardiac Echocardiography) applications. The ASIC and transducer design were optimized so that the high voltage transmit, low-voltage TGC (time-gain control) and preamp, subaperture beamformer, and digital control circuits for each transducer element all fit within the 0.019 mm2 area of the element. The transducer assembly was deployed in a 10 Fr (3.3 mm diameter) catheter, integrated with a GE Vivid1 E9 ultrasound imaging system, and evaluated in three pre-clinical studies...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Lori A Stolz, Uwe Stolz, J Matthew Fields, Turandot Saul, Michael Secko, Matthew J Flannigan, Johnathan M Sheele, Robert P Rifenburg, Anthony J Weekes, Elaine B Josephson, John Bedolla, Dana M Resop, Jonathan Dela Cruz, Megan Boysen-Osborn, Terrell Caffery, Charlotte Derr, Rimon Bengiamin, Gerardo Chiricolo, Brandon Backlund, Jagdipak Heer, Robert J Hyde, Srikar Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: Emergency ultrasound (EUS) has been recognized as integral to the training and practice of emergency medicine (EM). The Council of Emergency Medicine Residency-Academy of Emergency Ultrasound (CORD-AEUS) consensus document provides guidelines for resident assessment and progression. The Accredited Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has adopted the EM Milestones for assessment of residents' progress during their residency training which includes demonstration of procedural competency in bedside ultrasound...
October 14, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Ludovico La Grutta, Marta Marasà, Patrizia Toia, Daniele Ajello, Domenico Albano, Erica Maffei, Emanuele Grassedonio, Giuseppina Novo, Massimo Galia, Giuseppe Caruso, Salvatore Novo, Filippo Cademartiri, Massimo Midiri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the atherosclerotic disease in the coronary and carotid arteries in patients who underwent non-invasive imaging for suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 107 patients (64 men, age 59 ± 12) with atypical chest pain underwent cardiac CT (CCT) and carotid ultrasound (US) on the same day. Severity (obstructive or not-obstructive disease), location, shape, and composition of atherosclerotic plaques in the two districts were evaluated...
October 13, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
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