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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914218/disruptive-influences-on-research-in-academic-pathology-departments-proposed-changes-to-the-common-rule-governing-informed-consent-for-research-use-of-biospecimens-and-to-rules-governing-return-of-research-results
#1
REVIEW
Mark E Sobel, Jennifer C Dreyfus
Academic pathology departments will be dramatically affected by proposed United States federal government regulatory initiatives. Pathology research will be substantially altered if proposed changes to the Common Rule (Code of Federal Regulations: Protection of Human Subjects title 45 CFR 46) and regulations governing the return of individual research results are approved and finalized, even more so now that the Precision Medicine initiative has been launched. Together, these changes are disruptive influences on academic pathology research as we know it, straining limited resources and compromising advances in diagnostic and academic pathology...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913988/experience-and-attitudes-toward-informed-consent-in-pharmacy-practice-research-do-pharmacists-care
#2
Dušanka M Krajnović, Dragana D Jocić
The experience and attitudes of pharmacists towards research ethics through pharmacy practice research is largely unknown. This study sought to examine the pharmacists' experience if they were research participants and their attitudes on the importance of informed consent in research practice. A cross-sectional survey was employed to achieve the aims of this study. The majority of 433 participating pharmacists were female (86.1%); the average age was 43.2 ± 9.5 years, and their average working experience was 15...
December 2, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913987/a-moral-normative-framework-for-the-judgment-of-actions-and-decisions-in-the-construction-industry-and-engineering-part-ii
#3
Omar J Alkhatib
The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market...
December 2, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913594/highlights-in-bioethics-through-40%C3%A2-years-a-quantitative-analysis-of-top-cited-journal-articles
#4
Pingyue Jin, Mark Hakkarinen
BACKGROUND: The field of bioethics is constantly evolving. To investigate trends in the field of bioethics, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the top-cited articles in bioethical journals over the past 40 years. METHODS: Retrospective quantitative study of the 20 most cited bioethics articles published each year from 1975 to 2014 were conducted. Article samples were selected from a list of the most relevant 100 journals in the field of bioethics. RESULTS: In total, 800 top-cited articles between 1975 and 2014 in the domain of bioethics were retrieved and analysed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913561/hospitals-and-patients-working-in-unity-how-r-u-protocol-for-a-prospective-feasibility-study-of-telephone-peer-support-to-improve-older-patients-quality-of-life-after-emergency-department-discharge
#5
Judy A Lowthian, Alyse Lennox, Andrea Curtis, Jeremy Dale, Colette Browning, De Villiers Smit, Gillian Wilson, Debra O'Brien, Cate Rosewarne, Lee Boyd, Cath Garner, Peter Cameron
INTRODUCTION: Older people presenting to an emergency department (ED) have a higher likelihood of social isolation, loneliness and depression; which are all associated with negative health outcomes and increased health service use, including higher rates of ED attendance. The HOW R U? study aims to ascertain the feasibility and acceptability of a postdischarge telephone support programme for older ED patients following discharge. The intervention, which aims to improve quality of life, will be delivered by hospital-based volunteers...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913559/physical-activity-as-intervention-for-age-related-loss-of-muscle-mass-and-function-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-the-lisa-study
#6
Christian Skou Eriksen, Ellen Garde, Nina Linde Reislev, Cathrine Lawaetz Wimmelmann, Theresa Bieler, Andreas Kraag Ziegler, Anne Theil Gylling, Kasper Juel Dideriksen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Michael Kjaer
INTRODUCTION: Physical and cognitive function decline with age, accelerating during the 6th decade. Loss of muscle power (force×velocity product) is a dominant physical determinant for loss of functional ability, especially if the lower extremities are affected. Muscle strength training is known to maintain or even improve muscle power as well as physical function in older adults, but the optimal type of training for beneficial long-term training effects over several years is unknown...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912974/pulmonary-function-and-nutritional-morbidity-in-children-and-adolescents-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#7
Beth Haliburton, Marialena Mouzaki, Monping Chiang, Vikki Scaini, Margaret Marcon, Wenming Duan, David Wilson, Priscilla Pl Chiu, Theo J Moraes
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is common among congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors and may result from elevated respiratory effort. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) and pulmonary function test (PFT) results in children and adolescents with CDH to determine if there is a correlation. METHODS: With ethics approval (REB# 1000035323), anthropometrics, indirect calorimetry (IC) results and PFTs were collected from patients 5-17years of age during CDH clinic visits between 2000 and 2016...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912937/honey-prevents-oral-mocositis-in-children-undergoing-chemotherapy-a-quasi-experimental-study-with-a-control-group
#8
Hacer Kobya Bulut, Fatma Güdücü Tüfekci
BACKGROUND: There are numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options available in the treatment of oral mucositis. However, in spite of so many methods and products, medical professionals have not come to a consensus as to which of these offer the best results. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess the effect of oral care with honey on children undergoing chemotherapy for the prevention and healing of oral mucositis. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on children undergoing chemotherapy...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912862/ethics-and-oversight-in-publication
#9
EDITORIAL
Neal W Pollock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912741/impact-of-a-school-based-intervention-on-nutritional-education-and-physical-activity-in-primary-public-schools-in-chile-kind-programme-study-protocol-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Nelly Bustos, Sonia Olivares, Bárbara Leyton, Marcelo Cano, Cecilia Albala
BACKGROUND: Chile has suffered a fast increase in childhood obesity in the last 10 years. As a result, several school programmes have been implemented, however the effectiveness of these needs to be evaluated to identify and prioritize strategies to curve this trend. METHODS: Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twelve primary public schools chosen at random over three regions of the country will take part in this study. The sample size consisted of a total of 1,655 children...
December 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912739/comparing-the-adverse-clinical-outcomes-associated-with-fraction-flow-reserve-guided-versus-angiography-guided-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Chandra Mouli Yanamala, Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: Recently published randomized controlled trials have shown different results compared to the Fraction Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multi-vessel Evaluation (FAME) study. Therefore, this current analysis aimed to compare the adverse clinical outcomes associated with Fraction Flow Reserve (FFR)-guided versus standard angiography-guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) using a large number of randomized patients. METHODS: PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched for studies comparing FFR-guided with angiography-guided PCI...
December 3, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911892/authorization-of-animal-experiments-is-based-on-confidence-rather-than-evidence-of-scientific-rigor
#12
Lucile Vogt, Thomas S Reichlin, Christina Nathues, Hanno Würbel
Accumulating evidence indicates high risk of bias in preclinical animal research, questioning the scientific validity and reproducibility of published research findings. Systematic reviews found low rates of reporting of measures against risks of bias in the published literature (e.g., randomization, blinding, sample size calculation) and a correlation between low reporting rates and inflated treatment effects. That most animal research undergoes peer review or ethical review would offer the possibility to detect risks of bias at an earlier stage, before the research has been conducted...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910804/sudden-cardiac-death-a-nationwide-cohort-study-among-the-young
#13
Bjarke Risgaard
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a tragic event affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although several studies have investigated the epidemiology of SCD, these studies may have been affected by reporting and referral biases, which are reflected in the very different incidence rates and causes of deaths that have previously been reported. Among SCD victims aged < 36 years, inherited cardiac diseases are well known to play an important role. However, the extent to which inherited cardiac diseases also play a role in SCD victims aged < 50 years has not been completely described...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910800/routine-x-ray-of-the-chest-is-not-justified-in-staging-of-cutaneous-melanoma-patients
#14
Caroline Asirvatham Gjørup, Helle Westergren Hendel, Rita Kaae Pilegaard, Cecilie Balslev Willert, Lisbet Rosenkrantz Hölmich
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma is increasing in Denmark and worldwide. However, the prevalence of distant metastases at the time of diagnosis has decreased to 1%. We therefore questioned the value of routine preoperative chest X-ray (CXR) for staging asymptomatic melanoma patients and hypothesised that routine CXR is not justified. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patients undergoing wide local excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma in the period from 2010 to 2014...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910133/physical-restraints-and-associations-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-personal-characteristics-in-residential-care-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Marja Kuronen, Hannu Kautiainen, Pertti Karppi, Sirpa Hartikainen, Hannu Koponen
BACKGROUND: Physical restraints are widely used in residential care. The objective was to investigate restraint use and its associations with neuropsychiatric symptoms and personal characteristics in residential care. METHODS: Data were collected in the South Savo Hospital District from 66 of 68 public or private institutions providing long-term residential care. Nurses assessed the use of physical restraints and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) included in the symptom list of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910119/the-significance-of-meaningful-and-enjoyable-activities-for-nursing-home-resident-s-experiences-of-dignity
#16
Åshild Slettebø, Berit Saeteren, Synnøve Caspari, Vibeke Lohne, Arne Wilhelm Rehnsfeldt, Anne Kari Tolo Heggestad, Britt Lillestø, Bente Høy, Maj-Britt Råholm, Lillemor Lindwall, Trygve Aasgaard, Dagfinn Nåden
BACKGROUND: Living in a nursing home may be challenging to the residents' experience of dignity. Residents' perception of how their dignity is respected in everyday care is important. AIM: To examine how nursing home residents experience dignity through the provision of activities that foster meaning and joy in their daily life. METHOD: A qualitative design was used and 28 individual semistructured interviews conducted with nursing home residents from six nursing homes in Denmark, Norway and Sweden...
December 2, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909786/calcific-tendinopathy-of-the-shoulder-with-intraosseous-extension-outcomes-of-ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-irrigation
#17
Michail E Klontzas, Evangelia E Vassalou, Apostolos H Karantanas
OBJECTIVES: Rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy (RCCT) with intraosseous extension is a rare complication of tendinous and peritendinous involvement. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the outcome of ultrasound-guided percutaneous irrigation of calcific tendinopathy (US-PICT) in patients with intraosseous involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to June 2014, patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of RCCT were prospectively categorised in two groups based on imaging findings: group A (10 patients) with intraosseous RCCT and group B (control group 35 patients) without osseous involvement...
December 1, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909653/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-cervical-spine-under-represents-sagittal-plane-deformity-in-degenerative-myelopathy-patients
#18
Douglas S Weinberg, Arunit J Chugh, Jeremy J Gebhart, Jason D Eubanks
BACKGROUND: In treating patients with cervical myelopathy, surgical approach may be dictated by sagittal balance, highlighting the need for accurate pre-operative assessment. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is widely-recognized for its utility in the diagnosis and surgical planning of cervical myelopathy. Plain radiographs (X-rays) are a reliable tool to assess bony alignment. However, they may not always be included in standard pre-operative evaluation, especially in an era of restricted payer-environments...
2016: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909633/the-hidden-curriculum-exposing-the-unintended-lessons-of-medical-education
#19
Laura Hopkins, Lana Saciragic, Joanna Kim, Glenn Posner
INTRODUCTION:  The hidden curriculum is a set of ethical, moral, and value-based teachings communicated to doctors-in-training, providing a basis for their future interactions with patients, peers, and colleagues. The aim of our study is to introduce the concept of the hidden curriculum to a cohort of third-year medical students and to subsequently evaluate their understanding. In particular, we sought to measure and benchmark the degree of hidden curriculum recognition within a Canadian medical education context...
October 25, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909618/clinico-pathological-outcomes-of-post-primary-and-salvage-chemotherapy-retroperitoneal-lymph-node-dissection-for-mixed-germ-cell-tumors-king-hussein-cancer-center-experience
#20
Kholoud Alqasem, Ibrahim Abukhiran, Judy Jasser, Tamer Bisharat, Riyad T Ellati, Jakub Khzouz, Ibrahim Al-Saidi, Ali Al-Daghamin
OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize clinical and pathologic outcomes of advanced mixed germ cell tumors after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for post-chemotherapy residual masses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2006 and November 2015, 56 patients underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for residual masses of greater than 1 cm after receiving either primary chemotherapy or salvage chemotherapy. Retrospective review of the patients' characteristics, clinical, pathological, and treatment outcomes were performed after institutional review board (IRB) and ethics committee approval...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
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