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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275845/the-wandering-self-tracking-distracting-self-generated-thought-in-a-cognitively-demanding-context
#1
Stefan Huijser, Marieke K van Vugt, Niels A Taatgen
We investigated how self-referential processing (SRP) affected self-generated thought in a complex working memory task (CWM) to test the predictions of a computational cognitive model. This model described self-generated thought as resulting from competition between task- and distracting processes, and predicted that self-generated thought interferes with rehearsal, reducing memory performance. SRP was hypothesized to influence this goal competition process by encouraging distracting self-generated thinking...
December 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240817/more-visual-mind-wandering-occurrence-during-visual-task-performance-modality-of-the-concurrent-task-affects-how-the-mind-wanders
#2
HeeSun Choi, Michael Geden, Jing Feng
Mind wandering has been considered as a mental process that is either independent from the concurrent task or regulated like a secondary task. These accounts predict that the form of mind wandering (i.e., images or words) should be either unaffected by or different from the modality form (i.e., visual or auditory) of the concurrent task. Findings from this study challenge these accounts. We measured the rate and the form of mind wandering in three task conditions: fixation, visual 2-back, and auditory 2-back...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209069/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-dampens-mind-wandering-in-men
#3
Elena Bertossi, Ludovica Peccenini, Andrea Solmi, Alessio Avenanti, Elisa Ciaramelli
Mind-wandering, the mind's capacity to stray from external events and generate task-unrelated thought, has been associated with activity in the brain default network. To date, little is understood about the contribution of individual nodes of this network to mind-wandering. Here, we investigated the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mind-wandering, by perturbing this region with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Young healthy participants performed a choice reaction time task both before and after receiving cathodal tDCS over mPFC, and had their thoughts periodically sampled...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205574/different-pre-scanning-instructions-induce-distinct-psychological-and-resting-brain-states-during-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Toshikazu Kawagoe, Keiichi Onoda, Shuhei Yamaguchi
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to investigate functional brain network connectivity during rest or when the subject is not performing an explicit task. In the standard procedure, subjects are instructed to "let your mind wander" or "think of nothing." While these instructions appear appropriate to induce a "resting-state," they could induce distinct psychological and physiological states during the scan. In this study, we investigated whether different instructions affect mental state and functional connectivity (FC) (i...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197692/linking-mind-wandering-tendency-to-risky-driving-in-young-male-drivers
#5
Derek A Albert, Marie Claude Ouimet, Julien Jarret, Marie-Soleil Cloutier, Martin Paquette, Nancy Badeau, Thomas G Brown
Risky driving is a significant contributor to road traffic crashes, especially in young drivers. Transient mind wandering states, an internal form of distraction, are associated with faster driving, reduced headway distance, slower response times, reduced driver vigilance, and increased crash risk. It is unclear whether a trait tendency to mind wander predicts risky driving, however. Mind wandering is also associated with poor executive control, but whether this capacity moderates the putative link between mind wandering tendency and risky driving is uncertain...
November 30, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163101/eeg-frequency-changes-prior-to-making-errors-in-an-easy-stroop-task
#6
Rachel Atchley, Daniel Klee, Barry Oken
Background: Mind-wandering is a form of off-task attention that has been associated with negative affect and rumination. The goal of this study was to assess potential electroencephalographic markers of task-unrelated thought, or mind-wandering state, as related to error rates during a specialized cognitive task. We used EEG to record frontal frequency band activity while participants completed a Stroop task that was modified to induce boredom, task-unrelated thought, and therefore mind-wandering. Methods: A convenience sample of 27 older adults (50-80 years) completed a computerized Stroop matching task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151406/towards-operationalising-internal-distractibility-mind-wandering-in-adults-with-adhd
#7
Joseph Biederman, Maura Fitzgerald, Mai Uchida, Thomas J Spencer, Ronna Fried, Jennifer Wicks, Alexandra Saunders, Stephen V Faraone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether specific symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can help identify ADHD patients with mind wandering. METHODS: Subjects were adults ages 18-55 of both sexes (n=41) who completed the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version. We used Spearman's rank correlation and Pearson's χ2 analyses to examine associations between the ADHD module and the MWQ and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the ADHD module...
December 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131720/dimensions-of-experience-exploring-the-heterogeneity-of-the-wandering-mind
#8
Hao-Ting Wang, Giulia Poerio, Charlotte Murphy, Danilo Bzdok, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
The tendency for the mind to wander to concerns other than the task at hand is a fundamental feature of human cognition, yet the consequences of variations in its experiential content for psychological functioning are not well understood. Here, we adopted multivariate pattern analysis to simultaneously decompose experience-sampling data and neural functional-connectivity data, which revealed dimensions that simultaneously describe individual variation in self-reported experience and default-mode-network connectivity...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107470/is-an-off-task-mind-a-freely-moving-mind-examining-the-relationship-between-different-dimensions-of-thought
#9
Caitlin Mills, Quentin Raffaelli, Zachary C Irving, Dylan Stan, Kalina Christoff
Mind wandering is frequently defined as task-unrelated or perceptually decoupled thought. However, these definitions may not capture the dynamic features of a wandering mind, such as its tendency to 'move freely'. Here we test the relationship between three theoretically dissociable dimensions of thought: freedom of movement in thought, task-relatedness, and perceptual decoupling (i.e., lack of awareness of surroundings). Using everyday life experience sampling, thought probes were randomly delivered to participants' phones for ten days...
October 26, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094964/a-combined-experimental-and-individual-differences-investigation-into-mind-wandering-during-a-video-lecture
#10
Michael J Kane, Bridget A Smeekens, Claudia C von Bastian, John H Lurquin, Nicholas P Carruth, Akira Miyake
A combined experimental-correlational study with a diverse sample (N = 182) from 2 research sites tested a set of 5 a priori hypotheses about mind wandering and learning, using a realistic video lecture on introductory statistics. Specifically, the study examined whether students' vulnerability to mind wandering during the lecture would predict learning from, and situational interest in, the video and also whether longhand note-taking would help reduce mind wandering, at least for some students. One half of the participants took notes during the video, and all were subsequently tested on lecture content without notes...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094259/on-the-relation-between-reading-difficulty-and-mind-wandering-a-section-length-account
#11
Noah D Forrin, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
In many situations, increasing task difficulty decreases thoughts that are unrelated to the task (i.e., mind-wandering). In the context of reading, however, recent research demonstrated that increasing passage reading difficulty actually increases mind-wandering rates (e.g., Feng et al. in Psychon Bull Rev 20:586-592, 2013). The primary goal of this research was to elucidate the mechanism that drives this positive relation. Across Experiments 1-3, we found evidence that the effect of Flesch-Kincaid reading difficulty on mind-wandering is partially driven by hard passages having longer sections of text (i...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089542/effects-of-sad-and-happy-music-on-mind-wandering-and-the-default-mode-network
#12
Liila Taruffi, Corinna Pehrs, Stavros Skouras, Stefan Koelsch
Music is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human cultures, mostly due to its power to evoke and regulate emotions. However, effects of music evoking different emotional experiences such as sadness and happiness on cognition, and in particular on self-generated thought, are unknown. Here we use probe-caught thought sampling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the influence of sad and happy music on mind-wandering and its underlying neuronal mechanisms. In three experiments we found that sad music, compared with happy music, is associated with stronger mind-wandering (Experiments 1A and 1B) and greater centrality of the nodes of the Default Mode Network (DMN) (Experiment 2)...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075226/why-and-how-the-future-of-the-central-questions-of-consciousness
#13
REVIEW
Marek Havlík, Eva Kozáková, Jiří Horáček
In this review, we deal with two central questions of consciousness how and why, and we outline their possible future development. The question how refers to the empirical endeavor to reveal the neural correlates and mechanisms that form consciousness. On the other hand, the question why generally refers to the "hard problem" of consciousness, which claims that empirical science will always fail to provide a satisfactory answer to the question why is there conscious experience at all. Unfortunately, the hard problem of consciousness will probably never completely disappear because it will always have its most committed supporters...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072483/time-contracts-and-temporal-precision-declines-when-the-mind-wanders
#14
Devin B Terhune, Madeleine Croucher, David Marcusson-Clavertz, James S P Macdonald
Our perception of time varies considerably from moment to moment, but how this variability relates to endogenous fluctuations in attentional states has been neglected. Here, we tested the hypothesis that perceptual decoupling during spontaneous mind wandering episodes distorts interval timing. In two studies with different visual subsecond interval timing paradigms, participants judged their attentional state on a trial-by-trial basis. Mind wandering states were characterized by underestimation of temporal intervals and a decline in temporal discrimination...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051723/autopilot-mind-wandering-and-the-out-of-the-loop-performance-problem
#15
REVIEW
Jonas Gouraud, Arnaud Delorme, Bruno Berberian
To satisfy the increasing demand for safer critical systems, engineers have integrated higher levels of automation, such as glass cockpits in aircraft, power plants, and driverless cars. These guiding principles relegate the operator to a monitoring role, increasing risks for humans to lack system understanding. The out of the loop performance problem arises when operators suffer from complacency and vigilance decrement; consequently, when automation does not behave as expected, understanding the system or taking back manual control may be difficult...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919554/revisiting-the-wandering-womb-oxytocin-in-endometriosis-and-bipolar-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Natalie L Dinsdale, Bernard J Crespi
Hippocrates attributed women's high emotionality - hysteria - to a 'wandering womb'. Although hysteria diagnoses were abandoned along with the notion that displaced wombs cause emotional disturbance, recent research suggests that elevated levels of oxytocin occur in both bipolar disorder and endometriosis, a gynecological condition involving migration of endometrial tissue beyond the uterus. We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that elevated oxytocinergic system activity jointly contributes to bipolar disorder and endometriosis...
September 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918525/increasing-participant-motivation-reduces-rates-of-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#17
Paul Seli, Daniel L Schacter, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
We explored the possibility that increasing participants' motivation to perform well on a focal task can reduce mind wandering. Participants completed a sustained-attention task either with standard instructions (normal motivation), or with instructions informing them that they could be excused from the experiment early if they achieved a certain level of performance (higher motivation). Throughout the task, we assessed rates of mind wandering (both intentional and unintentional types) via thought probes. Results showed that the motivation manipulation led to significant reductions in both intentional and unintentional mind wandering as well as improvements in task performance...
September 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910641/thoughts-and-sensations-twin-galaxies-of-the-inner-space-the-propensity-to-mind-wander-relates-to-spontaneous-sensations-arising-on-the-hands
#18
George A Michael, Isabelle Tapiero, Germán Gálvez-García, Laurence Jacquot
Sensations and thoughts have been described as potentially related to self-awareness. We therefore asked whether sensations that arise in the absence of external triggers, i.e., spontaneous sensations (SPS), which were shown to relate to interoception and perception of the self, vary as a function of the individual propensity to generate spontaneous thoughts, i.e., mind-wandering. The Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) was used as a specific tool to assess the frequency and propensity to mind-wander several weeks before completing an SPS task...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910351/lab-meets-real-life-a-laboratory-assessment-of-spontaneous-thought-and-its-ecological-validity
#19
Christine Kuehner, Annett Welz, Iris Reinhard, Georg W Alpers
People's minds frequently wander towards self-generated thoughts, which are unrelated to external stimuli or demands. These phenomena, referred to as "spontaneous thought" (ST) and "mind wandering" (MW), have previously been linked with both costs and benefits. Current assessments of ST and MW have predominantly been conducted in the laboratory, whereas studies on the ecological validity of such lab-related constructs and their interrelations are rare. The current study examined the stability of ST dimensions assessed in the lab and their predictive value with respect to MW, repetitive negative thought (uncontrollable rumination, RUM), and affect in daily life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890917/attentional-disengagements-in-educational-contexts-a-diary-investigation-of-everyday-mind-wandering-and-distraction
#20
Nash Unsworth, Brittany D McMillan
The present study examined everyday attentional disengagements in educational contexts. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday mind-wandering and distraction in a diary over the course of a week. Participants reported mind-wandering and being distracted both in class and while studying and there were a number of different subtypes of attentional disengagements. Individual differences in cognitive abilities were related to some, but not all, everyday attentional disengagements and motivation and interest in classes were related to specific subtypes of disengagements...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
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