Read by QxMD icon Read

Mind wandering

Dylan DeLosAngeles, Graham Williams, John Burston, Sean P Fitzgibbon, Trent W Lewis, Tyler S Grummett, C Richard Clark, Kenneth J Pope, John O Willoughby
Meditative techniques aim for and meditators report states of mental alertness and focus, concurrent with physical and emotional calm. We aimed to determine the electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of five states of Buddhist concentrative meditation, particularly addressing a correlation with meditative level. We studied 12 meditators and 12 pair-matched meditation-naïve participants using high-resolution scalp-recorded EEG. To maximise reduction of EMG, data were pre-processed using independent component analysis and surface Laplacian transformed data...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Corinna S Martarelli, Boris Mayer, Fred W Mast
Music creates room for the mind to wander, mental time travel, and departures into more fantastical worlds. We examined the mediating role of daydreams and the moderating function of personality differences for the emotional response to music by using a moderated mediation approach. The results showed that the valence of daydreams played a mediating role in the reaction to the musical experience: happy music was related to more positive daydreams, which were associated with greater relaxation with the happy music and to greater liking of the happy music...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Nicola J Hancock, Neil R de Joux, Stephen C Wingreen, Simon Kemp, Jared Thomas, William S Helton
This study explores the impact of post-earthquake images inserted in a vigilance task, in terms of performance, self-reports of task-focus, and cerebral activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Vigilance tasks present a sequence of stimuli in which only a few are pre-designated critical or target stimuli requiring an overt response from the participant. Seventy-one residents participated (51 women, 20 men) by taking part in a vigilance task with task-irrelevant images inserted in the sequence...
September 13, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Philipp Kanske, Marjan Sharifi, Jonathan Smallwood, Isabel Dziobek, Tania Singer
Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Myrthe Faber, Caitlin Mills, Kristopher Kopp, Sidney D'Mello
When reading, we frequently find ourselves thinking about something other than the text. These attentional lapses, known as mind wandering (MW), are negatively correlated with text comprehension. Previous studies have shown that more syntactically and semantically difficult texts elicit more MW, because textual difficulty impedes the construction of a mental model of the text, which makes it more difficult to suppress off-task thoughts. But is it possible to reduce MW without altering the content of the text itself? We hypothesized that reading a perceptually disfluent text might require more attentional resources, even if the content remained the same, leaving fewer resources available for MW...
September 6, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jason Fanning, Michael Mackenzie, Sarah Roberts, Ines Crato, Diane Ehlers, Edward McAuley
BACKGROUND: A considerable portion of daily thought is spent in mind wandering. This behavior has been related to positive (eg, future planning, problem solving) and negative (eg, unhappiness, impaired cognitive performance) outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Based on previous research suggesting future-oriented (ie, prospective) mind wandering may support autobiographical planning and self-regulation, this study examined associations between hourly mind wandering and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and the impact of affect and daily sleep on these relations...
August 31, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Stephanie Fountain-Zaragoza, Allison Londerée, Patrick Whitmoyer, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash
Age-related cognitive decline brings decreases in functional status. Dispositional mindfulness, the tendency towards present-moment attention, is hypothesized to correspond with enhanced attention, whereas mind-wandering may be detrimental to cognition. The relationships among mindfulness, task-related and task-unrelated thought, and attentional control performance on Go/No-Go and Continuous Performance tasks were examined in older adults. Dispositional mindfulness was negatively associated with task-unrelated thought and was positively associated with reactive control, but not proactive control or Go/No-Go performance...
August 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Jet Sanders, Hao-Ting Wang, Jonathan Schooler, Jonathan Smallwood
Trying to focus on a piece of text, and keep unrelated thoughts at bay, can be a surprisingly futile experience. The current study explored the effects of different instructions on participants' capacity to control their mind-wandering and maximise reading comprehension, while reading. Participants were instructed to (i) enhance focus on what was read (External) or (ii) enhance meta-awareness of mind-wandering (Internal). To understand when these strategies were important we induced a state of self-focus in half of our participants at the beginning of the experiment...
August 2, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Eve-Marie C Blouin-Hudon, John M Zelenski
In the present research, we looked at how positive-constructive daydreaming, guilty-dysphoric daydreaming, and poor attentional control associate with both broad (i.e., openness to experience) and specific (i.e., introspection) personality traits. A second aim was to determine how daydreaming styles were associated with psychological well-being. Across four studies, 1081 undergraduate (studies 1, 2, and 4) and MTurk (study 3) participants completed online questionnaires. A fixed-effect meta-analysis revealed that introspection was a significant predictor of both positive and negative daydreaming styles, but not a consistent predictor of poor attentional control...
August 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Mariana Babo-Rebelo, Craig G Richter, Catherine Tallon-Baudry
UNLABELLED: The default network (DN) has been consistently associated with self-related cognition, but also to bodily state monitoring and autonomic regulation. We hypothesized that these two seemingly disparate functional roles of the DN are functionally coupled, in line with theories proposing that selfhood is grounded in the neural monitoring of internal organs, such as the heart. We measured with magnetoencephalograhy neural responses evoked by heartbeats while human participants freely mind-wandered...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Michael J Kane, Matt E Meier, Bridget A Smeekens, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
A large correlational study took a latent-variable approach to the generality of executive control by testing the individual-differences structure of executive-attention capabilities and assessing their prediction of schizotypy, a multidimensional construct (with negative, positive, disorganized, and paranoid factors) conveying risk for schizophrenia. Although schizophrenia is convincingly linked to executive deficits, the schizotypy literature is equivocal. Subjects completed tasks of working memory capacity (WMC), attention restraint (inhibiting prepotent responses), and attention constraint (focusing visual attention amid distractors), the latter 2 in an effort to fractionate the "inhibition" construct...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Elena Bertossi, Elisa Ciaramelli
Mind-wandering, an ubiquitous expression of humans' mental life, reflects a drift of attention away from the current task towards self-generated thoughts, and has been associated with activity in the brain default network. To date, however, little is understood about the contribution of individual nodes of this network to mind-wandering. Here, we investigated whether the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is critically involved in mind-wandering, by studying the propensity to mind-wander in patients with lesion to the vmPFC (vmPFC patients), control patients with lesions not involving the vmPFC, and healthy individuals...
July 21, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Barbara Medea, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Mahiko Konishi, Cristina Ottaviani, Daniel Margulies, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Human cognition is not limited to the available environmental input but can consider realities that are different to the here and now. We describe the cognitive states and neural processes linked to the refinement of descriptions of personal goals. When personal goals became concrete, participants reported greater thoughts about the self and the future during mind-wandering. This pattern was not observed for descriptions of TV programmes. Connectivity analysis of participants who underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed neural traits associated with this pattern...
July 21, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Darya L Zabelina, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna
Recent advances in systems neuroscience have solidified the view that many cognitive processes are supported by dynamic interactions within and between large-scale brain networks. Here we synthesize this research, highlighting dynamic network interactions supporting a less explored aspect of cognition with important clinical relevance: internally-oriented cognition. We first present a brief overview of established resting-state networks, focusing on those supporting internally-oriented cognition, as well as those involved in dynamic control...
July 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Dirk J A Smit, Andrey P Anokhin
The brain continuously develops and reorganizes to support an expanding repertoire of behaviors and increasingly complex cognition. These processes may, however, also result in the appearance or disappearance of specific neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention problems. To investigate whether brain activity changed during adolescence, how genetics shape this change, and how these changes were related to attention problems, we measured EEG activity in 759 twins and siblings, assessed longitudinally in four waves (12, 14, 16, and 18years of age)...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
David R Vago, Fadel Zeidan
Mind wandering and mindfulness are often described as divergent mental states with opposing effects on cognitive performance and mental health. Spontaneous mind wandering is typically associated with self-reflective states that contribute to negative processing of the past, worrying/fantasizing about the future, and disruption of primary task performance. On the other hand, mindful awareness is frequently described as a focus on present sensory input without cognitive elaboration or emotional reactivity, and is associated with improved task performance and decreased stress-related symptomology...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Y Tony Yang, Charles G Kels
As the overall incidence of Alzheimer's disease rises, the burden on caregivers and law enforcement institutions will increase to find individuals who wander. As such, technological innovations that could reduce this burden will become increasingly important. One such innovation is the GPS Shoe. As with any innovation involving the transfer of personal data to third parties, potential pitfalls with respect to loss of privacy and inadequate consent counterbalance the substantial promise of GPS shoes. To some extent, advance planning can mitigate these concerns, wherein individuals willingly elect to be monitored before their impairments progress to a stage that makes such authorization impractical...
August 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Bridget R D Burdett, Samuel G Charlton, Nicola J Starkey
Inattention is a road safety problem, but few studies have focused specifically on mind wandering during everyday driving. This paper explores differences in self-reported mind wandering according to driver demographic characteristics (including age and gender), cognitive traits (such as tendency toward cognitive failure or mindful attention), states (such as feeling tired or stressed) and road environment factors (such as route familiarity). Five hundred and two participants (113 male, average age 44.4 years, SD=14...
October 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jia-Hou Poh, Pearlynne L H Chong, Michael W L Chee
Sleep deprivation can result in degradation of sustained attention through increased distraction by task-irrelevant exogenous stimuli. However, attentional failures in the sleep-deprived state could also be a result of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs, or mind wandering). Here, well-rested and sleep-deprived participants performed a visual search task under high and low perceptual load conditions. Thought probes were administered at irregular intervals to gauge the frequency of TUTs and level of meta-awareness of mind wandering...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Matthias Mittner, Guy E Hawkins, Wouter Boekel, Birte U Forstmann
The role of the default-mode network (DMN) in the emergence of mind wandering and task-unrelated thought has been studied extensively. In parallel work, mind wandering has been associated with neuromodulation via the locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Here we propose a neural model that links the two systems in an integrative framework. The model attempts to explain how dynamic changes in brain systems give rise to the subjective experience of mind wandering. The model implies a neural and conceptual distinction between an off-focus state and an active mind-wandering state and provides a potential neural grounding for well-known cognitive theories of mind wandering...
August 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"