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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892776/cognitive-and-affective-predictors-of-boredom-proneness
#1
Julia Isacescu, Andriy Anatolievich Struk, James Danckert
Boredom proneness has been linked to various forms of cognitive and affective dysregulation including poor self-control and mind-wandering (MW), as well as depression and aggression. As such, understanding boredom and the associated cognitive and affective components of the experience, represents an important first step in combatting the consequences of boredom for psychological well-being. We surveyed 1928 undergraduate students on measures of boredom proneness, self-control, MW, depression and aggression to investigate how these constructs were related...
November 28, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886519/mind-wandering-and-the-attention-network-system
#2
Óscar F Gonçalves, Gabriel Rêgo, Patrícia Oliveira-Silva, Jorge Leite, Sandra Carvalho, Felipe Fregni, Edson Amaro, Paulo S Boggio
Attention and mind wandering are often seen as anticorrelated. However, both attention and mind wandering are multi-component processes, and their relationship may be more complex than previously thought. In this study, we tested the interference of different types of thoughts as measured by a Thought Identification Task - TIT (on task thoughts, task related interference thoughts, external distractions, stimulus independent and task unrelated thoughts) on different components of the attention network system - ANT (alerting, orienting, executive)...
November 22, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877147/driving-and-multitasking-the-good-the-bad-and-the-dangerous
#3
Menno Nijboer, Jelmer P Borst, Hedderik van Rijn, Niels A Taatgen
Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver's ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver's lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864082/individual-variation-in-intentionality-in-the-mind-wandering-state-is-reflected-in-the-integration-of-the-default-mode-fronto-parietal-and-limbic-networks
#4
Johannes Golchert, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies, Paul Seli, Julia M Huntenburg, Franziskus Liem, Mark E Lauckner, Sabine Oligschläger, Boris C Bernhardt, Arno Villringer, Daniel S Margulies
Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as well the apparently alternative view that control can facilitate the expression of self-generated mental content. We assessed whether this apparent contradiction arises because of a failure to consider differences in the types of thoughts that occur during mind-wandering, and in particular, the associated level of intentionality...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856733/spontaneous-default-network-activity-reflects-behavioral-variability-independent-of-mind-wandering
#5
Aaron Kucyi, Michael Esterman, Clay S Riley, Eve M Valera
The brain's default mode network (DMN) is highly active during wakeful rest when people are not overtly engaged with a sensory stimulus or externally oriented task. In multiple contexts, increased spontaneous DMN activity has been associated with self-reported episodes of mind-wandering, or thoughts that are unrelated to the present sensory environment. Mind-wandering characterizes much of waking life and is often associated with error-prone, variable behavior. However, increased spontaneous DMN activity has also been reliably associated with stable, rather than variable, behavior...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847001/the-antecedents-experience-and-coping-strategies-of-driver-boredom-in-young-adult-males
#6
Fabius Steinberger, April Moeller, Ronald Schroeter
INTRODUCTION: Road crash statistics are evidence of the severe consequences resulting from human error, especially among young adult males. Drivers perform best and safest when they are adequately engaged in the driving task. Boredom and a lack of engagement in the driving task may cause risk taking and phone use. However, the antecedents to driver boredom, the subjective experience itself, as well as the coping strategies to combat boredom are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate these aspects...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826016/attention-and-driving-performance-modulations-due-to-anger-state-contribution-of-electroencephalographic-data
#7
Franck Techer, Christophe Jallais, Yves Corson, Fabien Moreau, Daniel Ndiaye, Bruno Piechnick, Alexandra Fort
Driver internal state, including emotion, can have negative impacts on road safety. Studies have shown that an anger state can provoke aggressive behavior and impair driving performance. Apart from driving, anger can also influence attentional processing and increase the benefits taken from auditory alerts. However, to our knowledge, no prior event-related potentials study assesses this impact on attention during simulated driving. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anger on attentional processing and its consequences on driving performance...
November 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819445/brief-mindfulness-meditation-training-reduces-mind-wandering-the-critical-role-of-acceptance
#8
Hayley A Rahl, Emily K Lindsay, Laura E Pacilio, Kirk W Brown, J David Creswell
Mindfulness meditation programs, which train individuals to monitor their present-moment experience in an open or accepting way, have been shown to reduce mind wandering on standardized tasks in several studies. Here we test 2 competing accounts for how mindfulness training reduces mind wandering, evaluating whether the attention-monitoring component of mindfulness training alone reduces mind wandering or whether the acceptance training component is necessary for reducing mind wandering. Healthy young adults (N = 147) were randomized to either a 3-day brief mindfulness training condition incorporating instruction in both attention monitoring and acceptance, a mindfulness training condition incorporating attention monitoring instruction only, a relaxation training condition, or an active reading-control condition...
November 7, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816010/do-meta-cognitive-beliefs-affect-meta-awareness-of-intrusive-thoughts-about-trauma
#9
Melanie K T Takarangi, Diane Nayda, Deryn Strange, Reginald D V Nixon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People exposed to trauma often experience intrusive thoughts and memories about that event. Research examining people's responses to trauma assumes that people can accurately notice the occurrence of symptoms. However, we know from the broader cognitive literature on 'mind-wandering' that people are not always aware of their current focus of attention. That lack of awareness has implications for our theoretical and practical understanding of how trauma survivors recover from their experience...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815577/reduced-mind-wandering-in-experienced-meditators-and-associated-eeg-correlates
#10
Tracy Brandmeyer, Arnaud Delorme
One outstanding question in the contemplative science literature relates to the direct impact of meditation experience on the monitoring of internal states and its respective correspondence with neural activity. In particular, to what extent does meditation influence the awareness, duration and frequency of the tendency of the mind to wander. To assess the relation between mind wandering and meditation, we tested 2 groups of meditators, one with a moderate level of experience (non-expert) and those who are well advanced in their practice (expert)...
November 4, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797015/hemodynamic-profiles-of-functional-and-dysfunctional-forms-of-repetitive-thinking
#11
Cristina Ottaviani, Jos F Brosschot, Antonia Lonigro, Barbara Medea, Ilse Van Diest, Julian F Thayer
BACKGROUND: The ability of the human brain to escape the here and now (mind wandering) can take functional (problem solving) and dysfunctional (perseverative cognition) routes. Although it has been proposed that only the latter may act as a mediator of the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease, both functional and dysfunctional forms of repetitive thinking have been associated with blood pressure (BP) reactivity of the same magnitude. However, a similar BP reactivity may be caused by different physiological determinants, which may differ in their risk for cardiovascular pathology...
October 28, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779908/states-of-mind-characterizing-the-neural-bases-of-focus-and-mind-wandering-through-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#12
Benjamin W Mooneyham, Michael D Mrazek, Alissa J Mrazek, Kaita L Mrazek, Dawa T Phillips, Jonathan W Schooler
During tasks that require continuous engagement, the mind alternates between mental states of focused attention and mind-wandering. Existing research has assessed the functional connectivity of intrinsic brain networks underlying the experience and training of these mental states using "static" approaches that assess connectivity across an entire task. To disentangle the functional connectivity between brain regions as the mind fluctuates between discrete brain states, we employed a dynamic functional connectivity approach that characterized brain activity using a sliding window...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702643/electroencephalographic-correlates-of-states-of-concentrative-meditation
#13
Dylan DeLosAngeles, Graham Williams, John Burston, Sean P Fitzgibbon, Trent W Lewis, Tyler S Grummett, C Richard Clark, Kenneth J Pope, John O Willoughby
Meditative techniques aim for and meditators report states of mental alertness and focus, concurrent with physical and emotional calm. We aimed to determine the electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of five states of Buddhist concentrative meditation, particularly addressing a correlation with meditative level. We studied 12 meditators and 12 pair-matched meditation-naïve participants using high-resolution scalp-recorded EEG. To maximise reduction of EMG, data were pre-processed using independent component analysis and surface Laplacian transformed data...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677051/daydreams-and-trait-affect-the-role-of-the-listener-s-state-of-mind-in-the-emotional-response-to-music
#14
Corinna S Martarelli, Boris Mayer, Fred W Mast
Music creates room for the mind to wander, mental time travel, and departures into more fantastical worlds. We examined the mediating role of daydreams and the moderating function of personality differences for the emotional response to music by using a moderated mediation approach. The results showed that the valence of daydreams played a mediating role in the reaction to the musical experience: happy music was related to more positive daydreams, which were associated with greater relaxation with the happy music and to greater liking of the happy music...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619916/positive-post-disaster-images-a-daydream-machine
#15
Nicola J Hancock, Neil R de Joux, Stephen C Wingreen, Simon Kemp, Jared Thomas, William S Helton
This study explores the impact of post-earthquake images inserted in a vigilance task, in terms of performance, self-reports of task-focus, and cerebral activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Vigilance tasks present a sequence of stimuli in which only a few are pre-designated critical or target stimuli requiring an overt response from the participant. Seventy-one residents participated (51 women, 20 men) by taking part in a vigilance task with task-irrelevant images inserted in the sequence...
September 13, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617653/where-the-narcissistic-mind-wanders-increased-self-related-thoughts-are-more-positive-and-future-oriented
#16
Philipp Kanske, Marjan Sharifi, Jonathan Smallwood, Isabel Dziobek, Tania Singer
Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600802/the-effect-of-disfluency-on-mind-wandering-during-text-comprehension
#17
Myrthe Faber, Caitlin Mills, Kristopher Kopp, Sidney D'Mello
When reading, we frequently find ourselves thinking about something other than the text. These attentional lapses, known as mind wandering (MW), are negatively correlated with text comprehension. Previous studies have shown that more syntactically and semantically difficult texts elicit more MW, because textual difficulty impedes the construction of a mental model of the text, which makes it more difficult to suppress off-task thoughts. But is it possible to reduce MW without altering the content of the text itself? We hypothesized that reading a perceptually disfluent text might require more attentional resources, even if the content remained the same, leaving fewer resources available for MW...
September 6, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580673/physical-activity-mind-wandering-affect-and-sleep-an-ecological-momentary-assessment
#18
Jason Fanning, Michael Mackenzie, Sarah Roberts, Ines Crato, Diane Ehlers, Edward McAuley
BACKGROUND: A considerable portion of daily thought is spent in mind wandering. This behavior has been related to positive (eg, future planning, problem solving) and negative (eg, unhappiness, impaired cognitive performance) outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Based on previous research suggesting future-oriented (ie, prospective) mind wandering may support autobiographical planning and self-regulation, this study examined associations between hourly mind wandering and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and the impact of affect and daily sleep on these relations...
August 31, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541935/dispositional-mindfulness-and-the-wandering-mind-implications-for-attentional-control-in-older-adults
#19
Stephanie Fountain-Zaragoza, Allison Londerée, Patrick Whitmoyer, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash
Age-related cognitive decline brings decreases in functional status. Dispositional mindfulness, the tendency towards present-moment attention, is hypothesized to correspond with enhanced attention, whereas mind-wandering may be detrimental to cognition. The relationships among mindfulness, task-related and task-unrelated thought, and attentional control performance on Go/No-Go and Continuous Performance tasks were examined in older adults. Dispositional mindfulness was negatively associated with task-unrelated thought and was positively associated with reactive control, but not proactive control or Go/No-Go performance...
August 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485462/can-i-get-me-out-of-my-head-exploring-strategies-for-controlling-the-self-referential-aspects-of-the-mind-wandering-state-during-reading
#20
Jet Sanders, Hao-Ting Wang, Jonathan Schooler, Jonathan Smallwood
Trying to focus on a piece of text, and keep unrelated thoughts at bay, can be a surprisingly futile experience. The current study explored the effects of different instructions on participants' capacity to control their mind-wandering and maximise reading comprehension, while reading. Participants were instructed to (i) enhance focus on what was read (External) or (ii) enhance meta-awareness of mind-wandering (Internal). To understand when these strategies were important we induced a state of self-focus in half of our participants at the beginning of the experiment...
August 2, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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