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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402561/the-role-of-the-default-mode-network-in-component-processes-underlying-the-wandering-mind
#1
Giulia L Poerio, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Experiences such as mind-wandering illustrate that cognition is not always tethered to events in the here-and-now. Although converging evidence emphasises the default mode network (DMN) in mind-wandering, its precise contribution remains unclear. The DMN comprises cortical regions that are maximally distant from primary sensory and motor cortex, a topological location that may support the stimulus-independence of mind-wandering. The DMN is functionally heterogeneous, comprising regions engaged by memory, social cognition, and planning; processes relevant to mind-wandering content...
March 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390029/a-closer-look-at-the-relationship-between-the-default-network-mind-wandering-negative-mood-and-depression
#2
Shaghayegh Konjedi, Reza Maleeh
By a systematic analysis of the current literature on the neural correlates of mind wandering, that is, the default network (DN), and by shedding light on some determinative factors and conditions which affect the relationship between mind wandering and negative mood, we show that (1) mind wandering per se does not necessarily have a positive correlation with negative mood and, on the higher levels, depression. We propose that negative mood as a consequence of mind wandering generally depends on two determinative conditions, that is, whether mind wandering is with or without meta-awareness and whether mind wandering occurs during high or low vigilance states; (2) increased activity of the DN is not necessarily followed by an increase in unhappiness and depression...
April 7, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376373/mindfulness-and-mind-wandering-the-protective-effects-of-brief-meditation-in-anxious-individuals
#3
Mengran Xu, Christine Purdon, Paul Seli, Daniel Smilek
Mind wandering can be costly, especially when we are engaged in attentionally demanding tasks. Preliminary studies suggest that mindfulness can be a promising antidote for mind wandering, albeit the evidence is mixed. To better understand the exact impact of mindfulness on mind wandering, we had a sample of highly anxious undergraduate students complete a sustained-attention task during which off-task thoughts including mind wandering were assessed. Participants were randomly assigned to a meditation or control condition, after which the sustained-attention task was repeated...
April 1, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371688/what-did-you-have-in-mind-examining-the-content-of-intentional-and-unintentional-types-of-mind-wandering
#4
Paul Seli, Brandon C W Ralph, Mahiko Konishi, Daniel Smilek, Daniel L Schacter
It has recently been argued that researchers should distinguish between mind wandering (MW) that is engaged with and without intention. Supporting this argument, studies have found that intentional and unintentional MW have behavioral/neural differences, and that they are differentially associated with certain variables of theoretical interest. Although there have been considerable inroads made into the distinction between intentional/unintentional MW, possible differences in their content remain unexplored...
March 31, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370735/dorsomedial-prefontal-cortex-supports-spontaneous-thinking-per-se
#5
T T Raij, T J J Riekki
Spontaneous thinking, an action to produce, consider, integrate, and reason through mental representations, is central to our daily experience and has been suggested to serve crucial adaptive purposes. Such thinking occurs among other experiences during mind wandering that is associated with activation of the default mode network among other brain circuitries. Whether and how such brain activation is linked to the experience of spontaneous thinking per se remains poorly known. We studied 51 healthy subjects using a comprehensive experience-sampling paradigm during 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging...
March 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345604/mind-wandering-and-alterations-to-default-mode-network-connectivity-when-listening-to-naturalistic-versus-artificial-sounds
#6
Cassandra D Gould van Praag, Sarah N Garfinkel, Oliver Sparasci, Alex Mees, Andrew O Philippides, Mark Ware, Cristina Ottaviani, Hugo D Critchley
Naturalistic environments have been demonstrated to promote relaxation and wellbeing. We assess opposing theoretical accounts for these effects through investigation of autonomic arousal and alterations of activation and functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) of the brain while participants listened to sounds from artificial and natural environments. We found no evidence for increased DMN activity in the naturalistic compared to artificial or control condition, however, seed based functional connectivity showed a shift from anterior to posterior midline functional coupling in the naturalistic condition...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333503/stereotype-threat-as-a-trigger-of-mind-wandering-in-older-adults
#7
Megan L Jordano, Dayna R Touron
Older adults (OAs) report less overall mind-wandering than younger adults (YAs) but more task-related interference (TRI; mind-wandering about the task). The current study examined TRI while manipulating older adults' performance-related concerns. We compared groups for which memory-related stereotype threat (ST) was activated or relieved to a control group. Participants completed an operation span task containing mind-wandering probes. ST-activated OAs reported more TRI than ST-relieved OAs and had worse performance on the operation span task...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293692/special-topic-introduction-understanding-engagement-mind-wandering-boredom-and-attention
#8
James Danckert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244016/intentionality-and-meta-awareness-of-mind-wandering-are-they-one-and-the-same-or-distinct-dimensions
#9
Paul Seli, Brandon C W Ralph, Evan F Risko, Jonathan W Schooler, Daniel L Schacter, Daniel Smilek
Researchers have recently demonstrated that mind-wandering episodes can vary on numerous dimensions, and it has been suggested that assessing these dimensions will play an important role in our understanding of mind wandering. One dimension that has received considerable attention in recent work is the intentionality of mind wandering. Although it has been claimed that indexing the intentionality of mind wandering will be necessary if researchers are to obtain a coherent understanding of the wandering mind, one concern is that this dimension might be redundant with another, longstanding, dimension: namely, meta-awareness...
February 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203153/bold-independent-computational-entropy-assesses-functional-donut-like-structures-in-brain-fmri-images
#10
James F Peters, Sheela Ramanna, Arturo Tozzi, Ebubekir İnan
We introduce a novel method for the measurement of information level in fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) neural data sets, based on image subdivision in small polygons equipped with different entropic content. We show how this method, called maximal nucleus clustering (MNC), is a novel, fast and inexpensive image-analysis technique, independent from the standard blood-oxygen-level dependent signals. MNC facilitates the objective detection of hidden temporal patterns of entropy/information in zones of fMRI images generally not taken into account by the subjective standpoint of the observer...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196711/acceptance-and-imagery-based-strategies-can-reduce-chocolate-cravings-a-test-of-the-elaborated-intrusion-theory-of-desire
#11
Sophie Schumacher, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition...
February 11, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193697/error-induced-blindness-error-detection-leads-to-impaired-sensory-processing-and-lower-accuracy-at-short-response-stimulus-intervals
#12
George A Buzzell, Paul J Beatty, Natalie A Paquette, Daniel M Roberts, Craig G McDonald
Empirical evidence indicates that detecting one's own mistakes can serve as a signal to improve task performance. However, little work has focused on how task constraints, such as the response-stimulus interval (RSI), influence post-error adjustments. In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral measures were used to investigate the time course of error-related processing while humans performed a difficult visual discrimination task. We found that error commission resulted in a marked reduction in both task performance and sensory processing on the following trial when RSIs were short, but that such impairments were not detectable at longer RSIs...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181186/an-automated-behavioral-measure-of-mind-wandering-during-computerized-reading
#13
Myrthe Faber, Robert Bixler, Sidney K D'Mello
Mind wandering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in which attention shifts from task-related to task-unrelated thoughts. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of interest in mind wandering, but research has been stymied by a lack of objective measures, leading to a near-exclusive reliance on self-reports. We addressed this issue by developing an eye-gaze-based, machine-learned model of mind wandering during computerized reading. Data were collected in a study in which 132 participants reported self-caught mind wandering while reading excerpts from a book on a computer screen...
February 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177148/when-walking-becomes-wandering-representing-the-fear-of-the-fourth-age
#14
Katherine Brittain, Cathrine Degnen, Grant Gibson, Claire Dickinson, Louise Robinson
Dementia is linked to behavioural changes that are perceived as challenging to care practices. One such behavioural change is 'wandering', something that is often deeply feared by carers and by people with dementia themselves. Understanding how behavioural changes like wandering are experienced as problematic is critically important in current discussions about the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. In this article we draw on our secondary analysis of qualitative interviews and focus groups with carers of people with dementia to critically question 'when does walking become wandering'? Drawing on theoretical perspectives from anthropology, sociology and human geography to explore experiences of carers and of people with dementia, we argue that a conceptual shift occurs in how pedestrian activity, usually represented as something purposeful, meaningful and healthy (walking) is seen as something threatening that needs managing (wandering)...
February 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163798/phenomenological-fingerprints-of-four-meditations-differential-state-changes-in-affect-mind-wandering-meta-cognition-and-interoception-before-and-after-daily-practice-across-9%C3%A2-months-of-training
#15
Bethany E Kok, Tania Singer
Despite increasing interest in the effects of mental training practices such as meditation, there is much ambiguity regarding whether and to what extent the various types of mental practice have differential effects on psychological change. To address this gap, we compare the effects of four common meditation practices on measures of state change in affect, mind-wandering, meta-cognition, and interoception. In the context of a 9-month mental training program called the ReSource Project, 229 mid-life adults (mean age 41) provided daily reports before and after meditation practice...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161598/language-facilitates-introspection-verbal-mind-wandering-has-privileged-access-to-consciousness
#16
Mikaël Bastian, Sébastien Lerique, Vincent Adam, Michael S Franklin, Jonathan W Schooler, Jérôme Sackur
Introspection and language are the cognitive prides of humankind, but their interactions in healthy cognition remain unclear. Episodes of mind-wandering, where personal thoughts often go unnoticed for some time before being introspected, offer a unique opportunity to study the role of language in introspection. In this paper, we show that inner speech facilitates awareness of mind-wandering. In two experiments, we either interfered with verbal working memory, via articulatory suppression (Exp. 1), or entrained it, via presentation of verbal material (Exp...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154520/a-coordinate-based-meta-analysis-of-overlaps-in-regional-specialization-and-functional-connectivity-across-subjective-value-and-default-mode-networks
#17
M Yavuz Acikalin, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Russell A Poldrack
Previous research has provided qualitative evidence for overlap in a number of brain regions across the subjective value network (SVN) and the default mode network (DMN). In order to quantitatively assess this overlap, we conducted a series of coordinate-based meta-analyses (CBMA) of results from 466 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments on task-negative or subjective value-related activations in the human brain. In these analyses, we first identified significant overlaps and dissociations across activation foci related to SVN and DMN...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150954/measuring-the-slot-machine-zone-with-attentional-dual-tasks-and-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia
#18
W Spencer Murch, Stephanie W M Chu, Luke Clark
Recent accounts of problematic electronic gaming machine (EGM) gambling have suggested attentional pathology among at-risk players. A putative slot machine zone is characterized by an intense immersion during game play, causing a neglect of outside events and competing goals. Prior studies of EGM immersion have relied heavily upon retrospective self-report scales. Here, the authors attempt to identify behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of the immersion experience. In samples of undergraduate students and experienced EGM users from the community, they tested 2 potential behavioral measures of immersion during EGM use: peripheral target detection and probe-caught mind wandering...
February 2, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118405/increased-gamma-brainwave-amplitude-compared-to-control-in-three-different-meditation-traditions
#19
Claire Braboszcz, B Rael Cahn, Jonathan Levy, Manuel Fernandez, Arnaud Delorme
Despite decades of research, effects of different types of meditation on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity are still being defined. We compared practitioners of three different meditation traditions (Vipassana, Himalayan Yoga and Isha Shoonya) with a control group during a meditative and instructed mind-wandering (IMW) block. All meditators showed higher parieto-occipital 60-110 Hz gamma amplitude than control subjects as a trait effect observed during meditation and when considering meditation and IMW periods together...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110087/internal-and-external-attention-and-the-default-mode-network
#20
Hannah J Scheibner, Carsten Bogler, Tobias Gleich, John-Dylan Haynes, Felix Bermpohl
Focused attention meditations have been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing and are nowadays an integral part of many psychotherapies. While research on the neural correlates of focused attention meditation is increasing, findings vary on whether meditations are associated with high or low activity in the default mode network (DMN). To clarify the relationship between focused attention meditation and the activity in DMN regions, it may be helpful to distinguish internal and external attention as well as different phases within one meditation: During focused attention meditation, the practitioner switches between mindful attention, mind-wandering and refocusing...
March 1, 2017: NeuroImage
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