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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627905/mind-wandering-in-healthy-aging-and-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Mate Gyurkovics, David A Balota, Jonathan D Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The frequency of mind-wandering (MW) decreases as a function of age in healthy individuals. One possible explanation is that MW is a resource-dependent process, and cognitive resources decline with age. The present study provides the first investigation of MW in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to further examine the resource model and discontinuities between healthy aging and AD. METHOD: Three large cohorts completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART): a healthy middle-aged group (mean age = 61...
June 19, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627034/brief-mindfulness-meditation-group-training-in-aphasia-exploring-attention-language-and-psychophysiological-outcomes
#2
Rebecca Shisler Marshall, Jacqueline Laures-Gore, Kim Love
BACKGROUND: Stroke is currently the leading cause of long-term disability in adults in the United States. There is a need for accessible, low-cost treatments of stroke-related disabilities such as aphasia. AIMS: To explore an intervention for aphasia utilizing mindfulness meditation (MM). This preliminary study examines the feasibility of teaching MM to individuals with aphasia. Since physiological measures have not been collected for those with aphasia, the study was also an exploration of the potential attention, language and physiological changes after MM in adults with aphasia during a brief, daily group training...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604049/wandering-minds-and-wavering-goals-examining-the-relation-between-mind-wandering-and-grit-in-everyday-life-and-the-classroom
#3
Brandon C W Ralph, Jeffrey D Wammes, Nathaniel Barr, Daniel Smilek
Here we examined the relation between mind wandering and the personality trait of 'grit.' Our hypothesis was that because mind wandering leads to a disruption of momentary goal completion, the tendency to mind wander might be inversely related to the completion of long-term goals that require sustained interest and effort (i.e., grittiness). In Study 1 we used online questionnaires and found that in everyday life, the propensity to mind wander was negatively correlated with individuals' self-reported grittiness...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604046/everyday-attention
#4
Evan F Risko, Alan Kingstone
Understanding the basic mechanisms underlying attentional function using naturalistic stimuli, tasks, and/or settings is the focus of everyday attention research. Interest in everyday approaches to attention research has increased recently-arguably riding a more general wave of support for such considerations in experimental psychology. This special issue of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology attempts to capture the emerging enthusiasm for studying everyday attention by bringing together work from a wide array of attentional domains (e...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604028/re-reading-after-mind-wandering
#5
Trish L Varao-Sousa, Grayden J F Solman, Alan Kingstone
Though much research has been conducted on the causes and processes underlying mind wandering, relatively little has addressed what happens after an episode of mind wandering. We explore this issue in the context of reading. Specifically, by examining re-reading behaviours following mind wandering episodes. Results from 2 studies reveal that after mind wandering, participants re-read nearly half the time. This re-reading occurs whether mind wandering is self-caught or probe-caught, and it typically involves retracing a line or 2 of text...
June 12, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577275/are-you-mind-wandering-or-is-your-mind-on-task-the-effect-of-probe-framing-on-mind-wandering-reports
#6
Yana Weinstein, Henry J De Lima, Tim van der Zee
The last decade has seen a dramatic rise in the number of studies that utilize the probe-caught method of collecting mind-wandering reports. This method involves stopping participants during a task, presenting them with a thought probe, and asking them to choose the appropriate report option to describe their thought-state. In this experiment we manipulated the framing of this probe, and demonstrated a substantial difference in mind-wandering reports as a function of whether the probe was presented in a mind-wandering frame compared with an on-task frame...
June 2, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566420/correction-mittner-et-al-when-the-brain-takes-a-break-a-model-based-analysis-of-mind-wandering
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558525/does-mind-wandering-mediate-the-association-between-mindfulness-and-negative-mood-a-preliminary-study
#8
Yuzheng Wang, Wei Xu, Capella Zhuang, Xinghua Liu
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between trait mindfulness and mood and to examine whether the relationship is mediated by mind wandering. Eighty-two individuals ( M age = 24.27 years, SD = 5.64, 18 men, 22%) completed a series of measures including the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire, and Meditation Breath Attention Exercise. Results showed that the level of mindfulness was significantly correlated with positive and negative mood, and the association between mindfulness and negative mood was mediated by mind wandering...
February 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526867/aberrant-functional-connectivity-in-depression-as-an-index-of-state-and-trait-rumination
#9
David Rosenbaum, Alina Haipt, Kristina Fuhr, Florian B Haeussinger, Florian G Metzger, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Andreas J Fallgatter, Anil Batra, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Depression has been shown to be related to a variety of aberrant brain functions and structures. Particularly the investigation of alterations in functional connectivity (FC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been a promising endeavor, since a better understanding of pathological brain networks may foster our understanding of the disease. However, the underling mechanisms of aberrant FC in MDD are largely unclear. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we investigated FC in the cortical parts of the default mode network (DMN) during resting-state in patients with current MDD...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481618/the-experience-of-secrecy
#10
Michael L Slepian, Jinseok S Chun, Malia F Mason
The concept of secrecy calls to mind a dyadic interaction: one person hiding a secret from another during a conversation or social interaction. The current work, however, demonstrates that this aspect of secrecy is rather rare. Taking a broader view of secrecy as the intent to conceal information, which only sometimes necessitates concealment, yields a new psychology of secrecy. Ten studies demonstrate the secrets people have, what it is like to have a secret, and what about secrecy is related to lower well-being...
July 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471215/cognitive-aging-and-the-distinction-between-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#11
Paul Seli, David Maillet, Daniel Smilek, Jonathan M Oakman, Daniel L Schacter
A growing number of studies have reported age-related reductions in the frequency of mind wandering. Here, at both the trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) levels, we reexamined this association while distinguishing between intentional (deliberate) and unintentional (spontaneous) mind wandering. Based on research demonstrating age-accompanied deficits in executive functioning, we expected to observe increases in unintentional mind wandering with increasing age. Moreover, because aging is associated with increased task motivation, we reasoned that older adults might be more engaged in their tasks, and hence, show a more pronounced decline in intentional mind wandering relative to young adults...
June 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467513/relationship-between-workload-and-mind-wandering-in-simulated-driving
#12
Yuyu Zhang, Takatsune Kumada
Mental workload and mind-wandering are highly related to driving safety. This study investigated the relationship between mental workload and mind-wandering while driving. Participants (N = 40) were asked to perform a car following task in driving simulator, and report whether they had experienced mind-wandering upon hearing a tone. After driving, participants reported their workload using the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX). Results revealed an interaction between workload and mind-wandering in two different perspectives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461112/a-neural-model-of-mind-wandering-trends-in-cognitive-sciences-20-570-578-2016
#13
Matthias Mittner, Guy E Hawkins, Wouter Boekel, Birte U Forstmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460272/mind-wandering-and-task-stimuli-stimulus-dependent-thoughts-influence-performance-on-memory-tasks-and-are-more-often-past-versus-future-oriented
#14
David Maillet, Paul Seli, Daniel L Schacter
Although many studies have indicated that participants frequently mind-wander during experimental tasks, relatively little research has examined the extent to which such thoughts are triggered by task stimuli (stimulus-dependent thoughts; SDTs) versus internally triggered (stimulus-independent thoughts; SITs). In the current experiment, we assessed differences in the frequency and characteristics of SDTs and SITs, as well as their associations with subsequent memory in young adults. Whereas frequency of SDTs (but not SITs) increased in a task with more meaningful stimuli, frequency of SITs (but not SDTs) increased in an easier task...
April 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458764/working-memory-capacity-mind-wandering-and-creative-cognition-an-individual-differences-investigation-into-the-benefits-of-controlled-versus-spontaneous-thought
#15
Bridget A Smeekens, Michael J Kane
Should executive control, as indicated by working memory capacity (WMC) and mind-wandering propensity, help or hinder creativity? Sustained and focused attention should help guide a selective search of solution-relevant information in memory and help inhibit uncreative, yet accessible, ideas. However, unfocused attention and daydreaming should allow mental access to more loosely relevant concepts, remotely linked to commonplace solutions. Three individual-differences studies inserted incubation periods into one or two divergent thinking tasks and tested whether WMC (assessed by complex span tasks) and incubation-period mind wandering (assessed as probed reports of task-unrelated thought [TUT]) predicted post-incubation performance...
November 2016: Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458727/self-reported-mindful-attention-and-awareness-go-no-go-response-time-variability-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Julian R Keith, Mallory E Blackwood, Rano T Mathew, Len B Lecci
The abilities to stabilize the focus of attention, notice attention lapses, and return attention to an intended object following lapses are precursors for mindfulness. Individuals diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are deficient in the attentional and self-control skills that characterize mindfulness. The present study assessed the relationship between mindfulness and ADHD in young adults using the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS), a computerized Go/No-Go task (the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA)), the World Health Organization Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS), a tool used as an adult ADHD screen, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)...
June 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458093/working-memory-capacity-and-mind-wandering-during-low-demand-cognitive-tasks
#17
Matthew K Robison, Nash Unsworth
Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) typically predict reduced rates of mind-wandering during laboratory tasks (Randall, Oswald, & Beier, 2014). However, some studies have shown a positive relationship between WMC and mind-wandering during particularly low-demand tasks (Levinson, Smallwood, & Davidson, 2012; Rummel & Boywitt, 2014; Zavagnin, Borella, & De Beni, 2014). More specifically, Baird, Smallwood, and Schooler (2011) found that when individuals with greater WMC do mind-wander, they tend entertain more future-oriented thoughts...
April 27, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447842/cognitive-coupling-during-reading
#18
Caitlin Mills, Art Graesser, Evan F Risko, Sidney K D'Mello
We hypothesize that cognitively engaged readers dynamically adjust their reading times with respect to text complexity (i.e., reading times should increase for difficult sections and decrease for easier ones) and failure to do so should impair comprehension. This hypothesis is consistent with theories of text comprehension but has surprisingly been untested. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 4 datasets in which participants (N = 484) read expository texts using a self-paced reading paradigm. Participants self-reported mind wandering in response to pseudorandom thought-probes during reading and completed comprehension assessments after reading...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402561/the-role-of-the-default-mode-network-in-component-processes-underlying-the-wandering-mind
#19
Giulia L Poerio, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Experiences such as mind-wandering illustrate that cognition is not always tethered to events in the here-and-now. Although converging evidence emphasises the default mode network (DMN) in mind-wandering, its precise contribution remains unclear. The DMN comprises cortical regions that are maximally distant from primary sensory and motor cortex, a topological location that may support the stimulus-independence of mind-wandering. The DMN is functionally heterogeneous, comprising regions engaged by memory, social cognition, and planning; processes relevant to mind-wandering content...
March 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390029/a-closer-look-at-the-relationship-between-the-default-network-mind-wandering-negative-mood-and-depression
#20
Shaghayegh Konjedi, Reza Maleeh
By a systematic analysis of the current literature on the neural correlates of mind wandering, that is, the default network (DN), and by shedding light on some determinative factors and conditions which affect the relationship between mind wandering and negative mood, we show that (1) mind wandering per se does not necessarily have a positive correlation with negative mood and, on the higher levels, depression. We propose that negative mood as a consequence of mind wandering generally depends on two determinative conditions, that is, whether mind wandering is with or without meta-awareness and whether mind wandering occurs during high or low vigilance states; (2) increased activity of the DN is not necessarily followed by an increase in unhappiness and depression...
April 7, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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