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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131720/dimensions-of-experience-exploring-the-heterogeneity-of-the-wandering-mind
#1
Hao-Ting Wang, Giulia Poerio, Charlotte Murphy, Danilo Bzdok, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
The tendency for the mind to wander to concerns other than the task at hand is a fundamental feature of human cognition, yet the consequences of variations in its experiential content for psychological functioning are not well understood. Here, we adopted multivariate pattern analysis to simultaneously decompose experience-sampling data and neural functional-connectivity data, which revealed dimensions that simultaneously describe individual variation in self-reported experience and default-mode-network connectivity...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107470/is-an-off-task-mind-a-freely-moving-mind-examining-the-relationship-between-different-dimensions-of-thought
#2
Caitlin Mills, Quentin Raffaelli, Zachary C Irving, Dylan Stan, Kalina Christoff
Mind wandering is frequently defined as task-unrelated or perceptually decoupled thought. However, these definitions may not capture the dynamic features of a wandering mind, such as its tendency to 'move freely'. Here we test the relationship between three theoretically dissociable dimensions of thought: freedom of movement in thought, task-relatedness, and perceptual decoupling (i.e., lack of awareness of surroundings). Using everyday life experience sampling, thought probes were randomly delivered to participants' phones for ten days...
October 26, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094964/a-combined-experimental-and-individual-differences-investigation-into-mind-wandering-during-a-video-lecture
#3
Michael J Kane, Bridget A Smeekens, Claudia C von Bastian, John H Lurquin, Nicholas P Carruth, Akira Miyake
A combined experimental-correlational study with a diverse sample (N = 182) from 2 research sites tested a set of 5 a priori hypotheses about mind wandering and learning, using a realistic video lecture on introductory statistics. Specifically, the study examined whether students' vulnerability to mind wandering during the lecture would predict learning from, and situational interest in, the video and also whether longhand note-taking would help reduce mind wandering, at least for some students. One half of the participants took notes during the video, and all were subsequently tested on lecture content without notes...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094259/on-the-relation-between-reading-difficulty-and-mind-wandering-a-section-length-account
#4
Noah D Forrin, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
In many situations, increasing task difficulty decreases thoughts that are unrelated to the task (i.e., mind-wandering). In the context of reading, however, recent research demonstrated that increasing passage reading difficulty actually increases mind-wandering rates (e.g., Feng et al. in Psychon Bull Rev 20:586-592, 2013). The primary goal of this research was to elucidate the mechanism that drives this positive relation. Across Experiments 1-3, we found evidence that the effect of Flesch-Kincaid reading difficulty on mind-wandering is partially driven by hard passages having longer sections of text (i...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089542/effects-of-sad-and-happy-music-on-mind-wandering-and-the-default-mode-network
#5
Liila Taruffi, Corinna Pehrs, Stavros Skouras, Stefan Koelsch
Music is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human cultures, mostly due to its power to evoke and regulate emotions. However, effects of music evoking different emotional experiences such as sadness and happiness on cognition, and in particular on self-generated thought, are unknown. Here we use probe-caught thought sampling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the influence of sad and happy music on mind-wandering and its underlying neuronal mechanisms. In three experiments we found that sad music, compared with happy music, is associated with stronger mind-wandering (Experiments 1A and 1B) and greater centrality of the nodes of the Default Mode Network (DMN) (Experiment 2)...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075226/why-and-how-the-future-of-the-central-questions-of-consciousness
#6
REVIEW
Marek Havlík, Eva Kozáková, Jiří Horáček
In this review, we deal with two central questions of consciousness how and why, and we outline their possible future development. The question how refers to the empirical endeavor to reveal the neural correlates and mechanisms that form consciousness. On the other hand, the question why generally refers to the "hard problem" of consciousness, which claims that empirical science will always fail to provide a satisfactory answer to the question why is there conscious experience at all. Unfortunately, the hard problem of consciousness will probably never completely disappear because it will always have its most committed supporters...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072483/time-contracts-and-temporal-precision-declines-when-the-mind-wanders
#7
Devin B Terhune, Madeleine Croucher, David Marcusson-Clavertz, James S P Macdonald
Our perception of time varies considerably from moment to moment, but how this variability relates to endogenous fluctuations in attentional states has been neglected. Here, we tested the hypothesis that perceptual decoupling during spontaneous mind wandering episodes distorts interval timing. In two studies with different visual subsecond interval timing paradigms, participants judged their attentional state on a trial-by-trial basis. Mind wandering states were characterized by underestimation of temporal intervals and a decline in temporal discrimination...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051723/autopilot-mind-wandering-and-the-out-of-the-loop-performance-problem
#8
REVIEW
Jonas Gouraud, Arnaud Delorme, Bruno Berberian
To satisfy the increasing demand for safer critical systems, engineers have integrated higher levels of automation, such as glass cockpits in aircraft, power plants, and driverless cars. These guiding principles relegate the operator to a monitoring role, increasing risks for humans to lack system understanding. The out of the loop performance problem arises when operators suffer from complacency and vigilance decrement; consequently, when automation does not behave as expected, understanding the system or taking back manual control may be difficult...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919554/revisiting-the-wandering-womb-oxytocin-in-endometriosis-and-bipolar-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Natalie L Dinsdale, Bernard J Crespi
Hippocrates attributed women's high emotionality - hysteria - to a 'wandering womb'. Although hysteria diagnoses were abandoned along with the notion that displaced wombs cause emotional disturbance, recent research suggests that elevated levels of oxytocin occur in both bipolar disorder and endometriosis, a gynecological condition involving migration of endometrial tissue beyond the uterus. We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that elevated oxytocinergic system activity jointly contributes to bipolar disorder and endometriosis...
September 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918525/increasing-participant-motivation-reduces-rates-of-intentional-and-unintentional-mind-wandering
#10
Paul Seli, Daniel L Schacter, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
We explored the possibility that increasing participants' motivation to perform well on a focal task can reduce mind wandering. Participants completed a sustained-attention task either with standard instructions (normal motivation), or with instructions informing them that they could be excused from the experiment early if they achieved a certain level of performance (higher motivation). Throughout the task, we assessed rates of mind wandering (both intentional and unintentional types) via thought probes. Results showed that the motivation manipulation led to significant reductions in both intentional and unintentional mind wandering as well as improvements in task performance...
September 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910641/thoughts-and-sensations-twin-galaxies-of-the-inner-space-the-propensity-to-mind-wander-relates-to-spontaneous-sensations-arising-on-the-hands
#11
George A Michael, Isabelle Tapiero, Germán Gálvez-García, Laurence Jacquot
Sensations and thoughts have been described as potentially related to self-awareness. We therefore asked whether sensations that arise in the absence of external triggers, i.e., spontaneous sensations (SPS), which were shown to relate to interoception and perception of the self, vary as a function of the individual propensity to generate spontaneous thoughts, i.e., mind-wandering. The Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) was used as a specific tool to assess the frequency and propensity to mind-wander several weeks before completing an SPS task...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910351/lab-meets-real-life-a-laboratory-assessment-of-spontaneous-thought-and-its-ecological-validity
#12
Christine Kuehner, Annett Welz, Iris Reinhard, Georg W Alpers
People's minds frequently wander towards self-generated thoughts, which are unrelated to external stimuli or demands. These phenomena, referred to as "spontaneous thought" (ST) and "mind wandering" (MW), have previously been linked with both costs and benefits. Current assessments of ST and MW have predominantly been conducted in the laboratory, whereas studies on the ecological validity of such lab-related constructs and their interrelations are rare. The current study examined the stability of ST dimensions assessed in the lab and their predictive value with respect to MW, repetitive negative thought (uncontrollable rumination, RUM), and affect in daily life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890917/attentional-disengagements-in-educational-contexts-a-diary-investigation-of-everyday-mind-wandering-and-distraction
#13
Nash Unsworth, Brittany D McMillan
The present study examined everyday attentional disengagements in educational contexts. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday mind-wandering and distraction in a diary over the course of a week. Participants reported mind-wandering and being distracted both in class and while studying and there were a number of different subtypes of attentional disengagements. Individual differences in cognitive abilities were related to some, but not all, everyday attentional disengagements and motivation and interest in classes were related to specific subtypes of disengagements...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886468/do-drives-drive-the-train-of-thought-effects-of-hunger-and-sexual-arousal-on-mind-wandering-behavior
#14
Jan Rummel, Laura Nied
Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877857/reduced-mind-wandering-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Tal Geffen, Avner Thaler, Gadi Gilam, Eti Ben Simon, Nimrod Sarid, Tanya Gurevich, Nir Giladi, Hertzel Shabtai, Jennifer Zitser, Eduardo A Schilman, Haggai Sharon
BACKGROUND: Mind Wandering (MW) refers to the process of disengaging from the immediate external environment and participating in internally driven mentation. This process has been suggested to be supported by a distributed set of brain regions, collectively referred to as the Default Mode Network (DMN). Recently, reduced recruitment and connectivity of the DMN has been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared to healthy controls. We thus aimed to explore whether PD patients with normal cognitive test scores show differential MW capabilities compared to healthy controls...
September 1, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865286/the-influence-of-time-on-task-on-mind-wandering-and-visual-working-memory
#16
Marissa Krimsky, Daniel E Forster, Maria M Llabre, Amishi P Jha
Working memory relies on executive resources for successful task performance, with higher demands necessitating greater resource engagement. In addition to mnemonic demands, prior studies suggest that internal sources of distraction, such as mind wandering (i.e., having off-task thoughts) and greater time on task, may tax executive resources. Herein, the consequences of mnemonic demand, mind wandering, and time on task were investigated during a visual working memory task. Participants (N=143) completed a delayed-recognition visual working memory task, with mnemonic load for visual objects manipulated across trials (1 item=low load; 2 items=high load) and subjective mind wandering assessed intermittently throughout the experiment using a self-report Likert-type scale (1=on-task, 6=off-task)...
December 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860620/mind-wandering-simultaneously-prolongs-reactions-and-promotes-creative-incubation
#17
Marcin Leszczynski, Leila Chaieb, Thomas P Reber, Marlene Derner, Nikolai Axmacher, Juergen Fell
Mind wandering (MW) refers to the disengagement of attention from the external environment and the generation of thoughts unrelated to the task at hand. It is a ubiquitous cognitive process resulting in lapses of attention. MW imposes a negative impact on attention-based task performance, but also has been associated with enhanced creativity and future planning. In three experiments we show that MW relates simultaneously to both behavioral costs but also benefits. Behavioral costs were measured by prolonged reaction times (RT) in sustained attention to response tasks (SART), whereas the benefits were observed as improved performance in the creative problem solving and daily routine planning tasks performed after the SART...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800281/attentional-lapses-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-blank-rather-than-wandering-thoughts
#18
Charlotte Van den Driessche, Mikaël Bastian, Hugo Peyre, Coline Stordeur, Éric Acquaviva, Sara Bahadori, Richard Delorme, Jérôme Sackur
People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties sustaining their attention on external tasks. Such attentional lapses have often been characterized as the simple opposite of external sustained attention, but the different types of attentional lapses, and the subjective experiences to which they correspond, remain unspecified. In this study, we showed that unmedicated children (ages 6-12) with ADHD, when probed during a standard go/no-go task, reported more mind blanking (a mental state characterized by the absence of reportable content) than did control participants...
October 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771623/the-distracted-mind-on-the-wheel-overall-propensity-to-mind-wandering-is-associated-with-road-crash-responsibility
#19
Cédric Gil-Jardiné, Mélanie Née, Emmanuel Lagarde, Jonathan Schooler, Benjamin Contrand, Ludivine Orriols, Cédric Galera
The role of distractions on attentional lapses that place road users in higher risk of crash remains poorly understood. We aimed to assess the respective impact of (i) mind wandering trait (propensity to mind wander in the everyday life as measured with a set of 4 questions on the proportion of time spent mind wandering in 4 different situations) and (ii) mind wandering state (disturbing thoughts just before the crash) on road crash risk using a comparison between responsible and non-responsible drivers. 954 drivers injured in a road crash were interviewed at the adult emergency department of the Bordeaux university hospital in France (2013-2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758776/cognitive-and-contextual-correlates-of-spontaneous-and-deliberate-mind-wandering
#20
Matthew K Robison, Nash Unsworth
Individuals with greater cognitive abilities generally show reduced rates of mind-wandering when completing relatively demanding tasks (Randall, Oswald, & Beier, 2014). However, it is yet unclear whether elevated rates of mind-wandering among low-ability individuals are manifestations of deliberate, intentional episodes of mind-wandering because of task disengagement or lack of motivation, or to spontaneous, unintentional failures to maintain task-oriented attention. The present study examined this issue by measuring working memory capacity (WMC), mind-wandering during 3 relatively demanding attention control tasks, and contextual variables (e...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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