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Mind wandering

Paul Seli, Michael J Kane, Jonathan Smallwood, Daniel L Schacter, David Maillet, Jonathan W Schooler, Daniel Smilek
As empirical research on mind-wandering accelerates, we draw attention to an emerging trend in how mind-wandering is conceptualized. Previously articulated definitions of mind-wandering differ from each other in important ways, yet they also maintain overlapping characteristics. This conceptual structure suggests that mind-wandering is best considered from a family-resemblances perspective, which entails treating it as a graded, heterogeneous construct and clearly measuring and describing the specific aspect(s) of mind-wandering that researchers are investigating...
June 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Óscar F Gonçalves, Gabriel Rêgo, Tatiana Conde, Jorge Leite, Sandra Carvalho, Olívia Morgan Lapenta, Paulo S Boggio
Previous studies looking at how Mind Wandering (MW) impacts performance in distinct Focused Attention (FA) systems, using the Attention Network Task (ANT), showed that the presence of pure MW thoughts did not impact the overall performance of ANT (alert, orienting and conflict) performance. However, it still remains unclear if the lack of interference of MW in the ANT, reported at the behavioral level, has a neurophysiological correspondence. We hypothesize that a distinct cortical processing may be required to meet attentional demands during MW...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mona Irrmischer, C Natalie van der Wal, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
There is growing evidence that the intermittent nature of mind wandering episodes and mood have a pronounced influence on trial-to-trial variability in performance. Nevertheless, the temporal dynamics and significance of such lapses in attention remains inadequately understood. Here, we hypothesize that the dynamics of fluctuations in sustained attention between external and internal sources of information obey so-called critical-state dynamics, characterized by trial-to-trial dependencies with long-range temporal correlations...
2018: PloS One
Katy Tapper, Zoyah Ahmed
Previous research has shown that a mindfulness-based decentering technique can help individuals resist eating chocolate over a 5-day period. However, it is unclear how this technique exerts its effect. This study explored one potential mechanism; that decentering increases the cognitive accessibility of relevant goals. Male and female participants ( n = 90) spent 5 min practicing either a decentering or relaxation (control) technique. They then viewed a picture of a chocolate bar for 3 min whilst either applying the decentering technique or letting their mind wander (control)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Guillaume Pepin, Séverine Malin, Christophe Jallais, Fabien Moreau, Alexandra Fort, Jordan Navarro, Daniel Ndiaye, Catherine Gabaude
MW is damaging for tasks requiring sustained and divided attention, for example driving. Recent findings seem to be indicating that off-task thoughts differently disrupt drivers. The present paper delved into characteristics of off-task thoughts to assess their respective detrimental impact on driving. Twenty volunteers had to declare their MW thoughts and get intentionally involved in Problem-Solving Thoughts (PST) according to instructions. Heart rate and oculometric behavior were collected during the two sessions...
May 4, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Bruce J Hillman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "A combined experimental and individual-differences investigation into mind wandering during a video lecture" by Michael J. Kane, Bridget A. Smeekens, Claudia C. von Bastian, John H. Lurquin, Nicholas P. Carruth and Akira Miyake ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 2017[Nov], Vol 146[11], 1649-1674). In the article, the legends for Figure 2 and Figure 4 were erroneous. The correct figures are included in the errata. The online version of this article has been corrected...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Shogo Kajimura, Takanori Kochiyama, Nobuhito Abe, Michio Nomura
The default mode network (DMN) is considered a unified core brain function for generating subjective mental experiences, such as mind wandering. We propose a novel cognitive framework for understanding the unity of the DMN from the perspective of hemispheric asymmetry. Using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), effective connectivity estimation, and machine learning, we show that the bilateral angular gyri (AG), which are core regions of the DMN, exhibit heterogeneity in both inherent network organization and mind wandering regulation...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Paul Mohapel
Increasingly health leaders are experiencing greater demands and pressures, which require the need for better focus while limiting unwarranted distractions. This article offers a neurobiological explanation of how the brain focuses and becomes distracted, in order to help health leaders gain insight into their own effectiveness. Two main neural circuits are contrasted: the mind-wandering default mode circuit and the attentional central executive system. These two systems act in an antagonistic pairing, where the degree of toggling between systems is associated with the degree a person can sustain focus and filter out unwarranted distractions...
January 1, 2018: Healthcare Management Forum
Paul Seli, Jonathan S A Carriere, Jeffrey D Wammes, Evan F Risko, Daniel L Schacter, Daniel Smilek
We examined the hypothesis that people can modulate their mind wandering on the basis of their expectations of upcoming challenges in a task. To this end, we developed a novel paradigm in which participants were presented with an analog clock, via a computer monitor, and asked to push a button every time the clock's hand was pointed at 12:00. Importantly, the time at which the clock's hand was pointed at 12:00 was completely predictable and occurred at 20-s intervals. During some of the 20-s intervals, we presented thought probes to index participants' rates of mind wandering...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Gizem Arabacı, Benjamin A Parris
Research has revealed a positive relationship between types of mind wandering and ADHD at clinical and subclinical levels. However, this work did not consider the relationship between mind wandering and the core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Given that the DMS-V attributes mind wandering to inattention only, and that only inattention is thought to result from impairment to the executive function linked to mind wandering, the present research sought to examine this relationship in 80 undiagnosed adults...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gadi Lissak
A growing body of literature is associating excessive and addictive use of digital media with physical, psychological, social and neurological adverse consequences. Research is focusing more on mobile devices use, and studies suggest that duration, content, after-dark-use, media type and the number of devices are key components determining screen time effects. Physical health effects: excessive screen time is associated with poor sleep and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, obesity, low HDL cholesterol, poor stress regulation (high sympathetic arousal and cortisol dysregulation), and Insulin Resistance...
July 2018: Environmental Research
Judy Xu, David Friedman, Janet Metcalfe
Although much research shows that early sensory and attentional processing is affected by mind wandering, the effect of mind wandering on deep (i.e. semantic) processing is relatively unexplored. To investigate this relation, we recorded event-related potentials as participants studied English-Spanish word pairs, one at a time, while being intermittently probed for whether they were 'on task' or 'mind wandering'. Both perceptual processing, indexed by the P2 component, and deep processing, indexed by a late, sustained slow wave maximal at parietal electrodes, was attenuated during periods preceding participants' mind wandering reports...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Noah D Forrin, Evan F Risko, Daniel Smilek
We present novel evidence that mind-wandering rates during a reading task are influenced by experimental context. In Experiment 1, participants read a series of passages and we measured their frequency of mind-wandering and their subjective evaluations of passage difficulty/interest. Section length was manipulated, such that some passages were presented in short sections and others were presented in long sections. Importantly, participants were randomly assigned to complete either a within-subject version of the experiment (in which they read some short-section passages and some long-section passages) or a between-subjects design (in which they only read either short-section or long-section passages)...
April 2018: Acta Psychologica
Michael Yates, Sunjeev K Kamboj
Objectives: Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the 'elaborated intrusion' theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods: Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n = 40) consumed alcohol (0...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Cornelia McCormick, Clive R Rosenthal, Thomas D Miller, Eleanor A Maguire
Subjective inner experiences, such as mind-wandering, represent the fundaments of human cognition. Although the precise function of mind-wandering is still debated, it is increasingly acknowledged to have influence across cognition on processes such as future planning, creative thinking, and problem-solving and even on depressive rumination and other mental health disorders. Recently, there has been important progress in characterizing mind-wandering and identifying the associated neural networks. Two prominent features of mind-wandering are mental time travel and visuospatial imagery, which are often linked with the hippocampus...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Patrick Laflamme, Paul Seli, Daniel Smilek
The metronome response task (MRT)-a sustained-attention task that requires participants to produce a response in synchrony with an audible metronome-was recently developed to index response variability in the context of studies on mind wandering. In the present studies, we report on the development and validation of a visual version of the MRT (the visual metronome response task; vMRT), which uses the rhythmic presentation of visual, rather than auditory, stimuli. Participants completed the vMRT (Studies 1 and 2) and the original (auditory-based) MRT (Study 2) while also responding to intermittent thought probes asking them to report the depth of their mind wandering...
February 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Leonhard Hakon Drescher, Eva Van den Bussche, Kobe Desender
Despite the abundance of recent publications about mind wandering (i.e., off-task thought), its interconnection with metacognition and cognitive control has not yet been examined. In the current study, we hypothesized that these three constructs would show clear interrelations. Metacognitive capacity was predicted to correlate positively with cognitive control ability, which in turn was predicted to be positively related to resistance to mind wandering during sustained attention. Moreover, it was expected that participants with good metacognitive capacity would be better at the subjective recognition of behaviorally present mind wandering...
2018: PloS One
Chanaka N Kahathuduwa, Chathurika S Dhanasekara, Shao-Hua Chin, Tyler Davis, Vajira S Weerasinghe, Tharaka L Dassanayake, Martin Binks
Oral intake of l-theanine and caffeine supplements is known to be associated with faster stimulus discrimination, possibly via improving attention to stimuli. We hypothesized that l-theanine and caffeine may be bringing about this beneficial effect by increasing attention-related neural resource allocation to target stimuli and decreasing deviation of neural resources to distractors. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test this hypothesis. Solutions of 200mg of l-theanine, 160mg of caffeine, their combination, or the vehicle (distilled water; placebo) were administered in a randomized 4-way crossover design to 9 healthy adult men...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Myrthe Faber, Gabriel A Radvansky, Sidney K D'Mello
How does the dynamic structure of the external world direct attention? We examined the relationship between event structure and attention to test the hypothesis that narrative shifts (both theoretical and perceived) negatively predict attentional lapses. Self-caught instances of mind wandering were collected while 108 participants watched a 32.5 min film called The Red Balloon. We used theoretical codings of situational change and human perceptions of event boundaries to predict mind wandering in 5-s intervals...
April 2018: Cognition
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