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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743163/alk-and-ros1-testing-on-lung-cancer-cytologic-samples-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Pasquale Pisapia, Maria D Lozano, Elena Vigliar, Claudio Bellevicine, Francesco Pepe, Umberto Malapelle, Giancarlo Troncone
Cytologic sampling is the mainstay of diagnosing advanced lung cancer. Moreover, to select patients for personalized first-line or second-line treatment, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) rearrangements are tested on cytologic preparations. Commercially available fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assays have primarily been used for the identification of cells harboring ALK or ROS1 gene fusions on histologic rather than cytologic preparations...
July 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738749/an-update-on-multiple-sclerosis-in-children-diagnosis-therapies-and-prospects-for-the-future
#2
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Brenda Banwell
Abstrac Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, is increasing being recognized in children and adolescents. Pediatric MS follows a relapsing-remitting course at onset, with a risk for early cognitive impairment. Areas Covered: In this review, we discuss the clinical features of acute demyelinating syndromes in children and risk factors that increase the likelihood of a diagnosis of MS. We also address the application of diagnostic criteria for MS in children, immunological features, therapeutic options and psychosocial considerations for children and adolescents with MS...
July 25, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738391/updated-palate-surgery-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Hsueh-Yu Li
Initially described in 1981, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty was the first surgical procedure specially designed at the palatal level for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To date, palatal surgery remains the most commonly used surgery for OSA. The advancement of this surgery over the past 30 years has been a process of evolution in concepts, examination, and technique to increase safety and effectiveness in the treatment of OSA. Concept changes have emerged in the disease etiology, purpose of surgery, treatment priorities, staging of operations, integration therapy, and surgical endpoints...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738333/updated-hypopharyngeal-surgery-for-sleep-apnea
#4
B Tucker Woodson
The failure of traditional upper airway surgery such as uvulopalatopharyngoplasty has been attributed to lower airway obstruction related to base of tongue collapse. Multiple procedures, including glossectomy, tongue base radiofrequency, genioglossus advancement, and tongue suspension techniques, have been advocated to improve success rates. No consensus exists on which subsets of patients are best treated by individual approaches and direct comparative data are lacking. The selection of procedures must be based on individual patient needs and the relative potential benefits and risks...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735365/an-update-on-the-use-of-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-lymphoma
#5
REVIEW
Thomas U Marron, Matko Kalac, Joshua Brody
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Throughout the field of oncology, immunotherapy is moving further towards the first-line setting, and there is encouraging data for the use of these novel therapies in the management of lymphomas, utilizing treatments approved for both solid and hematologic malignancies. Herein, we review promising advances in this rapidly moving field from the past year. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last year, we have seen promising clinical data on engineered antibody therapies for the treatment of lymphomas, as well as further optimization of engineered antibody fragments fused onto linkers or chimeric T cell receptors, both of the modalities capable of transforming non-specific T cells into tumor-specific, serial killer cells...
July 22, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733440/dose-transition-pathways-the-missing-link-between-complex-dose-finding-designs-and-simple-decision-making
#6
Christina Yap, Lucinda J Billingham, Ying Kuen Cheung, Charlie Craddock, John O'Quigley
The ever increasing pace of development of novel therapies mandates efficient methodologies for assessment of their tolerability and activity. Evidence increasingly support the merits of model-based dose-finding designs in identifying the recommended Phase II dose compared to conventional rule-based designs such as the 3+3 but despite this, their use remains limited. Here, we propose a useful tool, Dose Transition Pathways (DTP), which helps overcome several commonly-faced practical and methodological challenges in the implementation of model-based designs...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728893/-%C3%A2-2015-revised-utstein-style-recommended-guidelines-for-uniform-reporting-of-data-from-drowning-related-resuscitation-an-ilcor-advisory-statement
#7
Ahamed H Idris, Joost J L M Bierens, Gavin D Perkins, Volker Wenzel, Vinay Nadkarni, Peter Morley, David S Warner, Alexis Topjian, Allart M Venema, Christine M Branche, David Szpilman, Luiz Morizot-Leite, Masahiko Nitta, Bo Løfgren, Jonathon Webber, Jan-Thorsten Gräsner, Stephen B Beerman, Chun Song Youn, Ulrich Jost, Linda Quan, Cameron Dezfulian, Anthony J Handley, Mary Fran Hazinski
BACKGROUND: Utstein-style guidelines use an established consensus process, endorsed by the international resuscitation community, to facilitate and structure resuscitation research and publication. The first "Guidelines for Uniform Reporting of Data From Drowning" were published over a decade ago. During the intervening years, resuscitation science has advanced considerably, thus making revision of the guidelines timely. In particular, measurement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation elements and neurological outcomes reporting have advanced substantially...
June 23, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728060/clinical-neurophysiology-of-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-from-diagnostic-stimulation-to-therapeutic-neuromodulation
#8
REVIEW
Aldo Ragazzoni, Massimo Cincotta, Fabio Giovannelli, Damian Cruse, G Bryan Young, Carlo Miniussi, Simone Rossi
The identification of signs of awareness in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) after severe brain injury is a challenging task for clinicians. Differentiating on behavioural examination the vegetative state (VS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) can lead to a high misdiagnosis rate. Advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques can supplement clinical evaluation by providing physiological evidence of brain activity. However, an open issue remains whether these empirical results are directly or indirectly associated with covert consciousness and limitations emerge for their diagnostic application at the single-patient level...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725965/medulloblastoma-experimental-models-and-reality
#9
REVIEW
Julia E Neumann, Fredrik J Swartling, Ulrich Schüller
Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in childhood, but it may also affect infants, adolescents, and young adults. Recent advances in the understanding of the disease have shed light on molecular and clinical heterogeneity, which is now reflected in the updated WHO classification of brain tumors. At the same time, it is well accepted that preclinical research and clinical trials have to be subgroup-specific. Hence, valid models have to be generated specifically for every medulloblastoma subgroup to properly mimic molecular fingerprints, clinical features, and responsiveness to targeted therapies...
July 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725645/imaging-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-multimodality-update
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Semple, Mohammed R Akhtar, Catherine M Owens
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common form of infantile chronic lung disease and results in significant health-care expenditure. The roles of chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) are well documented but numerous recent advances in imaging technology have paved the way for newer imaging techniques including structural pulmonary assessment via lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional assessment via ventilation, and perfusion MRI and quantitative imaging techniques using both CT and MRI...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721065/optimizing-the-treatment-of-bevacizumab-as-first-line-therapy-for-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-her2-negative-advanced-breast-cancer-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-published-randomized-trials
#11
Cunfu Li, Aizhai Xiang, Xianzhi Chen, Kai Yin, Jinsong Lu, Wenjin Yin
BACKGROUND: Manifold data have demonstrated that the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy improved progression-free survival (PFS), while few trials have revealed its significant overall survival (OS) benefit. Furthermore, it still remains suspended how to maximize the benefits of bevacizumab as first-line therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. We sought to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the benefits of bevacizumab with chemotherapy and to identify the ideal chemotherapy partner of bevacizumab in the first-line setting for HER2-negative advanced breast cancer patients...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719390/total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation-recent-updates-and-outcomes
#12
Yoshitaro Shindo, Mazhar A Kanak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is a reliable therapy to retain endocrine function, to alleviate pain and improve quality of life in adult and pediatric patients suffering from refractory chronic pancreatitis and recurrent acute pancreatitis. Recently, an expansion of indications to include benign and malignant pancreatic disease has been suggested. Improved methods for evaluating the functional quality of islets and predicting transplant outcome have been discussed...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716971/2015-revised-utstein-style-recommended-guidelines-for-uniform-reporting-of-data-from-drowning-related-resuscitation-an-ilcor-advisory-statement
#13
REVIEW
Ahamed H Idris, Joost J L M Bierens, Gavin D Perkins, Volker Wenzel, Vinay Nadkarni, Peter Morley, David S Warner, Alexis Topjian, Allart M Venema, Christine M Branche, David Szpilman, Luiz Morizot-Leite, Masahiko Nitta, Bo Løfgren, Jonathon Webber, Jan-Thorsten Gräsner, Stephen B Beerman, Chun Song Youn, Ulrich Jost, Linda Quan, Cameron Dezfulian, Anthony J Handley, Mary Fran Hazinski
BACKGROUND: Utstein-style guidelines use an established consensus process, endorsed by the international resuscitation community, to facilitate and structure resuscitation research and publication. The first "Guidelines for Uniform Reporting of Data From Drowning" were published over a decade ago. During the intervening years, resuscitation science has advanced considerably, thus making revision of the guidelines timely. In particular, measurement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation elements and neurological outcomes reporting have advanced substantially...
July 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714419/design-of-multi-target-agents-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-tacrine
#14
Hongzhi Lin, Qi Li, Kai Gu, Jie Zhu, Xueyang Jiang, Yao Chen, Haopeng Sun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in elderly people. To date, efficacious therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD is still very limited, so it has long been a challenging and attractive task to discover new anti-AD drugs. Considering the multifactorial nature of AD, recently, the concept of multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) has emerged as a new strategy for designing therapeutic agents on AD. MTDLs are believed to exert their effects through simultaneously affecting multiple targets which contribute to etiology of AD...
July 17, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714313/artificial-metalloenzymes-reaction-scope-and-optimization-strategies
#15
Fabian Schwizer, Yasunori Okamoto, Tillmann Heinisch, Yifan Gu, Michela M Pellizzoni, Vincent Lebrun, Raphael Reuter, Valentin Köhler, Jared C Lewis, Thomas R Ward
The incorporation of a synthetic, catalytically competent metallocofactor into a protein scaffold to generate an artificial metalloenzyme (ArM) has been explored since the late 1970's. Progress in the ensuing years was limited by the tools available for both organometallic synthesis and protein engineering. Advances in both of these areas, combined with increased appreciation of the potential benefits of combining attractive features of both homogeneous catalysis and enzymatic catalysis, led to a resurgence of interest in ArMs starting in the early 2000's...
July 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713251/age-related-changes-in-lateral-entorhinal-and-ca3-neuron-allocation-predict-poor-performance-on-object-discrimination
#16
Andrew P Maurer, Sarah A Johnson, Abbi R Hernandez, Jordan Reasor, Daniela M Cossio, Kaeli E Fertal, Jack M Mizell, Katelyn N Lubke, Benjamin J Clark, Sara N Burke
Age-related memory deficits correlate with dysfunction in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, which includes both hyperactivity and overly rigid activity patterns. While changes in intrinsic membrane currents and interneuron alterations are involved in this process, it is not known whether alterations in afferent input to CA3 also contribute. Neurons in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) project directly to CA3 through the perforant path, but no data are available regarding the effects of advanced age on LEC activity and whether these activity patterns update in response to environmental change...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713235/connecting-the-brain-to-itself-through-an-emulation
#17
Mijail D Serruya
Pilot clinical trials of human patients implanted with devices that can chronically record and stimulate ensembles of hundreds to thousands of individual neurons offer the possibility of expanding the substrate of cognition. Parallel trains of firing rate activity can be delivered in real-time to an array of intermediate external modules that in turn can trigger parallel trains of stimulation back into the brain. These modules may be built in software, VLSI firmware, or biological tissue as in vitro culture preparations or in vivo ectopic construct organoids...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712528/breast-cancer-in-the-21st-century-from-early-detection-to-new-therapies
#18
J A Merino Bonilla, M Torres Tabanera, L H Ros Mendoza
The analysis of the causes that have given rise to a change in tendency in the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in the last few decades generates important revelations regarding the role of breast screening, the regular application of adjuvant therapies and the change of risk factors. The benefits of early detection have been accompanied by certain adverse effects, even in terms of an excessive number of prophylactic mastectomies. Recently, several updates have been published on the recommendations in breast cancer screening at an international level...
July 13, 2017: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709568/current-and-emerging-topical-therapies-for-atopic-dermatitis
#19
Jeremy Udkoff, Andrea Waldman, Jusleen Ahluwalia, Jenna Borok, Lawrence F Eichenfield
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves epidermal barrier dysfunction and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) lymphocyte-driven inflammation. Cytokines, such as interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13, are important in this reaction. They stimulate B cells to produce immunoglobulin E, causing atopic disease. This process has been well characterized, and new therapies for AD, such as phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE-4) inhibitors, Th2-expressed chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule antagonists, and Janus kinase inhibitors, work by antagonizing this cellular pathway...
July 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709412/study-protocol-safety-and-efficacy-of-propranolol-0-2-eye-drops-in-newborns-with-a-precocious-stage-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-drop-rop-0-2-a-multicenter-open-label-single-arm-phase-ii-trial
#20
Luca Filippi, Giacomo Cavallaro, Elettra Berti, Letizia Padrini, Gabriella Araimo, Giulia Regiroli, Valentina Bozzetti, Chiara De Angelis, Paolo Tagliabue, Barbara Tomasini, Giuseppe Buonocore, Massimo Agosti, Angela Bossi, Gaetano Chirico, Salvatore Aversa, Roberta Pasqualetti, Pina Fortunato, Silvia Osnaghi, Barbara Cavallotti, Maurizio Vanni, Giulia Borsari, Simone Donati, Giuseppe Nascimbeni, Giancarlo la Marca, Giulia Forni, Silvano Milani, Ivan Cortinovis, Paola Bagnoli, Massimo Dal Monte, Anna Maria Calvani, Alessandra Pugi, Eduardo Villamor, Gianpaolo Donzelli, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) still represents one of the leading causes of visual impairment in childhood. Systemic propranolol has proven to be effective in reducing ROP progression in preterm newborns, although safety was not sufficiently guaranteed. On the contrary, topical treatment with propranolol eye micro-drops at a concentration of 0.1% had an optimal safety profile in preterm newborns with ROP, but was not sufficiently effective in reducing the disease progression if administered at an advanced stage (during stage 2)...
July 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
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