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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792734/clinical-updates-on-perianal-fistulas-in-crohn-s-disease
#1
Ori Rackovsky, Robert Hirten, Ryan Ungaro, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Perianal fistulizing disease is an aggressive and debilitating phenotype of Crohn's disease (CD), representing a significant therapeutic challenge. New work has led to advancement in epidemiology and long term outcomes of perianal disease. The range of therapeutic options continues to expand, including new biologic agents, biosimilars, and stem cell therapy. Areas covered: We discuss updates to all aspects of management of perianal disease, with a focus on the last three years of published data. Areas considered include new data on epidemiology and prognostication, medical and surgical therapy, and stem cell therapy...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792263/an-update-on-the-use-of-immunohistochemistry-and-molecular-pathology-in-the-diagnosis-of-pre-invasive-and-malignant-lesions-in-gynecological-oncology
#2
REVIEW
Emmanouil Kalampokas, Fiona Payne, Mahalakshmi Gurumurthy
OBJECTIVE: One of the most common challenges in everyday clinical practice of gynecological oncology is to identify the type and the primary origin of a tumor. This is a crucial step in the management, treatment, prognosis, and survival of patients suffering from a gynecological malignancy. Immunohistochemistry has been widely adopted over the last three decades in pathology laboratories all over the world. Recent advances in our understanding of the differentiation of gynecological tumors based on immunohistochemical expression have resulted in use of immunohistochemistry as a major diagnostic tool in gynecology, for precise tumor classification...
May 21, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792143/recent-updates-on-novel-approaches-in-insulin-drug-delivery-a-review-of-challenges-and-pharmaceutical-implications
#3
Manisha Pandey, Hira Choudhury, Cheah Xiao Yi, Chen Wei Mun, Goh Khang Ping, Guee Xin Rou, Bhalqish Jeet Kaur A/P Ambar Jeet Singh, Angel Ng Ann Jhee, Lee Kai Chin, Prashant Kesharwani, Bapi Gorain, Zahid Hussain
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism, is mainly associated with insulin resistance to the body cells, or impaired production of insulin by the pancreatic β-cells. Insulin is mainly required to regulate glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients; however, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus also require insulin, especially when their condition cannot be controlled solely by oral hypoglycemic agents. Hence, major researches are ongoing attempting to improve the delivery of insulin in order to make it more convenient to patients who experience side effects from the conventional treatment procedure or non-adherence to insulin regimen due to multiple comorbid conditions...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790651/epitheliocystis-in-fish-an-emerging-aquaculture-disease-with-a-global-impact
#4
REVIEW
Makeely Isabel Blandford, Alyce Taylor-Brown, Thomas A Schlacher, Barbara Nowak, Adam Polkinghorne
Epitheliocystis is a skin and gill disease in fish caused by pathogenic intracellular bacteria. The disease has been reported in at least 90 species of marine and freshwater fish in both the southern and northern hemispheres. It affects a number of commercially important aquaculture species, including salmon, kingfish and bream. In infected fish, cysts typically develop in the gill epithelia, promoting the fusion of gill lamellae. Infections can lead to respiratory distress and death, particularly in cultured and juvenile fish with cases rarely reported in wild fish...
May 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790174/an-update-of-nih-research-funding-of-aapm-members-from-1985-to-2017
#5
Brendan Whelan
Excellence in scientific research is one of the three pillars of the AAPMs mission to advance medicine, along with excellence in education and professional practice. The primary funder of medical research in the USA is the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which in 2017 had a budget of $33 billion USD. The Working Group for a Research Database (WGRD) previously published a special report into the development and testing of an algorithm to create a database of NIH funding of AAPM members [1]. The published data covered the years 1985 to 2015...
May 23, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789648/dalm-rest-in-peace-a-pathologist-s-perspective-on-dysplasia-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-the-post-dalm-era
#6
REVIEW
Kenrry Chiu, Robert H Riddell, David F Schaeffer
There are few abbreviations in surgical pathology that are associated with as much immediate recognition, frustration, and confusion as DALM (dysplasia-associated lesion or mass). DALM is used to describe endoscopically visible dysplastic lesions in the surveillance of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, the diagnosis of DALM has been complicated by the inconsistent criteria and use of terminology for describing dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease, and a tendency to relate DALM with the need for colectomy...
May 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788361/treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-the-older-patient
#7
Alastair Dorreen, Courtney Heisler, Jennifer Jones
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing, and as our population ages, there is a growing number of IBD patients who are transitioning into advanced age; 15% to 20% of IBD patients are classified as late-onset (between 60-65 years of age). This has led clinicians to treat a large number of older patients with IBD. The principles of management of IBD in older patients are the same as those who are younger. There are, however, phenotypic differences that are unique to late-onset IBD and age-related concerns that clinicians must consider when initiating therapy for their older patients with IBD...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787889/diagnosis-of-bloodstream-infections-from-positive-blood-cultures-and-directly-from-blood-samples-recent-developments-in-molecular-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Nilay Peker, Natacha Couto, Bhanu Sinha, John W Rossen
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections are a major cause of death with increasing incidence and severity. Blood cultures are still the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis, but are rather slow. Molecular methods can be used as add-on complementary assays. They can be useful to speed up microbial identification and to predict antimicrobial susceptibility, applied to direct blood samples or positive blood cultures. AIM: To review recent developments in molecular based diagnostic platforms used for the identification of bloodstream infections, with a focus on assays performed directly on blood samples and positive blood cultures...
May 19, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786939/an-update-on-enzymatic-cocktails-for-lignocellulose-breakdown
#9
REVIEW
Andreza de Mello Lopes, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho, Leonora Rios de Souza Moreira
Alternative energy sources have received increasing attention in recent years. The possibility of adding value to agricultural wastes, by producing biofuels and other products with economic value from lignocellulosic biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis, has been widely explored. Lignocellulosic biomass, as well as being an abundant residue, is a complex recalcitrant structure that requires a consortium of enzymes for its complete degradation. Pools of enzymes with different specificities acting together usually produce an increase in hydrolysis yield...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786527/retrospective-analysis-of-bluetongue-farm-risk-profile-definition-based-on-biology-farm-management-practices-and-climatic-data
#10
Stefano Cappai, Federica Loi, Annamaria Coccollone, Marino Contu, Paolo Capece, Michele Fiori, Simona Canu, Cipriano Foxi, Sandro Rolesu
Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Many studies have contributed to clarifying various aspects of its aetiology, epidemiology and vector dynamic; however, BT remains a disease of epidemiological and economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. Since 2000, the Sardinia region has been the most affected area of the Mediterranean basin. The region is characterised by wide pastoral areas for sheep and represents the most likely candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence in Italy...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786030/women-deans-perceptions-of-the-gender-gap-in-american-medical-deanships
#11
Elizabeth Humberstone
Background: : Women account for 16% of deans of American medical schools. To investigate this gender gap, female deans were interviewed about the barriers facing women advancing toward deanships. Methods: The author conducted semi-structured interviews with eight women deans. Interviews were analyzed using provisional coding and sub coding techniques. Results: Four main themes emerged during the interviews: (1) the role of relationships in personal and career development, (2) leadership challenges, (3) barriers between women and leadership advancement, and (4) recommendations for improvement...
September 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785452/local-recurrence-of-soft-tissue-sarcoma-issues-in-imaging-surveillance-strategy
#12
REVIEW
Nisreen S Ezuddin, Juan Pretell-Mazzini, Raphael L Yechieli, Darcy A Kerr, Breelyn A Wilky, Ty K Subhawong
Soft-tissue sarcomas pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to physicians, owing to the large number of subtypes, aggressive tumor biology, lack of consensus on management, and controversy surrounding interval and duration of surveillance scans. Advances in multidisciplinary management have improved the care of sarcoma patients, but controversy remains regarding strategies for surveillance following definitive local control. This review provides an updated, comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the risk of local recurrence of soft-tissue sarcoma, by examining the literature based on features such as histological type and grade, tumor size, and resection margin status, with the aim of helping clinicians, surgeons, and radiologists to develop a tailored approach to local imaging surveillance...
May 21, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784745/updates-to-the-management-of-kidney-cancer
#13
Eric Jonasch
Several updates were made to the 2018 NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer. Adjuvant sunitinib is the first adjuvant therapy to be endorsed by the panel for patients with stage II and III clear cell histology renal cell carcinoma (RCC; category 2B). A promising new treatment-ipilimumab plus nivolumab for patients at intermediate and poor risk in the frontline setting-was added to the guidelines as well. Cabozantinib was added as a first-line option for poor- and intermediate-risk patients with advanced RCC.
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784737/nccn-guidelines-updates-breast-cancer
#14
Sharon H Giordano, Anthony D Elias, William J Gradishar
The emergence of CDK4/6 inhibitors has changed the treatment algorithm for advanced/metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In pivotal trials of palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib, doubling in progression-free survival has been seen. All 3 agents in this class are now included in the NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer, and clinicians should be incorporating these agents into their treatment algorithms. The other important issue in this breast cancer setting is extended duration of endocrine therapy...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784193/adjuvant-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-targeted-therapy-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Maxine Sun, Lorenzo Marconi, Tim Eisen, Bernard Escudier, Rachel H Giles, Naomi B Haas, Lauren C Harshman, David I Quinn, James Larkin, Sumanta K Pal, Thomas Powles, Christopher W Ryan, Cora N Sternberg, Robert Uzzo, Toni K Choueiri, Axel Bex
CONTEXT: Contradictory data exist with regard to adjuvant vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeted therapy in surgically managed patients for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC). OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the current evidence regarding the therapeutic benefit (disease-free survival [DFS] and overall survival [OS]) and grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs) for adjuvant VEGFR-targeted therapy for resected localized RCC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A critical review of PubMed/Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library in January 2018 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement was performed...
May 18, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784160/systemic-medication-usage-in-glaucoma-patients
#16
Tenley Bower, Deborah Anne Samek, Ahmed Mohammed, Ali Mohammed, Paul Kasner, David Camoriano, Oscar Kasner
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of the systemic use of some common classes of medications by glaucoma patients and their relationship to the prevalence and severity of chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) and primary-angle closure glaucoma (PACG). DESIGN: Observational prospective single-centre cross-sectional study. METHODS: Glaucoma patients or their pharmacist provided an updated list of all systemic medications that they presently use...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783992/a-review-of-the-risk-factors-genetics-and-treatment-of-endometriosis-in-chinese-women-a-comparative-update
#17
REVIEW
Yi Dai, Xiaoyan Li, Jinghua Shi, Jinhua Leng
Endometriosis is one of the major causes of economic burden and compromised quality of life in a very large percentage of Asian women. While it is perceived as a benign condition, recent research has shown that it may be a significant cause of infertility and metastatic cancer. It has also been associated with other diseases linked to the functioning of the immune system. Genetic as well as environmental factors are known to affect the manifestation and progression of endometriosis. This review aims to summarize recent research pertaining to the risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis in Chinese women...
May 21, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782352/an-update-on-the-management-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#18
Limin Gao, Nikola S Natov, Kevin P Daly, Faisal Masud, Sadia Chaudhry, Mark J Sterling, Muhammad W Saif
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasia and differ in their clinical presentation, behavior, and prognosis based on both histological features and cancer stage at the time of diagnosis. Although small-sized tumors can be surgically resected, locally advanced and metastatic tumors confer a poor prognosis. In addition, only limited treatment options are available to the latter group of patients with PNETs, such as hormonal analogs, cytotoxic agents, and targeted therapy...
May 8, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782333/the-role-of-clinic-blood-pressure-for-the-diagnosis-of-hypertension
#19
Mohamed Ayan, Sabeeda Kadarath, Patrick T Campbell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent data from randomized clinical trials and updates to hypertension guidelines warrant a review of the literature for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in the clinic setting. Although there have been significant advances in ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and home BP monitoring, office BP (OBP) measurements remains the primary means of diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The current review focuses on updated guidelines, proper technique, device selection, and the recent controversy regarding unattended BP measurements...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781330/management-of-pleural-infections
#20
Lucía Ferreiro, José M Porcel, Silvia Bielsa, María Elena Toubes, José Manuel Álvarez-Dobaño, Luis Valdés
The management of infected pleural effusion is complex. Therapeutic resolution requires determining the following: appropriate antibiotic regimen, the need for pleural drainage, the optimal drainage tube size, and the need for intrapleural therapy or surgery. Areas covered: An updating of the latest advances in the management of parapneumonic pleural effusion based on the best evidence available is provided. Expert commentary: The correct management of parapneumonic pleural effusion is based on selecting an antibiotic regimen according to the origin of the pleural infection (community-acquired or nosocomial)...
May 20, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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