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small intestine fluid accumulation

David S Weinberg, Jieru E Lin, Nathan R Foster, Gary Della'Zanna, Asad Umar, Drew Seisler, Walter K Kraft, David M Kastenberg, Leo C Katz, Paul J Limburg, Scott A Waldman
Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is a tumor-suppressing receptor silenced by loss of expression of its luminocrine hormones guanylin and uroguanylin early in colorectal carcinogenesis. This observation suggests oral replacement with a GUCY2C agonist may be an effective targeted chemoprevention agent. Linaclotide is an FDA-approved oral GUCY2C agonist formulated for gastric release, inducing fluid secretion into the small bowel to treat chronic idiopathic constipation. The ability of oral linaclotide to induce a pharmacodynamic response in epithelial cells of the colorectum in humans remains undefined...
June 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
Kurokawa Tomohiro, Giichiro Tsurita, Kentaro Yazawa, Masaru Shinozaki
INTRODUCITON: We report a recent case of strangulated bowel obstruction due to an incarcerated secondary perineal hernia that developed after laparoscopic rectal resection. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 75-year-old man undergoing treatment for alcoholic cirrhosis underwent laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection of the rectum (APR) for lower rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Lung metastases were diagnosed 2 months postoperatively. Ten days after chemotherapy initiation, the patient was hospitalized on an emergency basis due to hepatic encephalopathy...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Satyendra K Prasad, Komal M Parmar, Chhanda C Danta, Damiki Laloo, S Hemalatha
BACKGROUND: Roots of the plant Eriosema chinense Vogel (Fabaceae) is distributed mainly over the Eastern Himalayan region of India and China. The roots of the plant are used as a vegetable by the people of Northern Australia, China and North East India and are used traditionally by the tribal people of Meghalaya (India) for the treatment of diarrhoea. It has been reported to have significant antidiarrhoeal, cytotoxic and antimycobacterial activity. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The present investigation was undertaken to isolate a lead molecule responsible for the observed antidiarrhoeal activity...
January 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
F-B Tang, Y-L Dai, S Hu, L-Q Ma, J-Y Li, H-P Zhang, W-H Zhang, Y-G Li, H-B Wang, H-Y Lin, Q Hu, L Li
OBJECTIVE: High vasopermeability and excessive inflammation following severe burns may result in tissue edema, organ dysfunction and the loss of circulatory plasma volume, which can influence the doctor to do the prognosis to the patients. The study aims to examine whether Xuebijing injection (XBJ), an extracts of a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in clinic, can reduces fluid requirements by inhibiting vasopermeability and tissue edema in a canine model after burn injury...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Rakesh Sagar, Anjan Kumar, Amrita Bhaiji, Subrat Kumar Bhattamishra
BACKGROUND: Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) is an annual herb with traditional appreciation for various pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this herb is insufficient. The aim of the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate flavonoidal fraction of A. leptophyllum fruit (FFALF) against diarrhoea on albino rats. METHODS: The antidiarrhoeal study was conducted by castor oil induce diarrhoea, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling and intestinal transit by charcoal meal test...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
Alex Yu, Jason R Baker, Ann F Fioritto, Ying Wang, Ruijuan Luo, Siwei Li, Bo Wen, Michael Bly, Yasuhiro Tsume, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Xinyuan Zhang, Robert Lionberger, Gordon L Amidon, William L Hasler, Duxin Sun
As an orally administered, locally acting gastrointestinal drug, mesalamine products are designed to achieve high local drug concentration in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to directly measure and compare drug dissolution of three mesalamine formulations in human GI tract and to correlate their GI concentration with drug concentration in plasma. Healthy human subjects were orally administered Pentasa, Apriso, or Lialda. GI fluids were aspirated from stomach, duodenum, proximal jejunum, mid jejunum, and distal jejunum regions...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Onur Cil, Puay-Wah Phuan, Anne Marie Gillespie, Sujin Lee, Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Jianyi Yin, Ming Tse, Nicholas C Zachos, Ruxian Lin, Mark Donowitz, Alan S Verkman
Secretory diarrheas caused by bacterial enterotoxins, including cholera and traveler's diarrhea, remain a major global health problem. Inappropriate activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel occurs in these diarrheas. We previously reported that the benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazinedione (R)-BPO-27 inhibits CFTR chloride conductance with low-nanomolar potency. Here, we demonstrate using experimental mouse models and human enterocyte cultures the potential utility of (R)-BPO-27 for treatment of secretory diarrheas caused by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins...
November 8, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Mohamed-Amine Jabri, Kais Rtibi, Mohsen Sakly, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai
INTRODUCTION: The myrtle (Myrtus communis) belongs to the Myrtaceae family; it is one of the central plants as part of the list of medicinal plants in the Tunisian Pharmacopoeia. Myrtle berry was used for its astringent, tonic, and antiseptic properties, to treat diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and gastrointestinal injury. METHODS: Adult male wistar rats were used to evaluate the normal gastro-intestinal transit and gastric emptying as well as castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling tests, and small intestine oxidative stress...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Philippe Provençal, Michel Boutin, Shaalee Dworski, Bryan Au, Jeffrey A Medin, Christiane Auray-Blais
AIM: Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder leading to glycosphingolipid accumulation in different organs, tissues and biological fluids. The development of a Fabry disease gene therapy trial is underway in Canada. A tool to determine the distribution of Gb3 biomarkers in tissues of Fabry mice might be applicable to monitor the effect of gene therapy. Results & methodology: An ultra-performance LC-MS/MS (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 22 Gb3 isoform/analogs in various Fabry mice tissues was developed and validated...
September 2016: Bioanalysis
Jaydeep Sidhaye, Clyde Savio Pinto, Shweta Dharap, Tressa Jacob, Shobha Bhargava, Mahendra Sonawane
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a life-threatening enteropathy characterised by malabsorption and incapacitating fluid loss due to chronic diarrhoea. Histological analysis has revealed that enterocytes in MVID patients exhibit reduction of microvilli, presence of microvillus inclusion bodies and intestinal villus atrophy, whereas genetic linkage analysis has identified mutations in myosin Vb gene as the main cause of MVID. In order to understand the cellular basis of MVID and the associated formation of inclusion bodies, an animal model that develops ex utero and is tractable genetically as well as by microscopy would be highly useful...
November 2016: Mechanisms of Development
Jeremy J Glynn, Monica T Hinds
The decellularized matrix derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is a widely used biomaterial being investigated for numerous applications. Currently, thrombus deposition and neointimal hyperplasia have limited the use of SIS in some vascular applications. To limit these detrimental processes, this work applies bioactive, endothelial-inspired properties to the material. SIS is modified with the endothelial cell membrane protein thrombomodulin and the glycosaminoglycan heparin to facilitate protein C activation and anticoagulant activity, respectively...
June 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Hea-Jong Chung, Jae G Yu, In-Ah Lee, Ming-Jie Liu, Yan-Fei Shen, Satya P Sharma, Mohammad A H M Jamal, Jun-Hyun Yoo, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Seong-Tshool Hong
Recent findings on the association of gut microbiota with various diseases, including obesity, prompted us to investigate the possibility of using a certain type of gut bacteria as a safe therapeutic for obesity. Lactobacillus mutants with enhanced capacity in absorption of free fatty acids (FFAs) were isolated to show reduced absorption of FFAs by the administered host, attributing to inhibition of body weight gain and body fat accumulation as well as amelioration of blood profiles. Consequently, high throughput screening of natural FFAs-absorbing intestinal microbes led to the isolation of Lactobacillus reuteri JBD30 l...
January 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Elena Ruggiero, Anna Zurlo, Valter Giantin, Francesca Galeazzi, Claudia Mescoli, Giovanni Nante, Florinda Petruzzellis, Enzo Manzato
Whipple's disease is a rare infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei, a Gram-negative Bacillus usually found in macrophages of the lamina propria of the small intestine. The typical clinical manifestations of classic Whipple's disease are diarrhea, weight loss, malabsorption, abdominal pain, and arthralgia. The disease's laboratory diagnosis is currently based on duodenal biopsy. Treatment generally includes primary therapy for 2 weeks with intravenous antibiotics capable of reaching high levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, such as ceftriaxone, usually followed by treatment with oral cotrimoxazole for 1 year...
March 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Erin C Boyle, Heike Dombrowsky, Jürgen Sarau, Janin Braun, Martin Aepfelbacher, Ingmar Lautenschläger, Guntram A Grassl
Using an ex vivo perfused rat small intestinal model, we examined pathological changes to the tissue, inflammation induction, as well as dynamic changes to smooth muscle activity, metabolic competence, and luminal fluid accumulation during short-term infection with the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica. Although few effects were seen upon Yersinia infection, this system accurately modeled key aspects associated with Salmonella enteritis. Our results confirmed the importance of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1)-encoded type 3 secretion system (T3SS) in pathology, tissue invasion, inflammation induction, and fluid secretion...
January 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Tovah Wolf, Scott R Baier, Janos Zempleni
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs play essential roles in gene regulation. A substantial fraction of microRNAs in tissues and body fluids is encapsulated in exosomes, thereby conferring protection against degradation and a pathway for intestinal transport. MicroRNAs in cow milk are bioavailable in humans. OBJECTIVE: This research assessed the transport mechanism of bovine milk exosomes, and therefore microRNAs, in human and rodent intestinal cells. METHODS: The intestinal transport of bovine milk exosomes and microRNAs was assessed using fluorophore-labeled bovine milk exosomes in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells and rat small intestinal IEC-6 cells...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition
Ivanna Novotny Núñez, Carolina Maldonado Galdeano, Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Gabriela Perdigón
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a chronic disease associated with an inflammatory process in which cytokines play an important role. Probiotic microorganisms have been associated with modulation of the host immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 on the cytokine response in a model of mice under high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. METHODS: BALB/c mice received a conventional balanced diet or an HFD...
July 2015: Nutrition
Heather L Gray-Edwards, Brandon L Brunson, Merrilee Holland, Adrien-Maxence Hespel, Allison M Bradbury, Victoria J McCurdy, Patricia M Beadlescomb, Ashley N Randle, Nouha Salibi, Thomas S Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Aime K Johnson, Meredith L Voyles, Ronald D Montgomery, Diane U Wilson, Judith A Hudson, Nancy R Cox, Henry J Baker, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Douglas R Martin
Sandhoff disease (SD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Children with infantile onset SD develop seizures, loss of motor tone and swallowing problems, eventually reaching a vegetative state with death typically by 4years of age. Other symptoms include vertebral gibbus and cardiac abnormalities strikingly similar to those of the mucopolysaccharidoses. Isolated fibroblasts from SD patients have impaired catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To evaluate mucopolysaccharidosis-like features of the feline SD model, we utilized radiography, MRI, echocardiography, histopathology and GAG quantification of both central nervous system and peripheral tissues/fluids...
September 2015: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Cinzia Bottino, Marta Vázquez, Vicenta Devesa, Umberto Laforenza
The main route of exposure to mercury in humans is through the diet. Consequently, the gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to the mercurial forms, where they cause intestinal fluid accumulation, mucosal injuries and diarrhea. The relationship between inorganic mercury (HgCl2 ) and methylmercury (CH3 HgCl) exposure and water movement in the gastrointestinal tract is still unexplored. The leading role of aquaporins (AQPs) in the rapid bidirectional movement of fluid in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals is well established...
January 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Yuk Lung Wong, Ingmar Lautenschläger, Heike Dombrowsky, Karina Zitta, Berthold Bein, Thorsten Krause, Torsten Goldmann, Inez Frerichs, Markus Steinfath, Norbert Weiler, Martin Albrecht
BACKGROUND: The application of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) for volume resuscitation is controversially discussed and clinical studies have suggested adverse effects of HES substitution, leading to increased patient mortality. Although, the intestine is of high clinical relevance and plays a crucial role in sepsis and inflammation, information about the effects of HES on intestinal function and barrier integrity is very scarce. We therefore evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of HES on intestinal function and barrier integrity employing an isolated perfused model of the mouse small intestine...
2015: PloS One
Francisco A Uzal, Bruce A McClane, Jackie K Cheung, James Theoret, Jorge P Garcia, Robert J Moore, Julian I Rood
The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease...
August 31, 2015: Veterinary Microbiology
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