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small intestine fluid accumulation

Michael P Zaleski, Youngmin Chu, Elizabeth Frauenhoffer, Jozef Malysz, Negar Rassaei, Catherine Abendroth, Erik Washburn, Wayne Ross, Francesca Ruggiero, Karmaine Millington
Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) has a high mortality rate [1]. Many etiologies of NIHF have been identified, including cardiovascular abnormalities, severe anemia, and genetic defects. In patients with cardiovascular etiology, structural malformations lead to fluid accumulation resulting in increased intravascular hydrostatic pressure. We report a fatal case of NIHF in a 31 week gestational age, Caucasian neonate with heart remodeling associated with a stenotic vasculopathy of the right pulmonary artery. The artery revealed partial occlusion with vascular wall abnormalities, including disarrayed smooth muscle fibers, hyperplasia within the tunica media, and myxoid change within the media and intima...
January 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Khouloud Saidani, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
This study was conducted to compare the effects of juice and seeds on gastric emptying, small-bowel motility and intestinal ion transport. Separate groups of rats were randomized to receive NaCl, increasing doses of juice (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg, b.w.) or seeds aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.). Simultaneously, two other groups were received, the reference drugs; clonidine (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). The charcoal meal was used as a suspension for gastrointestinal motility test. The purgative action of juice was confirmed using the loperamide (5 mg/kg, p...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann, Kota Kato, Robert Townsend, Michael J Potchoiba, William W Hope, David Andes, Jochen Spickermann, Marlowe J Schneidkraut
Quantitative whole-body autoradiography was used to assess the distribution and tissue penetration of isavuconazole in rats following single and repeated oral-dose administration of radiolabeled isavuconazonium sulfate, the prodrug of isavuconazole. Following a single-dose administration of radiolabeled isavuconazonium sulfate (labeled on the active moiety), radioactivity was detectable within 1 h postdose in 56 of 65 tissue/fluid specimens. The highest maximum concentrations ( C max ) were observed in bile and liver (66...
December 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Lamjed Marzouki
Irinotecan, a chemotherapy drug, can cause acute diarrhea immediately after administration. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances after an intraperitoneal (IP) administration of irinotecan in rats.Twenty Wistar rats were separated into two groups of ten. Group A was considered as a control group (NaCl, 0.9%). Group B was treated with irinotecan at a single dose of 200mgkg-1 . The rats were observed for defecation. For the enteropooling test, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation 1h post-treatment...
December 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Leandro M Redondo, Enzo A Redondo, Gabriela C Dailoff, Carlos L Leiva, Juan M Díaz-Carrasco, Octavio A Bruzzone, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia Geoghegan, Mariano E Fernandez-Miyakawa
Iota toxin is a binary toxin solely produced by Clostridium perfringens type E strains, and is structurally related to CDT from C. difficile and CST from C. spiroforme. As type E causes hemorrhagic enteritis in cattle, it is usually assumed that associated diseases are mediated by iota toxin, although evidence in this regard has not been provided. In the present report, iota toxin intestinal effects were evaluated in vivo using a mouse model. Histological damage was observed in ileal loops treated with purified iota toxin after 4 h of incubation...
December 2017: Anaerobe
David S Weinberg, Jieru E Lin, Nathan R Foster, Gary Della'Zanna, Asad Umar, Drew Seisler, Walter K Kraft, David M Kastenberg, Leo C Katz, Paul J Limburg, Scott A Waldman
Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is a tumor-suppressing receptor silenced by loss of expression of its luminocrine hormones guanylin and uroguanylin early in colorectal carcinogenesis. This observation suggests oral replacement with a GUCY2C agonist may be an effective targeted chemoprevention agent. Linaclotide is an FDA-approved oral GUCY2C agonist formulated for gastric release, inducing fluid secretion into the small bowel to treat chronic idiopathic constipation. The ability of oral linaclotide to induce a pharmacodynamic response in epithelial cells of the colorectum in humans remains undefined...
June 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
Kurokawa Tomohiro, Giichiro Tsurita, Kentaro Yazawa, Masaru Shinozaki
INTRODUCITON: We report a recent case of strangulated bowel obstruction due to an incarcerated secondary perineal hernia that developed after laparoscopic rectal resection. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 75-year-old man undergoing treatment for alcoholic cirrhosis underwent laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection of the rectum (APR) for lower rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Lung metastases were diagnosed 2 months postoperatively. Ten days after chemotherapy initiation, the patient was hospitalized on an emergency basis due to hepatic encephalopathy...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Satyendra K Prasad, Komal M Parmar, Chhanda C Danta, Damiki Laloo, S Hemalatha
BACKGROUND: Roots of the plant Eriosema chinense Vogel (Fabaceae) is distributed mainly over the Eastern Himalayan region of India and China. The roots of the plant are used as a vegetable by the people of Northern Australia, China and North East India and are used traditionally by the tribal people of Meghalaya (India) for the treatment of diarrhoea. It has been reported to have significant antidiarrhoeal, cytotoxic and antimycobacterial activity. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The present investigation was undertaken to isolate a lead molecule responsible for the observed antidiarrhoeal activity...
January 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
F-B Tang, Y-L Dai, S Hu, L-Q Ma, J-Y Li, H-P Zhang, W-H Zhang, Y-G Li, H-B Wang, H-Y Lin, Q Hu, L Li
OBJECTIVE: High vasopermeability and excessive inflammation following severe burns may result in tissue edema, organ dysfunction and the loss of circulatory plasma volume, which can influence the doctor to do the prognosis to the patients. The study aims to examine whether Xuebijing injection (XBJ), an extracts of a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in clinic, can reduces fluid requirements by inhibiting vasopermeability and tissue edema in a canine model after burn injury...
December 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Rakesh Sagar, Anjan Kumar, Amrita Bhaiji, Subrat Kumar Bhattamishra
BACKGROUND: Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) is an annual herb with traditional appreciation for various pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this herb is insufficient. The aim of the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate flavonoidal fraction of A. leptophyllum fruit (FFALF) against diarrhoea on albino rats. METHODS: The antidiarrhoeal study was conducted by castor oil induce diarrhoea, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling and intestinal transit by charcoal meal test...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
Alex Yu, Jason R Baker, Ann F Fioritto, Ying Wang, Ruijuan Luo, Siwei Li, Bo Wen, Michael Bly, Yasuhiro Tsume, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Xinyuan Zhang, Robert Lionberger, Gordon L Amidon, William L Hasler, Duxin Sun
As an orally administered, locally acting gastrointestinal drug, mesalamine products are designed to achieve high local drug concentration in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to directly measure and compare drug dissolution of three mesalamine formulations in human GI tract and to correlate their GI concentration with drug concentration in plasma. Healthy human subjects were orally administered Pentasa, Apriso, or Lialda. GI fluids were aspirated from stomach, duodenum, proximal jejunum, mid jejunum, and distal jejunum regions...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Onur Cil, Puay-Wah Phuan, Anne Marie Gillespie, Sujin Lee, Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Jianyi Yin, Ming Tse, Nicholas C Zachos, Ruxian Lin, Mark Donowitz, Alan S Verkman
Secretory diarrheas caused by bacterial enterotoxins, including cholera and traveler's diarrhea, remain a major global health problem. Inappropriate activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel occurs in these diarrheas. We previously reported that the benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazinedione (R)-BPO-27 inhibits CFTR chloride conductance with low-nanomolar potency. Here, we demonstrate using experimental mouse models and human enterocyte cultures the potential utility of (R)-BPO-27 for treatment of secretory diarrheas caused by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins...
February 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Mohamed-Amine Jabri, Kais Rtibi, Mohsen Sakly, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai
INTRODUCTION: The myrtle (Myrtus communis) belongs to the Myrtaceae family; it is one of the central plants as part of the list of medicinal plants in the Tunisian Pharmacopoeia. Myrtle berry was used for its astringent, tonic, and antiseptic properties, to treat diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and gastrointestinal injury. METHODS: Adult male wistar rats were used to evaluate the normal gastro-intestinal transit and gastric emptying as well as castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling tests, and small intestine oxidative stress...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Philippe Provençal, Michel Boutin, Shaalee Dworski, Bryan Au, Jeffrey A Medin, Christiane Auray-Blais
AIM: Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder leading to glycosphingolipid accumulation in different organs, tissues and biological fluids. The development of a Fabry disease gene therapy trial is underway in Canada. A tool to determine the distribution of Gb3 biomarkers in tissues of Fabry mice might be applicable to monitor the effect of gene therapy. Results & methodology: An ultra-performance LC-MS/MS (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 22 Gb3 isoform/analogs in various Fabry mice tissues was developed and validated...
September 2016: Bioanalysis
Jaydeep Sidhaye, Clyde Savio Pinto, Shweta Dharap, Tressa Jacob, Shobha Bhargava, Mahendra Sonawane
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a life-threatening enteropathy characterised by malabsorption and incapacitating fluid loss due to chronic diarrhoea. Histological analysis has revealed that enterocytes in MVID patients exhibit reduction of microvilli, presence of microvillus inclusion bodies and intestinal villus atrophy, whereas genetic linkage analysis has identified mutations in myosin Vb gene as the main cause of MVID. In order to understand the cellular basis of MVID and the associated formation of inclusion bodies, an animal model that develops ex utero and is tractable genetically as well as by microscopy would be highly useful...
November 2016: Mechanisms of Development
Jeremy J Glynn, Monica T Hinds
The decellularized matrix derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is a widely used biomaterial being investigated for numerous applications. Currently, thrombus deposition and neointimal hyperplasia have limited the use of SIS in some vascular applications. To limit these detrimental processes, this work applies bioactive, endothelial-inspired properties to the material. SIS is modified with the endothelial cell membrane protein thrombomodulin and the glycosaminoglycan heparin to facilitate protein C activation and anticoagulant activity, respectively...
June 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Hea-Jong Chung, Jae G Yu, In-Ah Lee, Ming-Jie Liu, Yan-Fei Shen, Satya P Sharma, Mohammad A H M Jamal, Jun-Hyun Yoo, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Seong-Tshool Hong
Recent findings on the association of gut microbiota with various diseases, including obesity, prompted us to investigate the possibility of using a certain type of gut bacteria as a safe therapeutic for obesity. Lactobacillus mutants with enhanced capacity in absorption of free fatty acids (FFAs) were isolated to show reduced absorption of FFAs by the administered host, attributing to inhibition of body weight gain and body fat accumulation as well as amelioration of blood profiles. Consequently, high throughput screening of natural FFAs-absorbing intestinal microbes led to the isolation of Lactobacillus reuteri JBD30 l...
January 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Elena Ruggiero, Anna Zurlo, Valter Giantin, Francesca Galeazzi, Claudia Mescoli, Giovanni Nante, Florinda Petruzzellis, Enzo Manzato
Whipple's disease is a rare infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei, a Gram-negative Bacillus usually found in macrophages of the lamina propria of the small intestine. The typical clinical manifestations of classic Whipple's disease are diarrhea, weight loss, malabsorption, abdominal pain, and arthralgia. The disease's laboratory diagnosis is currently based on duodenal biopsy. Treatment generally includes primary therapy for 2 weeks with intravenous antibiotics capable of reaching high levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, such as ceftriaxone, usually followed by treatment with oral cotrimoxazole for 1 year...
March 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Erin C Boyle, Heike Dombrowsky, Jürgen Sarau, Janin Braun, Martin Aepfelbacher, Ingmar Lautenschläger, Guntram A Grassl
Using an ex vivo perfused rat small intestinal model, we examined pathological changes to the tissue, inflammation induction, as well as dynamic changes to smooth muscle activity, metabolic competence, and luminal fluid accumulation during short-term infection with the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica. Although few effects were seen upon Yersinia infection, this system accurately modeled key aspects associated with Salmonella enteritis. Our results confirmed the importance of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1)-encoded type 3 secretion system (T3SS) in pathology, tissue invasion, inflammation induction, and fluid secretion...
January 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Tovah Wolf, Scott R Baier, Janos Zempleni
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs play essential roles in gene regulation. A substantial fraction of microRNAs in tissues and body fluids is encapsulated in exosomes, thereby conferring protection against degradation and a pathway for intestinal transport. MicroRNAs in cow milk are bioavailable in humans. OBJECTIVE: This research assessed the transport mechanism of bovine milk exosomes, and therefore microRNAs, in human and rodent intestinal cells. METHODS: The intestinal transport of bovine milk exosomes and microRNAs was assessed using fluorophore-labeled bovine milk exosomes in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells and rat small intestinal IEC-6 cells...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition
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