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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821192/could-the-pd-1-pathway-be-a-potential-target-for-treating-small-intestinal-adenocarcinoma
#1
Ramya Thota, Raul S Gonzalez, Jordan Berlin, Dana B Cardin, Chanjuan Shi
Objectives: The programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway is upregulated in the immune microenvironment of many cancers. In this study, we examined the PD-1 pathway and the immune microenvironment of small intestinal adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry. Methods: From our department pathology archives we identified 42 small intestinal adenocarcinomas from between 2000 and 2015, with blocks available for IHC studies. Tumors were immunohistochemically stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, PD-1, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819499/multiple-jejunal-perforation-secondary-to-intestinal-tuberculosis-infection-a-case-report
#2
Anthony Lyonga Ngonge, Domin Sone Majunda Ekaney, Carlson-Babila Sama, Joffi Musonge-Effoe, Valery Sammah Effoe, Gerald Ekwen
Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. There is an increase in the incidence of abdominal TB favored by the emergence of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and immunosuppression especially from HIV co-infection. Our case is that of a 31 year old HIV-positive woman, adherent to antiretroviral therapy, who presented with a 2 month history of progressive abdominal distention, drenching night sweat and fatigue, but without fever...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792004/adjuvant-selection-regulates-gut-migration-and-phenotypic-diversity-of-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cells-following-parenteral-immunization
#3
D R Frederick, J A Goggins, L M Sabbagh, L C Freytag, J D Clements, J B McLachlan
Infectious diarrheal diseases are the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years, making vaccines against these diseases a high priority. It is known that certain vaccine adjuvants, chiefly bacterial ADP-ribosylating enterotoxins, can induce mucosal antibodies when delivered parenterally. Based on this, we reasoned vaccine-specific mucosal cellular immunity could be induced via parenteral immunization with these adjuvants. Here, we show that, in contrast to the Toll-like receptor-9 agonist CpG, intradermal immunization with non-toxic double-mutant heat-labile toxin (dmLT) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli drove endogenous, antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells to expand and upregulate the gut-homing integrin α4β7...
August 9, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783695/tissue-specific-emergence-of-regulatory-and-intraepithelial-t-cells-from-a-clonal-t-cell-precursor
#4
Angelina M Bilate, Djenet Bousbaine, Luka Mesin, Marianna Agudelo, Justin Leube, Andreas Kratzert, Stephanie K Dougan, Gabriel D Victora, Hidde L Ploegh
Peripheral Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (pTregs) maintain immune homeostasis by controlling potentially harmful effector T cell responses toward dietary and microbial antigens. Although the identity of the T cell receptor (TCR) can impose commitment and functional specialization of T cells, less is known about how TCR identity governs pTreg development from conventional CD4(+) T cells. To investigate the extent to which TCR identity dictates pTreg fate, we used somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate a transnuclear (TN) mouse carrying a monoclonal TCR from a pTreg (pTreg TN mice)...
August 26, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775213/lactobacillus-reuteri-induces-gut-intraepithelial-cd4-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#5
Luisa Cervantes-Barragan, Jiani N Chai, Ma Diarey Tianero, Blanda DiLuccia, Philip P Ahern, Joseph Merriman, Victor S Cortez, Michael G Caparon, Mohamed S Donia, Susan Gilfillan, Marina Cella, Jeffrey I Gordon, Chyi-Song Hsieh, Marco Colonna
The small intestine contains CD4(+)CD8αα(+) double-positive intraepithelial T lymphocytes (DP IELs), which originate from intestinal CD4(+) T cells through downregulation of the transcription factor ThPOK and have regulatory functions. DP IELs are absent in germ-free mice, suggesting that their differentiation depends on microbial factors. We found that DP IEL numbers in mice varied in different vivaria, correlating with the presence of Lactobacillus reuteri This species induced DP IELs in germ-free mice and conventionally raised mice lacking these cells...
August 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770173/oral-administration-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-ameliorates-salmonella-infantis-induced-inflammation-in-a-pig-model-via-activation-of-the-il-22bp-il-22-stat3-pathway
#6
Gui-Yan Yang, Jiao Yu, Jin-Hui Su, Lian-Guo Jiao, Xiao Liu, Yao-Hong Zhu
The high rate of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) infection poses significant risk for the development of non-typhoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. However, efficient strategies to prevent or treat the infection remain elusive. Here, we explored the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) administration in preventing S. Infantis infection in a pig model. Probiotic LGG (1.0 × 10(10) CFU/day) was orally administered to newly weaned piglets for 1 week before S. Infantis challenge...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721191/small-bowel-obstruction-due-to-mesenteric-abscess-caused-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-in-an-hiv-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
S M Mohar, Saqib Saeed, Alexius Ramcharan, Hector Depaz
Small bowel obstruction in HIV patients is reportedly caused by inflammatory pseudotumor, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptococcal lymphadenopathy and intestinal tuberculosis. The incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in HIV patients is 3% for CD4 cell count of 100-199 /mm(3). MAC causing small bowel obstruction is rarely reported in the literature. We report a rare case of MAC causing mesenteric abscess with small bowel obstruction in a HIV patient with a CD4 cell count of 144 /mm(3). Patient was a 35-year-old HIV-positive male on highly active antiretroviral therapy who presented with partial small bowel obstruction secondary to mesenteric abscess...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654863/stat6-promotes-intestinal-tumorigenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-adenomatous-polyposis-by-expansion-of-mdscs-and-inhibition-of-cytotoxic-cd8-response
#8
Asha Jayakumar, Alfred L M Bothwell
Intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ model is initiated by aberrant activation of Wnt pathway. Increased IL-4 expression in human colorectal cancer tissue and growth of colon cancer cell lines implied that IL-4-induced Stat6-mediated tumorigenic signaling likely contributes to intestinal tumor progression in ApcMin/+ mice. Stat6 also appears to promote expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) cells. MDSCs promote polyp formation in the ApcMin/+ model. Hence, Stat6 could have a broad role in coordinating both polyp cell proliferation and MDSC expansion...
August 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641471/evaluation-of-immunomodulatory-effects-of-zearalenone-in-mice
#9
Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Jong Won Kim, Yoon-Seok Roh, Jong-Hoon Kim, Han Kang Min, Hyung-Joo Kwon, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. The toxicity of ZEA has been evaluated for reproductive and developmental effects; however, there is little evidence about its acute toxicity or general immunotoxicity. In the present study, immune regulatory functions were investigated in mice that had been exposed to ZEA (5 or 20 mg/kg BW) daily for 14 days. Results showed that sub-populations of CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD11c(+) cells in the spleen and CD4(+), CD8(+) and F4/80(+) cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of ZEA (20 mg/kg)-exposed hosts were decreased compared to those in the control mice...
December 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633646/role-of-serotonin-on-the-intestinal-mucosal-immune-response-to-stress-induced-diarrhea-in-weaning-mice
#10
Yulan Dong, Yanan Han, Zixu Wang, Zhuoming Qin, Chenyu Yang, Jing Cao, Yaoxing Chen
BACKGROUND: During weaning, babies and young animal often experience diarrhea from food intolerance and/or decreasing levels of maternal antibodies, and diarrhea tends to be particularly severe during the early-weaned period, which often exhibits an underdeveloped immune system, a disturbed gut environment and results in nutrient malabsorption and dehydration. It was deduced that neuroendocrine might have close relation with diarrhea, especially 5-HT. METHODS: To explore the role of serotonin (5-HT) in weaning mice subjected to stress-induced diarrhea, 21-day-old weaned mice were divided into the following groups: control group, stress-induced diarrhea group (restrained by binding the hind limbs and intragastric administration of folium sennae with 0...
June 21, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621304/epigenetic-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-ankylosing-spondylitis-associated-loci-implicate-immune-cells-and-the-gut-in-the-disease-pathogenesis
#11
Z Li, K Haynes, D J Pennisi, L K Anderson, X Song, G P Thomas, T Kenna, P Leo, M A Brown
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common immune-mediated arthropathy primarily affecting the spine and pelvis. Most AS patients have subclinical intestinal inflammation, suggesting the gut microbiome and the immune response play a role in pathogenesis. Susceptibility to AS is primarily genetic, and at least 114 susceptibility variants have been identified to date. We applied bioinformatic methods utilizing epigenetic and gene and protein expression data to identify the cell types through which AS-associated variants operate...
June 15, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619514/the-frequency-of-th17%C3%A2-cells-in-the-small-intestine-exhibits-a-day-night-variation-dependent-on-circadian-clock-activity
#12
Ha Pham Thu Le, Yuki Nakamura, Kyoko Oh-Oka, Kayoko Ishimaru, Shotaro Nakajima, Atsuhito Nakao
Interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T helper (Th17) cells are a key immune lineage that protects against bacterial and fungal infections at mucosal surfaces. At steady state, Th17 cells are abundant in the small intestinal mucosa of mice. There are several mechanisms for regulating the population of Th17 cells in the small intestine, reflecting the importance of maintaining their numbers in the correct balance. Here we demonstrate the existence of a time-of-day-dependent variation in the frequency of Th17 cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine in wild-type mice, which was not observed in mice with a loss-of-function mutation of the core circadian gene Clock or in mice housed under aberrant light/dark conditions...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607110/the-bile-acid-receptor-gpbar1-regulates-the-m1-m2-phenotype-of-intestinal-macrophages-and-activation-of-gpbar1-rescues-mice-from-murine-colitis
#13
Michele Biagioli, Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Daniela Francisci, Silvia Marchianò, Paolo Scarpelli, Daniele Sorcini, Angela Zampella, Stefano Fiorucci
GPBAR1 (TGR5 or M-BAR) is a G protein-coupled receptor for secondary bile acids that is highly expressed in monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of GPBAR1 in mediating leukocyte trafficking in chemically induced models of colitis and investigate the therapeutic potential of BAR501, a small molecule agonist for GPBAR1. These studies demonstrated that GPBAR1 gene ablation enhanced the recruitment of classically activated macrophages in the colonic lamina propria and worsened the severity of inflammation...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602842/immune-responses-and-parasitological-observations-induced-during-probiotic-treatment-with-medicinal-trichuris-suis-ova-in-a-healthy-volunteer
#14
Andrew R Williams, Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Christian L Hvas, Jens F Dahlerup, Lars Iversen, C Rune Stensvold, Jørgen Agnholt, Peter Nejsum
Ingestion of eggs (ova) of the porcine nematode parasite Trichuris suis (TSO) may reduce the severity of autoimmune disorders, however the development of TSO treatment as a useful therapy for autoimmune diseases is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the development of the parasite and the nature of the local immune responses in humans. Here, we used colonoscopy to investigate the development of T. suis and related mucosal and systemic immune responses during TSO treatment in an intestinally healthy male volunteer...
August 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598502/balanced-bcl-3-expression-in-murine-cd4-t%C3%A2-cells-is-required-for-generation-of-encephalitogenic-th17-cells
#15
Ilgiz A Mufazalov, Janina Kuschmann, David Andruszewski, Joumana Masri, Laureen A Gabriel, Petra Adams, Sonja Reissig, Nadine Hövelmeyer, Ari Waisman
The function of NF-κB family members is controlled by multiple mechanisms including the transcriptional regulator Bcl-3, an atypical member of the IκB family. By using a murine model of conditional Bcl-3 overexpression specifically in T cells, we observed impairment in the development of Th2, Th1, and Th17 cells. High expression of Bcl-3 promoted CD4(+) T-cell survival, but at the same time suppressed proliferation in response to TCR stimulation, resulting in reduced CD4(+) T-cell expansion. As a consequence, T-cell-specific overexpression of Bcl-3 led to reduced inflammation in the small intestine of mice applied with anti-CD3 in a model of gut inflammation...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595274/antibiotics-in-16-day-old-broilers-temporarily-affect-microbial-and-immune-parameters-in-the-gut
#16
H J Wisselink, J B W J Cornelissen, D J Mevius, M A Smits, H Smidt, J M J Rebel
Animal health benefits from a stable intestinal homeostasis, for which proper development and functioning of the intestinal microbiota and immune system are essential. It has been established that changes in microbial colonization in early life (the first 2 wk post hatch) impacts the functioning of the adult gut and the associated crosstalk between microbiota and intestinal mucosal cells. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the administration of antibiotics later in life (d 15 to 20 post hatch) on microbiota and immune parameters...
June 8, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584281/mass-spectrometry-imaging-identifies-palmitoylcarnitine-as-an-immunological-mediator-during-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#17
Heather E Hulme, Lynsey M Meikle, Hannah Wessel, Nicole Strittmatter, John Swales, Carolyn Thomson, Anna Nilsson, Robert J B Nibbs, Simon Milling, Per E Andren, C Logan Mackay, Alex Dexter, Josephine Bunch, Richard J A Goodwin, Richard Burchmore, Daniel M Wall
Salmonella Typhimurium causes a self-limiting gastroenteritis that may lead to systemic disease. Bacteria invade the small intestine, crossing the intestinal epithelium from where they are transported to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) within migrating immune cells. MLNs are an important site at which the innate and adaptive immune responses converge but their architecture and function is severely disrupted during S. Typhimurium infection. To further understand host-pathogen interactions at this site, we used mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to analyse MLN tissue from a murine model of S...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579989/acute-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-triggers-early-and-transient-interleukin-7-production-in-the-gut-leading-to-enhanced-local-chemokine-expression-and-intestinal-immune-cell-homing
#18
Rosalie Ponte, Magali Rancez, Suzanne Figueiredo-Morgado, Jacques Dutrieux, Véronique Fabre-Mersseman, Bénédicte Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Thomas Guilbert, Jean-Pierre Routy, Rémi Cheynier, Anne Couëdel-Courteille
The intestinal barrier, one of the first targets of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is subjected to major physiological changes during acute infection. Having previously shown that pharmaceutical injection of interleukin-7 (IL-7) triggers chemokine expression in many organs leading to massive T-cell homing, in particular to the intestine, we here explored mucosal IL-7 expression as part of the cytokine storm occurring during the acute phase of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. Quantifying both mRNA and protein in tissues, we demonstrated a transient increase of IL-7 expression in the small intestine of SIV-infected rhesus macaques, starting with local detection of the virus by day 3 of infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529928/the-probiotic-compound-vsl-3-modulates-mucosal-peripheral-and-systemic-immunity-following-murine-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment
#19
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505210/whole-exome-sequencing-of-a-consanguineous-family-identifies-the-possible-modifying-effect-of-a-globally-rare-ak5-allelic-variant-in-celiac-disease-development-among-saudi-patients
#20
Jumana Yousuf Al-Aama, Noor Ahmad Shaik, Babajan Banaganapalli, Mohammed A Salama, Omran Rashidi, Ahmed N Sahly, Mohammed O Mohsen, Harbi A Shawoosh, Hebah Ahmad Shalabi, Mohammad Al Edreesi, Sameer E Alharthi, Jun Wang, Ramu Elango, Omar I Saadah
Celiac disease (CD), a multi-factorial auto-inflammatory disease of the small intestine, is known to occur in both sporadic and familial forms. Together HLA and Non-HLA genes can explain up to 50% of CD's heritability. In order to discover the missing heritability due to rare variants, we have exome sequenced a consanguineous Saudi family presenting CD in an autosomal recessive (AR) pattern. We have identified a rare homozygous insertion c.1683_1684insATT, in the conserved coding region of AK5 gene that showed classical AR model segregation in this family...
2017: PloS One
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