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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828940/different-tissue-phagocytes-sample-apoptotic-cells-to-direct-distinct-homeostasis-programs
#1
Ryan J Cummings, Gaetan Barbet, Gerold Bongers, Boris M Hartmann, Kyle Gettler, Luciana Muniz, Glaucia C Furtado, Judy Cho, Sergio A Lira, J Magarian Blander
Recognition and removal of apoptotic cells by professional phagocytes, including dendritic cells and macrophages, preserves immune self-tolerance and prevents chronic inflammation and autoimmune pathologies. The diverse array of phagocytes that reside within different tissues, combined with the necessarily prompt nature of apoptotic cell clearance, makes it difficult to study this process in situ. The full spectrum of functions executed by tissue-resident phagocytes in response to homeostatic apoptosis, therefore, remains unclear...
November 9, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815529/control-of-inflammation-by-stromal-hedgehog-pathway-activation-restrains-colitis
#2
John J Lee, Michael E Rothenberg, E Scott Seeley, Bryan Zimdahl, Sally Kawano, Wan-Jin Lu, Kunyoo Shin, Tomoyo Sakata-Kato, James K Chen, Maximilian Diehn, Michael F Clarke, Philip A Beachy
Inflammation disrupts tissue architecture and function, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of diverse diseases; the signals that promote or restrict tissue inflammation thus represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report that genetic or pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition intensifies colon inflammation (colitis) in mice. Conversely, genetic augmentation of Hedgehog response and systemic small-molecule Hedgehog pathway activation potently ameliorate colitis and restrain initiation and progression of colitis-induced adenocarcinoma...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805618/eosinophils-are-required-to-suppress-th2-responses-in-peyer-s-patches-during-intestinal-infection-by-nematodes
#3
J Strandmark, S Steinfelder, C Berek, A A Kühl, S Rausch, S Hartmann
Infections with enteric nematodes result in systemic type 2 helper T (Th2) responses, expansion of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 antibodies, and eosinophilia. Eosinophils have a supportive role in mucosal Th2 induction during airway hyperreactivity. Whether eosinophils affect the local T-cell and antibody response in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue during enteric infections is unknown. We infected eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice with the Th2-inducing small intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and found that parasite fecundity was decreased in the absence of eosinophils...
November 2, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794052/effect-of-aflatoxin-experimental-ingestion-and-eimeira-vaccine-challenges-on-intestinal-histopathology-and-immune-cellular-dynamic-of-broilers-applying-an-intestinal-health-index
#4
A L Kraieski, R M Hayashi, A Sanches, G C Almeida, E Santin
The present study evaluated the effect of aflatoxin B1 and Eimeria vaccine challenges and their interaction on intestinal morphology, applying the morphometric index "I See Inside" (ISI). Immune cellular response and broiler chicken performance were also studied. A total of 240 broiler chickens were divided in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 4 treatments, T1: Control diet and no challenge (CON), T2: Aflatoxin B1 (AFLA), T3: Control diet and Eimeria challenge (COC), and T4: Aflatoxin B1 and Eimeria challenge (AFLA+COC)...
October 28, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731345/mtor-is-critical-for-intestinal-t-cell-homeostasis-and-resistance-to-citrobacter-rodentium
#5
Xingguang Lin, Jialong Yang, Jinli Wang, Hongxiang Huang, Hong-Xia Wang, Pengcheng Chen, Shang Wang, Yun Pan, Yu-Rong Qiu, Gregory A Taylor, Bruce A Vallance, Jimin Gao, Xiao-Ping Zhong
T-cells play an important role in promoting mucosal immunity against pathogens, but the mechanistic basis for their homeostasis in the intestine is still poorly understood. We report here that T-cell-specific deletion of mTOR results in dramatically decreased CD4 and CD8 T-cell numbers in the lamina propria of both small and large intestines under both steady-state and inflammatory conditions. These defects result in defective host resistance against a murine enteropathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, leading to the death of the animals...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702550/modulation-of-cytotoxic-responses-by-targeting-cd160-prolongs-skin-graft-survival-across-major-histocompatibility-class-i-barrier
#6
Maria-Luisa Del Rio, Ana Maria Bravo Moral, Carlos Fernandez-Renedo, Leo Buhler, Jose-Antonio Perez-Simon, Olivier Chaloin, Rafael Alvarez Nogal, Maximino Fernandez-Caso, Jose-Ignacio Rodriguez-Barbosa
CD160 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It exhibits a pattern of expression coincident in humans and mice that is mainly restricted to cytotoxic cells and to all intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes. B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 interact with cysteine-rich domain 1 of the extracellular region of Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM). CD160 engagement by HVEM can deliver inhibitory signals to a small subset of human CD4 T cells and attenuate its proliferation and cytokine secretion, but can also costimulate natural killer cells or intraepithelial lymphocytes...
September 15, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612448/primary-rare-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-alk-positive-in-small-intestine-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Qinghua Cao, Fang Liu, Shurong Li, Ni Liu, Lihui Li, Changzhao Li, Tingsheng Peng
BACKGROUND: Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK positive in small intestine is clinically rare and the clinical, radiological and pathological information are generally not available. Here, we report a case of 32-year-old male with ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma at the junction of jejunum and ileum, and highlight the clinicopathological features and the differential diagnosis of this type lymphoma. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with right middle abdominal mass for 1 month with sporadic pain...
2016: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600308/intestinal-batf3-dependent-dendritic-cells-are-required-for-optimal-antiviral-t-cell-responses-in-adult-and-neonatal-mice
#8
T Sun, O L Rojas, C Li, L A Ward, D J Philpott, J L Gommerman
Although we know a great deal about which types of dendritic cells (DCs) promote T-cell priming in the periphery, less is known about which DC subset(s) provoke antiviral responses within the gut. Here we report that conventional Zbtb46-dependent DCs were critically required for antiviral CD8(+) T-cell responses against rotavirus (RV), the major cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Furthermore, we found that in adult mice, Batf3-dependent DCs were required for generating optimal RV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses...
September 7, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564014/primary-intestinal-extranodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-nasal-type-a-comprehensive-clinicopathological-analysis-of-55-cases
#9
Bao-Hua Yu, Ruo-Hong Shui, Wei-Qi Sheng, Chao-Fu Wang, Hong-Fen Lu, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Xiong-Zeng Zhu, Xiao-Qiu Li
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinicopathological features, survival and prognostic factors of primary intestinal extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (PI-ENKTCL). METHODS: Clinical and histological characteristics of PI-ENKTCL cases were retrospectively evaluated. Immunohistochemical phenotype and status of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement were examined. The overall survival and prognostic parameters were also analyzed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514477/acetylcholine-producing-t-cells-in-the-intestine-affect-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-and-microbial-diversity
#10
Shobhit Dhawan, Giada De Palma, Rose A Willemze, Francisca Hilbers, Caroline Verseijden, Misha Luyer, Sabine Nuding, Jan Wehkamp, Yuri Souwer, Esther C de Jong, Jurgen Seppen, Rene Mjgj van den Wijngaard, Sven Wehner, Elena F Verdu, Premysl Bercik, Wouter J de Jonge
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduces systemic TNF via acetylcholine producing memory T-cells in the spleen. These choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expressing T-cells are also found in the intestine, where their function is unclear. We aimed to characterize these cells in mouse and human intestine and delineate their function. We made use of the ChAT-eGFP reporter mice. CD4Cre mice were crossed to ChATfl/fl mice to achieve specific deletion of ChAT in CD4+ T-cells. We observed that the majority of ChAT expressing T-cells in the human and mouse intestine have characteristics of Th17 cells, and co-express IL17A, IL22 and RORC...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509048/elevated-basal-pre-infection-cxcl10-in-plasma-and-in-the-small-intestine-after-infection-are-associated-with-more-rapid-hiv-siv-disease-onset
#11
Mickaël J Ploquin, Yoann Madec, Armanda Casrouge, Nicolas Huot, Caroline Passaes, Camille Lécuroux, Asma Essat, Faroudy Boufassa, Béatrice Jacquelin, Simon P Jochems, Gaël Petitjean, Mathieu Angin, Kathleen Gärtner, Thalía Garcia-Tellez, Nicolas Noël, Thijs Booiman, Brigitte D Boeser-Nunnink, Pierre Roques, Asier Saez-Cirion, Bruno Vaslin, Nathalie Dereudre-Bosquet, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Mathilde Ghislain, Christine Rouzioux, Olivier Lambotte, Matthew L Albert, Cécile Goujard, Neeltje Kootstra, Laurence Meyer, Michaela C Müller-Trutwin
Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort), as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts)...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499025/a-subpopulation-of-high-il-21-producing-cd4-t-cells-in-peyer-s-patches-is-induced-by-the-microbiota-and-regulates-germinal-centers
#12
Leigh Jones, Wen Qi Ho, Sze Ying, Lakshmi Ramakrishna, Kandhadayar G Srinivasan, Marina Yurieva, Wan Pei Ng, Sharrada Subramaniam, Nur H Hamadee, Sabrina Joseph, Jayashree Dolpady, Koji Atarashi, Kenya Honda, Francesca Zolezzi, Michael Poidinger, Juan J Lafaille, Maria A Curotto de Lafaille
The production of IL-21 by T follicular helper (Tfh) cells is vital in driving the germinal centre reaction and high affinity antibody formation. However, the degree of Tfh cell heterogeneity and function is not fully understood. We used a novel IL-21eGFP reporter mouse strain to analyze the diversity and role of Tfh cells. Through the analysis of GFP expression in lymphoid organs of IL-21eGFP mice, we identified a subpopulation of GFP(+), high IL-21 producing Tfh cells present only in Peyer's Patches. GFP(+)Tfh cells were found to be polyclonal and related to GFP(-)Tfh cells of Peyer's Patches in TCR repertoire composition and overall gene expression...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472281/enhancement-of-oral-tolerance-induction-in-do11-10-mice-by-lactobacillus-gasseri-oll2809-via-increase-of-effector-regulatory-t-cells
#13
Ayako Aoki-Yoshida, Kiyoshi Yamada, Satoshi Hachimura, Toshihiro Sashihara, Shuji Ikegami, Makoto Shimizu, Mamoru Totsuka
Food allergy is a serious problem for infants and young children. Induction of antigen-specific oral tolerance is one therapeutic strategy. Enhancement of oral tolerance induction by diet is a promising strategy to prevent food allergy in infants. Thus, in this study, we evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 (LG2809) on oral tolerance induction in a mouse model. The degree of oral tolerance induction was evaluated by measuring the proliferation and level of IL-2 production of splenic CD4+ T cells from DO11...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456829/the-microbiota-contributes-to-cd8-t-cell-activation-and-nutrient-malabsorption-following-intestinal-infection-with-giardia-duodenalis
#14
Aleksander Keselman, Erqiu Li, Jenny Maloney, Steven M Singer
Giardia duodenalis is a noninvasive luminal pathogen that impairs digestive function in its host in part by reducing intestinal disaccharidase activity. This enzyme deficiency has been shown in mice to require CD8(+) T cells. We recently showed that both host immune responses and parasite strain affected disaccharidase levels during murine giardiasis. However, high doses of antibiotics were used to facilitate infections in that study, and we therefore decided to systematically examine the effects of antibiotic use on pathogenesis and immune responses in the mouse model of giardiasis...
October 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424033/influence-of-orally-fed-a-select-mixture-of-bacillus-probiotics-on-intestinal-t-cell-migration-in-weaned-muc4-resistant-pigs-following-escherichia-coli-challenge
#15
Gui-Yan Yang, Yao-Hong Zhu, Wei Zhang, Dong Zhou, Cong-Cong Zhai, Jiu-Feng Wang
Efficient strategies for treating enteritis caused by F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)/verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)/enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in mucin 4 resistant (MUC4 RR; supposed to be F4ab/ac receptor-negative [F4ab/acR(-)]) pigs remain elusive. A low (3.9 × 10(8) CFU/day) or high (7.8 × 10(8) CFU/day) dose of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spore mixture (BLS-mix) was orally administered to MUC4 RR piglets for 1 week before F4(+) ETEC/VTEC/EPEC challenge...
July 16, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415620/uncontrolled-il-17-production-by-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-a-case-of-non-ipex-autoimmune-enteropathy
#16
Moira Paroni, Andrea Magarotto, Silvia Tartari, Giulia Nizzoli, Paola Larghi, Giulia Ercoli, Umberto Gianelli, Massimiliano Pagani, Luca Elli, Sergio Abrignani, Dario Conte, Jens Geginat, Flavio Caprioli
OBJECTIVES: To provide a functional and phenotypic characterization of immune cells infiltrating small intestinal mucosa during non-IPEX autoimmune enteropathy (AIE), as to gain insights on the pathogenesis of this clinical condition. METHODS: Duodenal biopsies from a patient with AIE at baseline and following drug-induced remission were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry, and results were compared with those obtained from patients with active celiac disease, ileal Crohn's disease and healthy controls...
2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404095/recombinant-hla-g-as-tolerogenic-immunomodulant-in-experimental-small-bowel-transplantation
#17
Martin W von Websky, Koji Kitamura, Isis Ludwig-Portugall, Christian Kurts, Maximilian von Laffert, Joel LeMaoult, Edgardo D Carosella, Kareem Abu-Elmagd, Joerg C Kalff, Nico Schäfer
The non-classical MHC I paralogue HLA-G is expressed by cytotrophoblast cells and implicated with fetomaternal tolerance by downregulating the maternal adaptive and innate immune response against the fetus. HLA-G expression correlates with favorable graft outcome in humans and recently promising immunosuppressive effects of therapeutic HLA-G in experimental transplantation (skin allograft acceptance) were shown. Consequently, we examined this novel therapeutic approach in solid organ transplantation. In this study, therapeutic recombinant HLA-G5 was evaluated for the first time in a solid organ model of acute rejection (ACR) after orthotopic intestinal transplantation (ITX)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376341/the-tripeptide-kdpt-ameliorates-ongoing-psoriasis-like-skin-inflammation-in-murine-and-human-skin
#18
Nadine Sucker, Lars Klenner, Christoph Baumann, Matteo Auriemma, Carlo Sternemann, Michael Soeberdt, Graham R Elliott, Christoph Abels, Thomas A Luger, Karin Loser
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease appearing as scaly erythematous cutaneous lesions, which are characterized by parakeratosis and acanthosis as well as the infiltration of immune cells, like T helper-1 and T helper-17 cells. Here, we demonstrated that KdPT, a tripeptide structurally related to the C-terminal amino acids of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which was previously shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in intestinal inflammation, ameliorated ongoing disease in the mouse model of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation and in the small xenotransplant mouse model of psoriasis...
July 4, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302484/diet-dependent-microbiota-independent-regulation-of-il-10-producing-lamina-propria-macrophages-in-the-small-intestine
#19
Takanori Ochi, Yongjia Feng, Sho Kitamoto, Hiroko Nagao-Kitamoto, Peter Kuffa, Koji Atarashi, Kenya Honda, Daniel H Teitelbaum, Nobuhiko Kamada
Intestinal resident macrophages (Mϕs) regulate gastrointestinal homeostasis via production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. Although a constant replenishment by circulating monocytes is required to maintain the pool of resident Mϕs in the colonic mucosa, the homeostatic regulation of Mϕ in the small intestine (SI) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that direct stimulation by dietary amino acids regulates the homeostasis of intestinal Mϕs in the SI. Mice that received total parenteral nutrition (TPN), which deprives the animals of enteral nutrients, displayed a significant decrease of IL-10-producing Mϕs in the SI, whereas the IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells remained intact...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238440/evaluation-of-microparticulate-ovarian-cancer-vaccine-via-transdermal-route-of-delivery
#20
Suprita A Tawde, Lipika Chablani, Archana Akalkotkar, Martin J D'Souza
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most commonly occurring malignancy in women, with the highest mortality rate among all the gynecological tumors. Microparticulate vaccine can serve as an immunotherapeutic approach with a promising antigenic delivery system without a need for conventional adjuvants. In this study, a microparticulate vaccine using whole cell lysate of a murine ovarian cancer cell line, ID8 was prepared by spray drying. Further, the effect of interleukins (ILs) such as IL-2 and IL-12 was evaluated in a separate study group by administering them with vaccine particles to enhance the immune response...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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