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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641471/evaluation-of-immunomodulatory-effects-of-zearalenone-in-mice
#1
Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Jong Won Kim, Yoon-Seok Roh, Jong-Hoon Kim, Han Kang Min, Hyung-Joo Kwon, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. The toxicity of ZEA has been evaluated for reproductive and developmental effects; however, there is little evidence about its acute toxicity or general immunotoxicity. In the present study, immune regulatory functions were investigated in mice that had been exposed to ZEA (5 or 20 mg/kg BW) daily for 14 days. Results showed that sub-populations of CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD11c(+) cells in the spleen and CD4(+), CD8(+) and F4/80(+) cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of ZEA (20 mg/kg)-exposed hosts were decreased compared to those in the control mice...
December 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633646/role-of-serotonin-on-the-intestinal-mucosal-immune-response-to-stress-induced-diarrhea-in-weaning-mice
#2
Yulan Dong, Yanan Han, Zixu Wang, Zhuoming Qin, Chenyu Yang, Jing Cao, Yaoxing Chen
BACKGROUND: During weaning, babies and young animal often experience diarrhea from food intolerance and/or decreasing levels of maternal antibodies, and diarrhea tends to be particularly severe during the early-weaned period, which often exhibits an underdeveloped immune system, a disturbed gut environment and results in nutrient malabsorption and dehydration. It was deduced that neuroendocrine might have close relation with diarrhea, especially 5-HT. METHODS: To explore the role of serotonin (5-HT) in weaning mice subjected to stress-induced diarrhea, 21-day-old weaned mice were divided into the following groups: control group, stress-induced diarrhea group (restrained by binding the hind limbs and intragastric administration of folium sennae with 0...
June 21, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621304/epigenetic-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-ankylosing-spondylitis-associated-loci-implicate-immune-cells-and-the-gut-in-the-disease-pathogenesis
#3
Z Li, K Haynes, D J Pennisi, L K Anderson, X Song, G P Thomas, T Kenna, P Leo, M A Brown
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common immune-mediated arthropathy primarily affecting the spine and pelvis. Most AS patients have subclinical intestinal inflammation, suggesting the gut microbiome and the immune response play a role in pathogenesis. Susceptibility to AS is primarily genetic, and at least 114 susceptibility variants have been identified to date. We applied bioinformatic methods utilizing epigenetic and gene and protein expression data to identify the cell types through which AS-associated variants operate...
June 15, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619514/the-frequency-of-th17%C3%A2-cells-in-the-small-intestine-exhibits-a-day-night-variation-dependent-on-circadian-clock-activity
#4
Ha Pham Thu Le, Yuki Nakamura, Kyoko Oh-Oka, Kayoko Ishimaru, Shotaro Nakajima, Atsuhito Nakao
Interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T helper (Th17) cells are a key immune lineage that protects against bacterial and fungal infections at mucosal surfaces. At steady state, Th17 cells are abundant in the small intestinal mucosa of mice. There are several mechanisms for regulating the population of Th17 cells in the small intestine, reflecting the importance of maintaining their numbers in the correct balance. Here we demonstrate the existence of a time-of-day-dependent variation in the frequency of Th17 cells in the lamina propria of the small intestine in wild-type mice, which was not observed in mice with a loss-of-function mutation of the core circadian gene Clock or in mice housed under aberrant light/dark conditions...
June 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607110/the-bile-acid-receptor-gpbar1-regulates-the-m1-m2-phenotype-of-intestinal-macrophages-and-activation-of-gpbar1-rescues-mice-from-murine-colitis
#5
Michele Biagioli, Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Daniela Francisci, Silvia Marchianò, Paolo Scarpelli, Daniele Sorcini, Angela Zampella, Stefano Fiorucci
GPBAR1 (TGR5 or M-BAR) is a G protein-coupled receptor for secondary bile acids that is highly expressed in monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of GPBAR1 in mediating leukocyte trafficking in chemically induced models of colitis and investigate the therapeutic potential of BAR501, a small molecule agonist for GPBAR1. These studies demonstrated that GPBAR1 gene ablation enhanced the recruitment of classically activated macrophages in the colonic lamina propria and worsened the severity of inflammation...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602842/immune-responses-and-parasitological-observations-induced-during-probiotic-treatment-with-medicinal-trichuris-suis-ova-in-a-healthy-volunteer
#6
Andrew R Williams, Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Christian L Hvas, Jens F Dahlerup, Lars Iversen, C Rune Stensvold, Jørgen Agnholt, Peter Nejsum
Ingestion of eggs (ova) of the porcine nematode parasite Trichuris suis (TSO) may reduce the severity of autoimmune disorders, however the development of TSO treatment as a useful therapy for autoimmune diseases is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the development of the parasite and the nature of the local immune responses in humans. Here, we used colonoscopy to investigate the development of T. suis and related mucosal and systemic immune responses during TSO treatment in an intestinally healthy male volunteer...
June 8, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598502/balanced-bcl-3-expression-in-murine-cd4-t-cells-is-required-for-generation-of-encephalitogenic-th17-cells
#7
Ilgiz A Mufazalov, Janina Kuschmann, David Andruszewski, Joumana Masri, Laureen A Gabriel, Petra Adams, Sonja Reissig, Nadine Hövelmeyer, Ari Waisman
The function of NF-κB family members is controlled by multiple mechanisms including the transcriptional regulator Bcl-3, an atypical member of the IκB family. By using a murine model of conditional Bcl-3 overexpression specifically in T cells, we observed impairment in the development of Th2, Th1 and Th17 cells. High expression of Bcl-3 promoted CD4(+) T-cell survival, but at the same time suppressed proliferation in response to TCR stimulation, resulting in reduced CD4(+) T-cell expansion. As a consequence, T cell specific overexpression of Bcl-3 led to reduced inflammation in the small intestine of mice applied with anti-CD3 in a model of gut inflammation...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595274/antibiotics-in-16-day-old-broilers-temporarily-affect-microbial-and-immune-parameters-in-the-gut
#8
H J Wisselink, J B W J Cornelissen, D J Mevius, M A Smits, H Smidt, J M J Rebel
Animal health benefits from a stable intestinal homeostasis, for which proper development and functioning of the intestinal microbiota and immune system are essential. It has been established that changes in microbial colonization in early life (the first 2 wk post hatch) impacts the functioning of the adult gut and the associated crosstalk between microbiota and intestinal mucosal cells. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the administration of antibiotics later in life (d 15 to 20 post hatch) on microbiota and immune parameters...
June 8, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584281/mass-spectrometry-imaging-identifies-palmitoylcarnitine-as-an-immunological-mediator-during-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#9
Heather E Hulme, Lynsey M Meikle, Hannah Wessel, Nicole Strittmatter, John Swales, Carolyn Thomson, Anna Nilsson, Robert J B Nibbs, Simon Milling, Per E Andren, C Logan Mackay, Alex Dexter, Josephine Bunch, Richard J A Goodwin, Richard Burchmore, Daniel M Wall
Salmonella Typhimurium causes a self-limiting gastroenteritis that may lead to systemic disease. Bacteria invade the small intestine, crossing the intestinal epithelium from where they are transported to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) within migrating immune cells. MLNs are an important site at which the innate and adaptive immune responses converge but their architecture and function is severely disrupted during S. Typhimurium infection. To further understand host-pathogen interactions at this site, we used mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to analyse MLN tissue from a murine model of S...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579989/acute-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-triggers-early-and-transient-interleukin-7-production-in-the-gut-leading-to-enhanced-local-chemokine-expression-and-intestinal-immune-cell-homing
#10
Rosalie Ponte, Magali Rancez, Suzanne Figueiredo-Morgado, Jacques Dutrieux, Véronique Fabre-Mersseman, Bénédicte Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Thomas Guilbert, Jean-Pierre Routy, Rémi Cheynier, Anne Couëdel-Courteille
The intestinal barrier, one of the first targets of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is subjected to major physiological changes during acute infection. Having previously shown that pharmaceutical injection of interleukin-7 (IL-7) triggers chemokine expression in many organs leading to massive T-cell homing, in particular to the intestine, we here explored mucosal IL-7 expression as part of the cytokine storm occurring during the acute phase of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. Quantifying both mRNA and protein in tissues, we demonstrated a transient increase of IL-7 expression in the small intestine of SIV-infected rhesus macaques, starting with local detection of the virus by day 3 of infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529928/the-probiotic-compound-vsl-3-modulates-mucosal-peripheral-and-systemic-immunity-following-murine-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment
#11
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505210/whole-exome-sequencing-of-a-consanguineous-family-identifies-the-possible-modifying-effect-of-a-globally-rare-ak5-allelic-variant-in-celiac-disease-development-among-saudi-patients
#12
Jumana Yousuf Al-Aama, Noor Ahmad Shaik, Babajan Banaganapalli, Mohammed A Salama, Omran Rashidi, Ahmed N Sahly, Mohammed O Mohsen, Harbi A Shawoosh, Hebah Ahmad Shalabi, Mohammad Al Edreesi, Sameer E Alharthi, Jun Wang, Ramu Elango, Omar I Saadah
Celiac disease (CD), a multi-factorial auto-inflammatory disease of the small intestine, is known to occur in both sporadic and familial forms. Together HLA and Non-HLA genes can explain up to 50% of CD's heritability. In order to discover the missing heritability due to rare variants, we have exome sequenced a consanguineous Saudi family presenting CD in an autosomal recessive (AR) pattern. We have identified a rare homozygous insertion c.1683_1684insATT, in the conserved coding region of AK5 gene that showed classical AR model segregation in this family...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469619/immune-responses-to-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment-and-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-mice
#13
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Ulrike Escher, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
Compelling evidence demonstrates the pivotal role of the commensal intestinal microbiota in host physiology and the detrimental effects of its perturbations following antibiotic treatment. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of antibiotics induced depletion and subsequent restoration of the intestinal microbiota composition on the murine mucosal and systemic immunity. To address this, conventional C57BL/6j mice were subjected to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for 8 weeks. Restoration of the intestinal microbiota by peroral fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) led to reestablishment of small intestinal CD4(+), CD8(+), and B220(+) as well as of colonic CD4(+) cell numbers as early as 7 days post-FMT...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439004/endocannabinoid-system-acts-as-a-regulator-of-immune-homeostasis-in-the-gut
#14
Nandini Acharya, Sasi Penukonda, Tatiana Shcheglova, Adam T Hagymasi, Sreyashi Basu, Pramod K Srivastava
Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) are small molecules biosynthesized from membrane glycerophospholipid. Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous intestinal cannabinoid that controls appetite and energy balance by engagement of the enteric nervous system through cannabinoid receptors. Here, we uncover a role for AEA and its receptor, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), in the regulation of immune tolerance in the gut and the pancreas. This work demonstrates a major immunological role for an endocannabinoid. The pungent molecule capsaicin (CP) has a similar effect as AEA; however, CP acts by engagement of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1, causing local production of AEA, which acts through CB2...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424283/simian-immunodeficiency-virus-targeting-of-cxcr3-cd4-t-cells-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-is-associated-with-robust-cxcl10-expression-in-monocyte-macrophage-subsets
#15
Masayuki Fujino, Hirotaka Sato, Tomotaka Okamura, Akihiko Uda, Satoshi Takeda, Nursarat Ahmed, Shigeyuki Shichino, Teiichiro Shiino, Yohei Saito, Satoru Watanabe, Chie Sugimoto, Marcelo Kuroda, Manabu Ato, Yoshiyuki Nagai, Shuji Izumo, Kouji Matsushima, Masaaki Miyazawa, Aftab A Ansari, Francois Villinger, Kazuyasu Mori
Glycosylation of Env defines pathogenic properties of SIV. We previously demonstrated that pathogenic SIVmac239 and live-attenuated, quintuple deglycosylated Env mutant (Δ5G) target CD4(+) T cells residing in different tissues during acute infection. SIVmac239 and Δ5G preferentially infected distinct CD4(+) T cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and within the lamina propria of the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012). Herein, we studied the host responses relevant to SIV targeting of CXCR3(+)CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells in SLOs...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408924/investigation-of-small-bowel-abnormalities-in-hiv-infected-patients-using-capsule-endoscopy
#16
Eiji Sakai, Takuma Higurashi, Hidenori Ohkubo, Kuhihiro Hosono, Atsuhisa Ueda, Nobuyuki Matsuhashi, Atsushi Nakajima
HIV infection is reportedly associated with an increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium and can cause HIV enteropathy, which occurs independently of opportunistic infections. However, the characteristics of small bowel abnormalities attributable to HIV infection are rarely investigated. In the present study, we assessed the intestinal mucosal changes found in HIV-infected patients and compared them with the mucosa of healthy control subjects using capsule endoscopy (CE). Three of the 27 HIV-infected patients harbored gastrointestinal opportunistic infections and were thus excluded from subsequent analyses...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400196/association-of-ribonuclease-t2-gene-polymorphisms-with-decreased-expression-and-clinical-characteristics-of-severity-in%C3%A2-crohn-s-disease
#17
Rivkah Gonsky, Phillip Fleshner, Richard L Deem, Eva Biener-Ramanujan, Dalin Li, Alka A Potdar, Janine Bilsborough, Shaohong Yang, Dermot P B McGovern, Stephan R Targan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Variants in the tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 gene (TNFSF15, also called TL1A) have been associated with risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). TL1A affects expression of multiple cytokines to promote mucosal inflammation. Little is known about the TL1A-response pathways that regulate cytokine expression. We investigated T-cell gene expression patterns to determine the mechanisms by which TL1A regulates cytokine production, and whether these associate with outcomes of patients with Crohn's disease (CD)...
April 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327177/intestinal-t-lymphocyte-homing-is-associated-with-gastric-emptying-and-epithelial-barrier-function-in-critically-ill-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Christian Greis, Zohal Rasuly, Rolf A Janosi, Lambros Kordelas, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
BACKGROUND: Impaired gastric emptying is common in critically ill patients. Intestinal dysmotility, a major cause of feed intolerance, may foster infectious complications due to mucosal barrier disruption. However, little is known about gut-directed immune activation, intestinal barrier function and its association with impaired gastric emptying in critically ill patients at ICU admission. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at two tertiary care medical ICUs...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264908/differences-in-the-importance-of-mast-cells-basophils-ige-and-igg-versus-that-of-cd4-t-cells-and-ilc2-cells-in-primary-and-secondary-immunity-to-strongyloides-venezuelensis
#19
Kaori Mukai, Hajime Karasuyama, Kenji Kabashima, Masato Kubo, Stephen J Galli
There is evidence that mast cells, basophils, and IgE can contribute to immune responses to parasites; however, the relative levels of importance of these effector elements in parasite immunity are not fully understood. Previous work in Il3-deficient and c-kit mutant Kit(W/W-v) mice indicated that interleukin-3 and c-Kit contribute to expulsion of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis during primary infection. Our findings in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice and two types of mast cell-deficient mice that have normal c-kit ("Hello Kitty" and MasTRECK mice) confirmed prior work in Kit(W/W-v) mice that suggested that mast cells play an important role in S...
May 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246016/gut-specific-delivery-of-t-helper-17-cells-reduces-obesity-and%C3%A2-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#20
Chun-Pyo Hong, Areum Park, Bo-Gie Yang, Chang Ho Yun, Min-Jung Kwak, Gil-Woo Lee, Jung-Hwan Kim, Min Seong Jang, Eun-Jung Lee, Eun-Ji Jeun, Gihoon You, Kwang Soon Kim, Youngwoo Choi, Ji-Hwan Park, Daehee Hwang, Sin-Hyeog Im, Jihyun F Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, Charles D Surh, You-Me Kim, Myoung Ho Jang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome have been associated with alterations to the intestinal microbiota. However, few studies examined the effects of obesity on the intestinal immune system. We investigated changes in subsets of intestinal CD4(+) T-helper (TH) cells with obesity and the effects of gut-tropic TH17 cells in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: We isolated immune cells from small intestine and adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice fed a normal chow diet or a HFD for 10 weeks and analyzed the cells by flow cytometry...
February 27, 2017: Gastroenterology
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