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Cancer mortality epidemiology

Shaomin Yan, Guang Wu
It is curious that East Asian women have a low incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer in various epidemiological studies. Although different explanations were given, they appear unsubstantial. We notice that East Asian population usually are inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 mutation (ALDH2 * 2) carriers, and ALDH plays an important role in the resistance of ovarian cancer to chemotherapeutics, especially in ovarian cancer stem cells. Therefore, we hypothesize whether ALDH2 mutation is the major reason for low incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer in East Asian women, and use the evidence from literature, transcriptomic data with average 5-year overall survival to confirm our hypothesis...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Tian-Bao Huang, Guang-Chen Zhou, Chuan-Peng Dong, Li-Ping Wang, Yang Luan, Jing-Ting Ye, Xiao Gu, Xu-Dong Yao, Jun-Hua Zheng, Xue-Fei Ding
Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for survival in several types of cancer, but has not been fully studied in prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 95,846 men diagnosed with PCa were treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) between 2004 and 2009 within 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registries. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier estimates and differences in survival were assessed using the log-rank test. Cox regression models were used to assess the impact of marital status on survival outcomes...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Amruth R Palla, Donald Doll
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare skin cancer, is associated with high mortality, especially in a metastatic setting. Though conventional chemotherapy with platinum and etoposide has had high response rates, many of the patients have had early relapse without any effective therapy thereafter. Recently, immune check point inhibitors have shown very good durable responses, leading to the approval of a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor Avelumab for these patients. We briefly review the epidemiology and immune basis of the pathogenesis of MCC, which therefore explains the excellent response to check point inhibitors, and throw light on future directions of immunotherapy for this cancer...
2018: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
Miao-Zhen Qiu, Wen-Tao Pan, Jun-Zhong Lin, Zi-Xian Wang, Zhi-Zhong Pan, Feng-Hua Wang, Da-Jun Yang, Rui-Hua Xu
Mountain of studies has showed that right-sided colon cancer (RSCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LSCC) have different clinical presentation and biologic features and should be considered as two distinct disease entities. The survival difference between RSCC and LSCC remains controversial. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified colon adenocarcinoma patients from 2004 to 2013. The 5-year cause-specific survival (CSS) was our primary endpoint. All statistical analyses were performed using the Intercooled Stata 13...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Hua-Peng Lin, Sheng-Wei Li, Ye Liu, Shi-Ji Zhou
AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of the number of retrieved lymph nodes (LNs) and other prognostic factors for patients with distal cholangiocarcinomas, and to determine the optimal retrieved LNs cut-off number. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was used to screen for patients with distal cholangiocarcinoma. Patients with different numbers of retrieved LNs were divided into three groups by the X-tile program. X-tile from Yale University is a useful tool for outcome-based cut-point optimization...
March 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Daniel Lin, Heather T Gold, David Schreiber, Lawrence P Leichman, Scott E Sherman, Daniel J Becker
BACKGROUND: Although outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) have improved, the gains in benefit may not be shared uniformly among patients of disparate socioeconomic status. In the current study, the authors investigated whether area-based median household income (MHI) is predictive of survival among patients with SCCA. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with SCCA from 2004 through 2013 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry were included...
March 12, 2018: Cancer
Amr Ebied, Vuong Thanh Huan, Omar Mohamed Makram, To Kim Sang, Mohamed Ghorab, Huyen Thi Ngo, Ahmed Iraqi, Mohamed Gomaa Kamel, Tran Ngoc Dang, Nguyen Lam Vuong, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
As diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) continue to improve, patient-related factors affecting survival become more difficult to identify. Very little is known about the relationship between the primary site of lymph node (LN) involvement and survival of HL patients. We retrospectively analyzed the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database for 12,658 HL patients reported between 1973 and 2010 using survival analysis and time-interval multiple logistic regression (MLR) to disclose that relationship...
March 9, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Vincenza Gianfredi, Tania Salvatori, Milena Villarini, Massimo Moretti, Daniele Nucci, Stefano Realdon
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Growing evidence shows that about 47% of cases of colorectal cancer can be prevented by a healthy lifestyle. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between dietary fibre intake and the risk of colon cancer. We performed a structured computer search on PubMed, including epidemiological studies reporting results of dietary fibre intake and risk of colon cancer in women or men. We compared subjects exposed to the highest versus the lowest consumption...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
L Holmes, P Chavan, T Blake, K Dabney
BACKGROUND: While survival in overall pediatric malignancy has improved during recent decades, brain/central nervous system (CNS) tumors has not demonstrated comparable survival advantage. Incidence and mortality data in this malignancy continue to illustrate race and sex differences; however, there are few data in the pediatric setting. This study sought to characterize brain/CNS tumors by socio-demographic and assess racial and sex variances in both cumulative incidence and mortality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Wei Song, Dong-Liu Miao, Lei Chen
Marital status has been identified as a prognostic factor in multiple malignancies. In this study, we assessed the prognostic value of marital status in 24,035 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database diagnosed with biliary tract cancer (BTC) between 2004 and 2014. Widowed patients were more likely to be women, elderly (> 60 years), have gallbladder cancer, and have localized SEER Stage disease than all other patients. Marital status was identified as an independent prognostic factor in both univariate and multivariate analyses, and cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were higher in married patients than unmarried patients...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Chen Yansu, Fu Rui, Xu Mengdie, Huang Yefei, Sun Guixiang, Xu Lichun
AIMS: Angiogenesis is associated with the progression and mortality of gastric cancer. Epidemiological evidences indicate that long-term N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) exposure predominantly contributes to the mortality of gastric cancer. Therefore, further reduced mortality of gastric cancer demands to explore the exact mechanisms of NOCs induced angiogenesis. As a tumor suppressor gene, inhibitor of growth protein 4 (ING4) plays an important role in pathological angiogenesis. In this study, we will investigate ING4 expression level in human gastric epithelial cells after the long-term low dose exposure of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and the pathological impact of MNNG-reduced ING4 on angiogenesis of transformed cells...
February 26, 2018: Life Sciences
Xiao Shi, Fan Dong, Wenjun Wei, Kehan Song, Naisi Huang, Zhongwu Lu, Bowen Lei, Pengcheng Yu, Wanlin Liu, Yu Wang, Guohua Sun, Yulong Wang, Qinghai Ji
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic significance and identify optimal candidates of primary tumor resection (PTR) for patients with metastatic major salivary gland carcinoma (MaSGC) at diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic MaSGC were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Kaplan-Meier analyses, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression models were employed to evaluate the therapeutic roles of PTR in the overall cohort and different subgroups...
March 2018: Oral Oncology
Markus Herrmann, Irene Pusceddu, Winfried März, Wolfgang Herrmann
Telomeres are the protective end caps of chromosomes and shorten with every cell division. Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of biological age and a risk factor for age-related diseases. Epidemiologic studies show an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mortality. There is solid evidence that links LTL with cardiovascular disease. Short telomeres promote atherosclerosis and impair the repair of vascular lesions. Alzheimer's disease patients have also a reduced LTL. Telomeres measured in tumor tissue from breast, colon and prostate are shorter than in healthy tissue from the same organ and the same patient...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Cheng Chen, Ye Chen, Lin-Kun Hu, Chang-Chuan Jiang, Ren-Fang Xu, Xiao-Zhou He
We evaluated the prognosis of the new grade groups and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage groups in men with prostate cancer (PCa) who were treated conservatively. A total of 13 798 eligible men were chosen from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. The new grade and AJCC stage groups were investigated on prostate biopsy specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariable hazards models were applied to estimate the association of new grade and stage groups with overall survival (OS) and PCa-specific survival (CSS)...
February 27, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Wei Song, Chuan Tian
Background: Marital status has been reported to be a prognostic factor in multiple malignancies. However, its prognostic value on gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have not yet been determined. The objective of the present analysis was to assess the effects of marital status on survival in patients with GISTs. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to analyze 6195 patients who were diagnosed with GISTs from 2001 to 2014...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Aamod Dhoj Shrestha, Dinesh Neupane, Peter Vedsted, Per Kallestrup
Introduction: Cervical cancer rates vary across the world, being highest in Eastern Africa (including Zimbabwe) and lowest in Western Asia. It is the second most common type of cancer in women in the South East Asia region and a major cause of cancer deaths among women of low and middle income countries (LMICs) like Nepal. This review is an attempt to make a comprehensive report of prevalence, incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in LMICs. Methods: The review was conducted applying a computerized search with the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) major topics “Cervical Cancer”, “Cervical neoplasm” “Epidemiology”, (“prevalence” OR “incidence” OR “mortality”) and “HPV” OR “Human papillomavirus” as MeSH subheading...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Tomi Akinyemiju, Swati Sakhuja, John Waterbor, Maria Pisu, Sean F Altekruse
Racial disparities in cancer mortality still exist despite improvements in treatment strategies leading to improved survival for many cancer types. In this study, we described race/ethnic differences in patterns of de novo metastasis and evaluated the association between site of de novo metastasis and breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer mortality. Data were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and Ends Results (SEER) database from 2010 to 2013 and included 520,147 patients ages ≥40 years with primary diagnosis of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer...
February 26, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Dianne Pulte, Janick Weberpals, Chloé Charlotte Schröder, Katharina Emrich, Bernd Holleczek, Alexander Katalinic, Sabine Luttmann, Eunice Sirri, Lina Jansen, Hermann Brenner
Hepatobiliary tract cancers (HBTC) are a heterogeneous group of cancers with high mortality. Because most of these cancers, with the exception of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rare, few data are available concerning the population level survival expectations of patients with HBTC. Here, we describe survival of patients with HBTC in Germany with comparison to survival in the United States (US). Therefore, data were extracted from 12 databases in Germany and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER13) database in the US...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Brandon A Mahal, David D Yang, Natalie Q Wang, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Elai Davicioni, Voleak Choeurng, Edward M Schaeffer, Ashley E Ross, Daniel E Spratt, Robert B Den, Neil E Martin, Kent W Mouw, Peter F Orio, Toni K Choueiri, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Quoc-Dien Trinh, Felix Y Feng, Paul L Nguyen
BACKGROUND: The consequences of low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in high-grade (Gleason 8-10) prostate cancer are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical implications and genomic features of low-PSA, high-grade disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective study of clinical data for 494 793 patients from the National Cancer Data Base and 136 113 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program with cT1-4N0M0 prostate cancer (median follow-up 48...
February 22, 2018: European Urology
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