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Hypometabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911319/autotaxin-is-related-to-metabolic-dysfunction-and-predicts-alzheimer-s-disease-outcomes
#1
Kelsey E McLimans, Auriel A Willette
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with neuropathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2, also called autotaxin, is produced by beige adipose tissue, regulates metabolism, and is higher in AD prefrontal cortex (PFC). Autotaxin may be a novel biomarker of dysmetabolism and AD. METHODS: We studied Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants who were cognitively normal (CN; n = 86) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 135) or AD (n = 66)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911309/longitudinal-characterization-of-18f-fdg-and-18f-av45-uptake-in-the-double-transgenic-tastpm-mouse-model
#2
Ann-Marie Waldron, Leonie Wyffels, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Jill C Richardson, Mark Schmidt, Sigrid Stroobants, Xavier Langlois, Steven Staelens
We aimed to monitor the timing of amyloid-β deposition in relation to changes in brain function using in vivo imaging with [18F]-AV45 and [18F]-FDG in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. TASTPM transgenic mice and wild-type controls were scanned longitudinally with [18F]-AV45 and [18F]-FDG before (3 months of age) and at multiple time points after the onset of amyloid deposition (6, 9, 12, and 15 months of age). As expected with increasing amyloidosis, TASTPM mice demonstrated progressive age-dependent increases in [18F]-AV45 uptake that were significantly higher than for WT from 9 months onwards and correlated to ex vivo measures of amyloid burden...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911289/the-brain-s-structural-connectome-mediates-the-relationship-between-regional-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Sneha Pandya, Amy Kuceyeski, Ashish Raj
Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most common causes of dementia in adults, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting well-defined neuropathological hallmarks. It is known that disease pathology involves misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins, and exhibits a relatively stereotyped progression over decades. The relationship between AD neuropathological hallmarks (Aβ, hypometabolism, and tau proteins) and imaging biomarkers (MRI, AV-45/FDG-PET) is not fully understood. In addition, biomarker pathologies are oftentimes discordant, wherein it may show varying levels of abnormality across brain regions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881773/novel-roles-for-the-insulin-regulated-glucose-transporter-4-in-hippocampally-dependent-memory
#4
Jiah Pearson-Leary, Ewan C McNay
: The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862279/pet-and-mri-detection-of-early-and-progressive-neurodegeneration-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-36
#5
Pablo Aguiar, Julio Pardo, Manuel Arias, Beatriz Quintáns, Montse Fernández-Prieto, Rocío Martínez-Regueiro, José-Manuel Pumar, Jesús Silva-Rodríguez, Álvaro Ruibal, María-Jesús Sobrido, Julia Cortés
BACKGROUND: The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) form a clinically, genetically, and pathological heterogeneous group of autosomal-dominant degenerative diseases. In particular, SCA36 is characterized by a late-onset, slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome typically associated with sensorineural hearing loss. This study was aimed at analyzing the neurodegenerative process underlying SCA36 through fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and MRI scans. METHODS: Twenty SCA36 patients underwent a study consisting of FDG-PET and MRI scans...
November 10, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861778/correlation-of-fdg-pet-hypometabolism-and-seeg-epileptogenicity-mapping-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-focal-epilepsy
#6
Florence Lamarche, Anne-Sophie Job, Pierre Deman, Manik Bhattacharjee, Dominique Hoffmann, Céline Gallazzini-Crépin, Sandrine Bouvard, Lorella Minotti, Philippe Kahane, Olivier David
OBJECTIVE: Interictal [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used in the presurgical evaluation of patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. We aimed at clarifying its relationships with ictal high-frequency oscillations (iHFOs) shown to be a relevant marker of the seizure-onset zone. METHODS: We studied the correlation between FDG-PET and epileptogenicity maps in an unselected series of 37 successive patients having been explored with stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG)...
November 8, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858715/glucose-transporters-in-brain-in-health-and-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Leszek Szablewski
Neurons need a continuous supply of glucose, the major source of energy for mammalian brain metabolism. The central nervous system is protected by three main physiological cell barriers. Cell membranes are impermeable for glucose, therefore glucose is transferred across the cell membranes by specific transport proteins: sodium-independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), encoded by SLC2 genes, and sodium-dependent glucose transporters (for example SGLTs), encoded by SLC5 genes. Human brain expresses 10 GLUT proteins and 10 proteins encoded by SLC5 genes...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845399/hypometabolism-during-daily-torpor-in-mice-is-dominated-by-reduction-in-the-sensitivity-of-the-thermoregulatory-system
#8
Genshiro A Sunagawa, Masayo Takahashi
Some mammals enter a hypometabolic state either daily torpor (minutes to hours in length) or hibernation (days to weeks), when reducing metabolism would benefit survival. Hibernators demonstrate deep torpor by reducing both the sensitivity (H) and the theoretical set-point temperature (TR) of the thermogenesis system, resulting in extreme hypothermia close to ambient temperature. However, these properties during daily torpor remain poorly understood due to the very short steady state of the hypometabolism and the large variation among species and individuals...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830942/postural-asymmetry-correlated-with-lateralization-of-cerebellar-perfusion-in-persons-with-chronic-stroke-a-role-of-crossed-cerebellar-diaschisis-in-left-side
#9
Cheng-Chiang Chang, Chih-Hung Ku, Shin-Tsu Chang
OBJECTIVE: Hemiplegia after stroke leads to impairment of the affected limbs and induces more weight on the non-paretic lower limb to form postural asymmetry. Studies of asymmetric cerebral functions have found similarly asymmetric functions in the cerebellum. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is defined as reduced blood flow and hypometabolism in the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to supratentorial cerebral pathology. No study explored the relationship between posture (standing balance) and CCD in those persons yet...
November 10, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819860/glucose-hypermetabolism-in-contralateral-basal-ganglia-demonstrated-by-serial-fdg-pet-ct-scans-in-a-patient-with-sle-chorea
#10
Na Niu, Ruixue Cui
We reported a 24-year-old woman who developed a movement disorder of mouth and limbs during systemic lupus erythematosus. Brain MRI did not find any abnormalities. Increased FDG uptake in basal ganglia was found using FDG PET/CT brain scan. The symptoms remitted after therapy and the activities of the original hypermetabolic regions were down to normal in the follow-up FDG PET/CT scan. This case implies that the pathophysiology of chorea in systemic lupus erythematosus is different from that of chorea in other diseases, such as Huntington disease and chorea-acanthocytosis, in which hypometabolic basal ganglia was found...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813827/the-central-control-of-energy-expenditure-exploiting-torpor-for-medical-applications
#11
Matteo Cerri
Autonomic thermoregulation is a recently acquired function, as it appears for the first time in mammals and provides the brain with the ability to control energy expenditure. The importance of such control can easily be highlighted by the ability of a heterogeneous group of mammals to actively reduce metabolic rate and enter a condition of regulated hypometabolism known as torpor. The central neural circuits of thermoregulatory cold defense have been recently unraveled and could in theory be exploited to reduce energy expenditure in species that do not normally use torpor, inducing a state called synthetic torpor...
October 28, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802232/varying-degrees-of-temporoparietal-hypometabolism-on-fdg-pet-reveal-amyloid-positive-logopenic-primary-progressive-aphasia-is-not-a%C3%A2-homogeneous-clinical-entity
#12
Kamini Krishnan, Mary M Machulda, Jennifer L Whitwell, Alissa M Butts, Joseph R Duffy, Edythe A Strand, Matthew L Senjem, Anthony J Spychalla, Clifford R Jack, Val J Lowe, Keith A Josephs
BACKGROUND: The logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) manifests due to a breakdown of the language network with prominent hypometabolism of the left temporoparietal region. LvPPA is strongly associated with amyloid deposition, yet there is question as to whether it is a homogeneous clinical entity. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether differences in temporoparietal metabolic patterns on 18F fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) could elucidate brain regions preferentially affected in lvPPA...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802224/in-vivo-patterns-of-tau-pathology-amyloid-%C3%AE-burden-and-neuronal-dysfunction-in-clinical-variants-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Julian Dronse, Klaus Fliessbach, Gérard N Bischof, Boris von Reutern, Jennifer Faber, Jochen Hammes, Georg Kuhnert, Bernd Neumaier, Oezguer A Onur, Juraj Kukolja, Thilo van Eimeren, Frank Jessen, Gereon R Fink, Thomas Klockgether, Alexander Drzezga
The clinical heterogeneity of Alzheimer's disease is not reflected in the rather diffuse cortical deposition of amyloid-β. We assessed the relationship between clinical symptoms, in vivo tau pathology, amyloid distribution, and hypometabolism in variants of Alzheimer's disease using novel multimodal PET imaging techniques. Tau pathology was primarily observed in brain regions related to clinical symptoms and overlapped with areas of hypometabolism. In contrast, amyloid-β deposition was diffusely distributed over the entire cortex...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801611/clinical-and-imaging-characteristics-of-late-onset-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-associated-neurodegeneration-mpan
#14
Ethan Gore, Brian S Appleby, Mark L Cohen, Suzanne D DeBrosse, James B Leverenz, Bruce L Miller, Sandra L Siedlak, Xiongwei Zhu, Alan J Lerner
Young onset dementias present significant diagnostic challenges. We present the case of a 35-year-old Kuwaiti man with social withdrawal, drowsiness, irritability, anxiety, aphasia, memory loss, hypereflexia, and Parkinsonism. Brain MRI showed bilateral symmetric gradient echo hypointensities in the globi pallidi and substantiae nigrae. Left cortical hypometabolism was seen on brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. A cortical brain biopsy revealed a high Lewy body burden. Genetic testing revealed a homozygous p...
October 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795490/behavioral-hypothermia-of-a-domesticated-lizard-under-treatment-of-the-hypometabolic-agent-3-iodothyronamine
#15
Kyoungbong Ha, Haksup Shin, Hyunwoo Ju, Chan-Moon Chung, Inho Choi
Ectothermic animals rely on behavioral thermoregulation due to low capacity of heat production and storage. Previously, lizards were shown to achieve 'fever' during microbial infection by increasing their preferred body temperature (PBT) behaviorally, thereby attaining a relatively high survival rate. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether domesticated lizards pursued 'behavioral hypothermia' induced by a hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). We found that treatment with 8.0 mg/kg T1AM caused a lizard species, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), to decrease its ventilation and oxygen consumption rates 0...
October 31, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790933/nutritional-status-metabolic-state-and-nutrient-intake-in-children-with-bronchiolitis
#16
V De Cosmi, N M Mehta, A Boccazzi, G P Milani, S Esposito, G Bedogni, C Agostoni
Nutrition has a coadjuvant role in the management of children with acute diseases. We aimed to examine nutritional status, macronutrient requirements and actual macronutrient delivery in bronchiolitis. The nutritional status was classified according to WHO criteria and resting energy expenditure (MREE) was measured using an indirect calorimeter. Bland-Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between MREE and estimated energy expenditure (EEE) with standard equations. Based on the ratio MREE/EEE in relation to Schofield equation on admission, we defined the subjects' metabolic status...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774365/quantitative-analysis-of-metabolic-abnormality-associated-with-brain-developmental-venous-anomalies
#17
Dmitriy Timerman, Jasmine A Thum, Mykol Larvie
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abnormal hypometabolism is common in the brain parenchyma surrounding developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), although the degree of DVA-associated hypometabolism (DVAAh) has not been quantitatively analyzed. In this study, we demonstrate a simple method for the measurement of DVAAh and test the hypothesis that DVAs are associated with a quantifiable decrement in metabolic activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measurements of DVAAh using ratios of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and comparison to a normal database were performed on a cohort of 25 patients (12 male, 13 female), 14 to 76 years old, with a total of 28 DVAs (20 with DVAAh, seven with isometabolic activity, and one with hypermetabolic activity)...
September 21, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772780/non-alcoholic-korsakoff-syndrome-in-psychiatric-patients-with-a-history-of-undiagnosed-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#18
Georgios Nikolakaros, Tuula Ilonen, Timo Kurki, Janina Paju, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Risto Vataja
Wernicke's encephalopathy is often undiagnosed, particularly in non-alcoholics. There are very few reports of non-alcoholic patients diagnosed with Korsakoff syndrome in the absence of a prior diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy and no studies of diffusion tensor imaging in non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. We report on three non-alcoholic psychiatric patients (all women) with long-term non-progressive memory impairment that developed after malnutrition accompanied by at least one of the three Wernicke's encephalopathy manifestations: ocular abnormalities, ataxia or unsteadiness, and an altered mental state or mild memory impairment...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771590/decreased-resting-state-metabolic-activity-in-frontopolar-and-parietal-brain-regions-is-associated-with-suicide-plans-in-depressed-individuals
#19
Kees van Heeringen, Guo-Rong Wu, Myriam Vervaet, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Chris Baeken
Suicide plans are a major risk factor for suicide, which is a devastating outcome of depression. While structural and functional brain changes have been demonstrated in relation to suicidal thoughts and behaviour, brain mechanisms underlying suicide plans have not yet been studied. Here, we studied changes in regional cerebral metabolic activity in association with suicide plans in depressed individuals. Using (18)FDG-PET, a comparative study of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglu) was carried out in depressed individuals with suicidal thoughts and suicide plans, depressed individuals with only suicidal thoughts, depressed individuals without suicide thoughts and plans, and healthy controls...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765861/brain-fdg-pet-metabolic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-long-lasting-macrophagic-myofasciitis
#20
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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