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Platelet transfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820484/platelet-aggregometry-testing-molecular-mechanisms-techniques-and-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Katalin Koltai, Gabor Kesmarky, Gergely Feher, Antal Tibold, Kalman Toth
Platelets play a fundamental role in normal hemostasis, while their inherited or acquired dysfunctions are involved in a variety of bleeding disorders or thrombotic events. Several laboratory methodologies or point-of-care testing methods are currently available for clinical and experimental settings. These methods describe different aspects of platelet function based on platelet aggregation, platelet adhesion, the viscoelastic properties during clot formation, the evaluation of thromboxane metabolism or certain flow cytometry techniques...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815406/successful-management-of-a-hydropic-fetus-with-severe-anemia-and-thrombocytopenia-caused-by-anti-cd36-antibody
#2
Xiuzhang Xu, Lin Li, Wenjie Xia, Haoqiang Ding, Dawei Chen, Jing Liu, Jing Deng, Yangkai Chen, Zhiming He, Jiali Wang, Yuan Shao, Sentot Santoso, Xin Ye, Qun Fang
Cases of CD36 deficiency are not rare in Asian populations, foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) caused by anti-CD36 isoantibodies appears more frequent than other HPA alloantibodies. However, little is known about the treatment of anti-CD36 mediated FNAIT in this region. A Chinese male foetus, whose mother had a history of multiple intrauterine foetal demise and/or hydrops, was diagnosed with severe FNAIT at 27 weeks of gestational age. Immunological analysis revealed total absence of CD36 on platelets and monocytes from mother, caused by a 329-330delAC mutation of the CD36 gene...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814247/fluid-and-medication-considerations-in-the-traumatized-patient
#3
Amita Misir
This article reviews fluid therapy and medications in pediatric trauma. For resuscitation in the setting of hemorrhagic shock, isotonic crystalloid solution is the first-line agent of choice. Colloid solutions offer no additional benefit, introduce possible increased risks and cost more than crystalloids. Blood products, starting with pRBCs, should be introduced after 20-40 ml/kg of crystalloid has been administered if there is ongoing need for volume replacement. The use of a massive transfusion protocol of 1:1:1 (if >30 kg) or 30:20:20 (if <30 kg) of pRBCs:FFP:platelets is suggested after an initial 30 ml/kg of pRBcs have been administered...
August 14, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809726/clinical-and-laboratory-associations-with-persistent-hyperferritinemia-in-373-black-hemochromatosis-and-iron-overload-screening-study-participants
#4
James C Barton, J Clayborn Barton, Paul C Adams
BACKGROUND: 373 black participants had elevated screening and post-screening serum ferritin (SF) (> 300 μg/L men; > 200 μg/L women). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied SF and post-screening age; sex; body mass index; transferrin saturation (TS); ALT; AST; GGT; elevated C-reactive protein; ß-thalassemia; neutrophils; lymphocytes; monocytes; platelets; metacarpophalangeal joint hypertrophy; hepatomegaly; splenomegaly; diabetes; HFE H63D positivity; iron/alcohol intakes; and blood/erythrocyte transfusion units...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809046/platelet-transfusion-to-reverse-antiplatelet-therapy-before-decompressive-surgery-in-patients-with-intracranial-haemorrhage
#5
M Baschin, S Selleng, J-P Zeden, A Westphal, T Kohlmann, H W Schroeder, A Greinacher, T Thiele
BACKGROUND: Platelet concentrates (PC) are transfused to improve primary haemostasis before urgent neurosurgery in patients with intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) receiving antiplatelet therapy (APT). It is unresolved, whether PCs increase the risk for major cardio- and cerebrovascular adverse events. We evaluated a standardized transfusion regimen to reverse APT in patients with ICH who required decompressive neurosurgery. METHODS: Analysed were consecutive patients between 2012 and 2014...
August 14, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807428/decreased-mortality-in-patients-with-isolated-severe-blunt-traumatic-brain-injury-receiving-higher-plasma-to-packed-red-blood-cells-transfusion-ratios
#6
Tobias Haltmeier, Elizabeth Benjamin, John Peter Gruen, Ira A Shulman, Lydia Lam, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
INTRODUCTION: Higher transfusion ratios of plasma to packed red blood cells (PRBC) and platelets (PLT) to PRBC have been shown to be associated with decreased mortality in major trauma patients. However, little is known about the effect of transfusion ratios on mortality in patients with isolated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of transfusion ratios on mortality in patients with isolated severe blunt TBI. We hypothesized that higher transfusion ratios of plasma to PRBC and PLT to PRBC are associated with a lower mortality rate in these patients...
August 5, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806272/is-there-a-standard-of-care-for-transfusion-support-of-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#7
Jingcheng Zhao, Gustaf Edgren, Simon J Stanworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with haematological malignancies are a high-user group for blood transfusions. Here, we describe the current evidence on transfusion policies in patients with haematological malignancies, based on recent systematic reviews of RCTs. RECENT FINDINGS: Results from six RCTs (1195 participants) suggest that prophylactic platelet transfusions reduce bleeding compared with therapeutic-only use, although the effects varied according to patient diagnosis/treatment plan...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804817/the-interface-between-immunotransfusion-and-hemostasis-and-thrombosis-testing
#8
Massimo Franchini
Increasing evidence supports the existence of a close relationship between immunotransfusion, hemostasis, and thrombosis. The best example of such linkage is given by the influence of the ABO blood group antigens on von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels and activity. It is well known, for instance, that individuals with non-O blood type (i.e., A, B, and AB) have higher VWF and factor VIII plasma levels than O blood type subjects and are consequently exposed to an increased thrombotic risk. There is also a close relationship between immunotransfusion, hemostasis, and thrombosis testing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803752/optimal-dose-timing-and-ratio-of-blood-products-in-massive-transfusion-results-from-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Zoe K McQuilten, Gemma Crighton, Susan Brunskill, Jessica K Morison, Tania H Richter, Neil Waters, Michael F Murphy, Erica M Wood
Optimal dose, timing and ratio to red blood cells (RBC) of blood component therapy (fresh frozen plasma [FFP], platelets, cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrate) to reduce morbidity and mortality in critically bleeding patients requiring massive transfusion is unknown. We performed a systematic review for randomized controlled trials (RCT) in MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed the Transfusion Evidence Library and using multiple clinical trials registries to 21 February 2017. Sixteen RCTs were identified: six completed (five in adult trauma patients, one pediatric burn patients) and ten ongoing trials...
July 6, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803258/the-impact-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-morbidity-and-infections-during-azacitidine-treatment
#10
Natalia Lorenzana, Laura Francisca Avila, Sara Alonso, Enrique Colado, Teresa Bernal
The clinical consequences of the infectious events in patients receiving azacitidine are poorly documented. Likewise, the role of primary antimicrobial prophylaxis is unknown. In this retrospective, single-center study, we compare the impact of prophylaxis on the incidence of infection and morbidity in all consecutive higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, during the first 4 azacitidine cycles. Seventy-six patients, corresponding to 283 azacitidine cycles, were studied...
August 13, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802751/acute-management-of-hemostasis-in-patients-with-neurological-injury
#11
REVIEW
M Irem Baharoglu, Anneke Brand, Maria M Koopman, Marinus Vermeulen, Yvo B W E M Roos
Neurological injuries can be divided into those with traumatic and nontraumatic causes. The largest groups are traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic stroke. TBI patients may present with intracranial hemorrhages (contusions, or subdural or epidural hematomas). Strokes are ischemic or hemorrhagic. In all these disorders, thrombosis and hemostasis play a major role. Treatment aims to either cease bleeding and/or restore perfusion. We reviewed hemostatic and thrombolytic therapies in patients with neurological injuries by MEDLINE and EMBASE search using various key words for neurological disorders and hemostatic therapies restricted to English language and human adults...
July 13, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800150/heterozygosity-for-p2y12-receptor-gene-mutation-associated-with-postoperative-hemorrhage-in-a-greater-swiss-mountain-dog
#12
Rebecca S Flores, Mary K Boudreaux, Barbara Vasquez, Poppy Bristow, Lillian R Aronson, Kari Santoro-Beer, Mary Beth Callan
A 3-year-old, female Greater Swiss Mountain dog developed a hemoperitoneum following an exploratory laparotomy and ovariohysterectomy. Platelet count, PT, APTT, and plasma von Willebrand factor antigen concentration were within RIs. A buccal mucosal bleeding time (BMBT) was prolonged. Given the probability of a hereditary thrombopathia, the dog was administered desmopressin, fresh platelet transfusions, and aminocaproic acid to control hemorrhage. Subsequently, DNA testing for the P2Y12 receptor gene mutation identified the dog as being a heterozygote (carrier)...
August 11, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794530/retrospective-analysis-of-post-operative-coagulopathy-after-major-hepatic-resection-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-northern-india
#13
Shweta A Singh, P Vivekananthan, Ankur Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Kishore Gs Bharathy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic resection is a major surgery associated with intraoperative massive fluid shifts, blood loss, haemodynamic instability and risk of development of post-hepatectomy liver failure. Hepatic resection predisposes the patient to coagulopathy as well as venous thrombosis. However, due to the development of deranged coagulation profile post-operatively, there is a dilemma in starting thromboprophylaxis. Our aim in this study was to determine the incidence of coagulopathy in patients undergoing major hepatectomy...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792707/limitations-of-preoperative-pfa-200-as-a-predictor-of-postoperative-blood-loss-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-according-to-use-of-tranexamic-acid
#14
You La Jeon, Woo-In Lee, So Young Kang, Myeong Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Recently, anti-fibrinolytic agents (tranexamic acid) have been used to reduce blood loss or and the need for transfusion. We evaluated the clinical utility of PFA-200 as a predictor of postoperative blood loss in a clinical setting, where hemostasis can be affected by variables such as existing comorbidities and medication use. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively 243 TKA patients having PFA-200 results between March 2014 and May 2016. We collected the medication history of anti-thrombotic agents, closure time measured by PFA-200, postoperative drainage volume, and perioperative change of hemoglobin values...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782256/risk-factors-and-a-prognostic-model-for-post-splenectomy-survival-in-myelofibrosis
#15
Ayalew Tefferi, Mythri Mudireddy, Naseema Gangat, Curtis A Hanson, Rhett P Ketterling, Animesh Pardanani, David M Nagorney
Palliative treatment in myelofibrosis (MF) includes transfusion support, JAK2 inhibitors, involved field radiotherapy and splenectomy. In order to assist in selecting patients who are likely to benefit from splenectomy, we looked into risk factors for post-splenectomy survival, in 120 consecutive cases (median age 66 years); at the time of splenectomy, 61% displayed red cell transfusion need, 49% platelet count <100 x 10(9)/L, 25% leukocyte count >25 x 10(9)/L, 60% constitutional symptoms and 13% circulating blasts ≥5%; dynamic international prognostic scoring system risk categories were 21% high, 55% intermediate-2, 21% intermediate-1 and 3% low...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777392/long-term-follow-up-of-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices-complications-and-predisposing-risk-factors
#16
Tolulope A Adesiyun, Rhondalyn C McLean, Ryan J Tedford, Glenn J R Whitman, Chris M Sciortino, John V Conte, Ashish S Shah, Stuart D Russell
PURPOSE: To assess LVAD complications and their overall effect on mortality and determine factors associated with development of early and long-term complications. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent continuous flow LVAD placement between January 1, 2000 and November 30, 2013 was performed. The incidence of complications (sepsis or bacteremia, driveline infections, gastrointestinal bleeding, pump thrombosis, cerebrovascular accidents and anemia requiring transfusion) was collected and logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777135/hematologic-disorders-in-children-with-continuous-renal-replacement-therapies
#17
Celia Fabra, Sara Infante, Isabel Miras, Susana Pretus, María José Santiago, Sarah N Fernández, Jesús López-Herce
The objective of this study was to analyze hematologic disorders, coagulation disorders, and transfusion requirements in children with continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT). This is a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of children receiving CRRT between 2010 and 2015. Patient characteristics, CRRT parameters, hematologic and coagulation parameters, and need for transfusions were recorded and analyzed. We compared patients after heart surgery and noncardiac patients, those requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and those without ECMO, and patients with different anticoagulation therapies: heparin and citrate...
August 1, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774828/flow-rate-calibration-to-determine-cell-derived-microparticles-and-homogeneity-of-blood-components
#18
Egarit Noulsri, Surada Lerdwana, Kulvara Kittisares, Attakorn Palasuwan, Duangdao Palasuwan
BACKGROUND: Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are currently of great interest to screening transfusion donors and blood components. However, the current approach to counting MPs is not affordable for routine laboratory use due to its high cost. AIM: The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of flow-rate calibration for counting MPs in whole blood, packed red blood cells (PRBCs), and platelet concentrates (PCs). METHODS: The accuracy of flow-rate calibration was investigated by comparing the platelet counts of an automated counter and a flow-rate calibrator...
July 18, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771656/transfusion-practice-in-trauma-resuscitation
#19
Ashley M Eckel, John R Hess
Recognition of the acute coagulopathy of trauma and the limits of reconstituting whole blood with conventional blood components has led to a radical change in the way trauma patients with severe injuries are resuscitated. Massive transfusion protocols (MTP) have evolved toward the administration of conventional blood components in fixed ratios. Administration of a 1:1:1 unit ratio of fresh frozen plasma to whole-blood-derived platelets to packed red blood cells is now the most common strategy and the stated goal of directors of >80% of the level I trauma centers in the United States...
August 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770879/incidence-and-pattern-of-thrombocytopenia-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#20
Mohammad Hamid, Mohammad Irfan Akhtar, Hamid Iqil Naqvi, Khalid Ahsan
OBJECTIVE: To observe the incidence and pattern of thrombocytopenia in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: This prospective, cohort study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from November 2014 to April 2015, and comprised adult cardiac patients. Patients with platelet count less than 150,000 x 109/L, history of malignancy, immune thrombocytopenic purpura and on chemo or radiotherapy were excluded. All information including demographics, platelet count, heparin doses, total cardiopulmonary bypass time, cross-clamp time, blood products transfused, any thromboembolic complication and the presence of infection were recorded on a pre-designed proforma...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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