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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784812/distributed-and-dynamic-intracellular-organization-of-extracellular-information
#1
Alejandro A Granados, Julian M J Pietsch, Sarah A Cepeda-Humerez, Iseabail L Farquhar, Gašper Tkačik, Peter S Swain
Although cells respond specifically to environments, how environmental identity is encoded intracellularly is not understood. Here, we study this organization of information in budding yeast by estimating the mutual information between environmental transitions and the dynamics of nuclear translocation for 10 transcription factors. Our method of estimation is general, scalable, and based on decoding from single cells. The dynamics of the transcription factors are necessary to encode the highest amounts of extracellular information, and we show that information is transduced through two channels: Generalists (Msn2/4, Tod6 and Dot6, Maf1, and Sfp1) can encode the nature of multiple stresses, but only if stress is high; specialists (Hog1, Yap1, and Mig1/2) encode one particular stress, but do so more quickly and for a wider range of magnitudes...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754951/mitochondrial-translation-efficiency-controls-cytoplasmic-protein-homeostasis
#2
Tamara Suhm, Jayasankar Mohanakrishnan Kaimal, Hannah Dawitz, Carlotta Peselj, Anna E Masser, Sarah Hanzén, Matevž Ambrožič, Agata Smialowska, Markus L Björck, Peter Brzezinski, Thomas Nyström, Sabrina Büttner, Claes Andréasson, Martin Ott
Cellular proteostasis is maintained via the coordinated synthesis, maintenance, and breakdown of proteins in the cytosol and organelles. While biogenesis of the mitochondrial membrane complexes that execute oxidative phosphorylation depends on cytoplasmic translation, it is unknown how translation within mitochondria impacts cytoplasmic proteostasis and nuclear gene expression. Here we have analyzed the effects of mutations in the highly conserved accuracy center of the yeast mitoribosome. Decreased accuracy of mitochondrial translation shortened chronological lifespan, impaired management of cytosolic protein aggregates, and elicited a general transcriptional stress response...
April 24, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675464/heritable-stress-response-dynamics-revealed-by-single-cell-genealogy
#3
Meenakshi Chatterjee, Murat Acar
Cells often respond to environmental stimuli by activating specific transcription factors. Upon exposure to glucose limitation stress, it is known that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells dephosphorylate the general stress response factor Msn2, leading to its nuclear localization, which in turn activates the expression of many genes. However, the precise dynamics of Msn2 nucleocytoplasmic translocations and whether they are inherited over multiple generations in a stress-dependent manner are not well understood...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607878/oxidative-stress-tolerance-of-a-spore-clone-isolated-from-shirakami-kodama-yeast-depends-on-altered-regulation-of-msn2-leading-to-enhanced-expression-of-ros-degrading-enzymes
#4
Nobushige Nakazawa, Himiko Yanata, Natsumi Ito, Eri Kaneta, Keitaro Takahashi
We analyzed the stress response in a spore clone from Shirakami kodama yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with an exceptional high tolerance to oxidative stress. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this clone were very low, whereas the genes for superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase (CTT1) were highly expressed and those enzymes also had high activities even under non-stress conditions. Both genes are regulated by general stress-responsive transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4, and Yap1, a transcription factor required for oxidative stress tolerance, and the removal of Msn2 or Yap1 caused a significant decrease in CTT1-expression...
March 31, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575540/genomewide-mechanisms-of-chronological-longevity-by-dietary-restriction-in-budding-yeast
#5
Sergio E Campos, J Abraham Avelar-Rivas, Erika Garay, Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Alexander DeLuna
Dietary restriction is arguably the most promising nonpharmacological intervention to extend human life and health span. Yet, only few genetic regulators mediating the cellular response to dietary restriction are known, and the question remains which other regulatory factors are involved. Here, we measured at the genomewide level the chronological lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains under two nitrogen source regimens, glutamine (nonrestricted) and γ-aminobutyric acid (restricted). We identified 473 mutants with diminished or enhanced extension of lifespan...
March 25, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517481/hydrophobins-contribute-to-root-colonization-and-stress-responses-in-the-rhizosphere-competent-insect-pathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana
#6
Soumya Moonjely, Nemat O Keyhani, Michael J Bidochka
The hyd1/hyd2 hydrophobins are important constituents of the conidial cell wall of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This fungus can also form intimate associations with several plant species. Here, we show that inactivation of two Class I hydrophobin genes, hyd1 or hyd2, significantly decreases the interaction of B. bassiana with bean roots. Curiously, the ∆hyd1/∆hyd2 double mutant was less impaired in root association than Δhyd1 or Δhyd2. Loss of hyd genes affected growth rate, conidiation ability and oosporein production...
April 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455333/stress-response-factors-drive-regrowth-of-quiescent-cells
#7
REVIEW
Zheng Kuang, Hongkai Ji, Jef D Boeke
Quiescent cells exploit an array of transcription factors to activate stress response machinery and maintain survival under nutrient-limited conditions. Our recent findings reveal that these transcription factors also play an important role in the exit of quiescence and regrowth. By studying Saccharomyces cerevisiae under a continuous, nutrient-limited condition, we found that Msn2 and Msn4 function as master regulators of glycolytic genes in the quiescent-like phase. They control the timing of transition from quiescence to growth by regulating the accumulation rate of acetyl-CoA, a key metabolite that is downstream of glycolysis and drives growth...
February 17, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240790/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-regulatory-heterogeneity-in-yeast-responding-to-stress
#8
Audrey P Gasch, Feiqiao Brian Yu, James Hose, Leah E Escalante, Mike Place, Rhonda Bacher, Jad Kanbar, Doina Ciobanu, Laura Sandor, Igor V Grigoriev, Christina Kendziorski, Stephen R Quake, Megan N McClean
From bacteria to humans, individual cells within isogenic populations can show significant variation in stress tolerance, but the nature of this heterogeneity is not clear. To investigate this, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to quantify transcript heterogeneity in single Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells treated with and without salt stress to explore population variation and identify cellular covariates that influence the stress-responsive transcriptome. Leveraging the extensive knowledge of yeast transcriptional regulation, we uncovered significant regulatory variation in individual yeast cells, both before and after stress...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215176/protective-role-of-the-hog-pathway-against-the-growth-defect-caused-by-impaired-biosynthesis-of-complex-sphingolipids-in-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Yutaro Yamaguchi, Yuka Katsuki, Seiya Tanaka, Ryotaro Kawaguchi, Hiroto Denda, Takuma Ikeda, Kouichi Funato, Motohiro Tani
Complex sphingolipids play critical roles in various cellular events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify genes that are related to the growth defect caused by disruption of complex sphingolipid biosynthesis, we screened for suppressor mutations and multicopy suppressor genes that confer resistance against repression of AUR1 encoding inositol phosphorylceramide synthase. From the results of this screening, we found that the activation of high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is involved in suppression of growth defect caused by impaired biosynthesis of complex sphingolipids...
February 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213328/the-transcription-factors-hsf1-and-msn2-of-thermotolerant-kluyveromyces-marxianus-promote-cell-growth-and-ethanol-fermentation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-at-high-temperatures
#10
Pengsong Li, Xiaofen Fu, Lei Zhang, Zhiyu Zhang, Jihong Li, Shizhong Li
Background: High temperature inhibits cell growth and ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . As a complex phenotype, thermotolerance usually involves synergistic actions of many genes, thereby being difficult to engineer. The overexpression of either endogenous or exogenous stress-related transcription factor genes in yeasts was found to be able to improve relevant stress tolerance of the hosts. Results: To increase ethanol yield of high-temperature fermentation, we constructed a series of strains of S...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198169/stress-response-transcription-factors-msn2-and-msn4-couple-torc2-ypk1-signaling-and-mitochondrial-respiration-to-atg8-gene-expression-and-autophagy
#11
Ariadne Vlahakis, Nerea Lopez Muniozguren, Ted Powers
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a starvation and stress-induced catabolic process critical for cellular homeostasis and adaptation. Several Atg proteins are involved in the formation of the autophagosome and subsequent degradation of cytoplasmic components, a process termed autophagy flux. Additionally, the expression of several Atg proteins, in particular Atg8, is modulated transcriptionally, yet the regulatory mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the AGC kinase Ypk1, target of the rapamycin-insensitive TORC2 signaling pathway, controls ATG8 expression by repressing the heterodimeric Zinc-finger transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4...
2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122172/the-c2h2-transcription-factor-vdmsn2-controls-hyphal-growth-microsclerotia-formation-and-virulence-of-verticillium-dahliae
#12
Longyan Tian, Jun Yu, Yonglin Wang, Chengming Tian
Verticillium dahliae is a notorious pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in numerous plant species worldwide. The fungus produces melanized microsclerotia, which helps it survive adverse environmental conditions that it may encounter within its hosts and in the soil. Previously, we determined that the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is involved in the environmental stress response of V. dahliae. In this study, we investigated the function of VdMsn2, a homologue of the yeast C2H2 transcription factor Msn2, which is predicted to function as a downstream player in the HOG pathway...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043483/iron-toxicity-in-yeast-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-vacuolar-iron-importer-ccc1
#13
REVIEW
Liangtao Li, Diane M Ward
All eukaryotes require the transition metal, iron, a redox active element that is an essential cofactor in many metabolic pathways, as well as an oxygen carrier. Iron can also react to generate oxygen radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions, which are highly toxic to cells. Therefore, organisms have developed intricate mechanisms to acquire iron as well as to protect themselves from the toxic effects of excess iron. In fungi and plants, iron is stored in the vacuole as a protective mechanism against iron toxicity...
April 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949295/msn2-4-regulate-expression-of-glycolytic-enzymes-and-control-transition-from-quiescence-to-growth
#14
Zheng Kuang, Sudarshan Pinglay, Hongkai Ji, Jef D Boeke
Nutrient availability and stresses impact a cell's decision to enter a growth state or a quiescent state. Acetyl-CoA stimulates cell growth under nutrient-limiting conditions, but how cells generate acetyl-CoA under starvation stress is less understood. Here, we show that general stress response factors, Msn2 and Msn4, function as master transcriptional regulators of yeast glycolysis via directly binding and activating genes encoding glycolytic enzymes. Yeast cells lacking Msn2 and Msn4 exhibit prevalent repression of glycolytic genes and a significant delay of acetyl-CoA accumulation and reentry into growth from quiescence...
September 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924051/the-stress-regulatory-transcription-factors-msn2-and-msn4-regulate-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-budding-yeast
#15
Praveen Kumar Rajvanshi, Madhuri Arya, Ram Rajasekharan
The transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 (multicopy suppressor of SNF1 mutation proteins 2 and 4) bind the stress-response element in gene promoters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae However, the roles of Msn2/4 in primary metabolic pathways such as fatty acid β-oxidation are unclear. Here, in silico analysis revealed that the promoters of most genes involved in the biogenesis, function, and regulation of the peroxisome contain Msn2/4-binding sites. We also found that transcript levels of MSN2/MSN4 are increased in glucose-depletion conditions and that during growth in nonpreferred carbon sources, Msn2 is constantly localized to the nucleus in wild-type cells...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760824/the-glucose-sensor-snf1-and-the-transcription-factors-msn2-and-msn4-regulate-transcription-of-the-vacuolar-iron-importer-gene-ccc1-and-iron-resistance-in-yeast
#16
Liangtao Li, Jerry Kaplan, Diane M Ward
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae stores iron in the vacuole, which is a major resistance mechanism against iron toxicity. One key protein involved in vacuolar iron storage is the iron importer Ccc1, which facilitates iron entry into the vacuole. Transcription of the CCC1 gene is largely regulated by the binding of iron-sulfur clusters to the activator domain of the transcriptional activator Yap5. Additional evidence, however, suggests that Yap5-independent transcriptional activation of CCC1 also contributes to iron resistance...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745839/transcription-factor-agseb1-affects-development-osmotic-stress-response-and-secondary-metabolism-in-marine-derived-aspergillus-glaucus
#17
Yuan Wu, Yanna Ren, Xiangshan Zhou, Menghao Cai, Yuanxing Zhang
Fungi possess sophisticated regulatory systems to respond to a vast array of environmental signals. Among these responsive networks, some genes play critical roles in the regulation of various cellular processes. Here, we identified a putative transcriptional factor Agseb1 in Aspergillus glaucus, a marine-derived filamentous fungus. Agseb1 encodes a protein with two C2 H2 zinc fingers at the C-terminus, similar to the placement of these motifs in msn2/4 of Saccharomyces cerevisia, where they are positioned to allow binding to the CCCCT-box of stress-specific genes...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720901/a-novel-connection-between-the-cell-wall-integrity-and-the-pka-pathways-regulates-cell-wall-stress-response-in-yeast
#18
Raúl García, Enrique Bravo, Sonia Diez-Muñiz, Cesar Nombela, Jose M Rodríguez-Peña, Javier Arroyo
Fungal cells trigger adaptive mechanisms to survive in situations that compromise cell wall integrity. We show here that the global transcriptional response elicited by inhibition of the synthesis of β-1,3-glucan by caspofungin, encompasses a set of genes that are dependent on Slt2, the MAPK of the Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway, and a broad group of genes regulated independently of Slt2. Genes negatively regulated by the cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway were overrepresented in the latter group...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676626/yeast-cip1-is-activated-by-environmental-stress-to-inhibit-cdk1-g1-cyclins-via-mcm1-and-msn2-4
#19
Ya-Lan Chang, Shun-Fu Tseng, Yu-Ching Huang, Zih-Jie Shen, Pang-Hung Hsu, Meng-Hsun Hsieh, Chia-Wei Yang, Silvia Tognetti, Berta Canal, Laia Subirana, Chien-Wei Wang, Hsiao-Tan Chen, Chi-Ying Lin, Francesc Posas, Shu-Chun Teng
Upon environmental changes, proliferating cells delay cell cycle to prevent further damage accumulation. Yeast Cip1 is a Cdk1 and Cln2-associated protein. However, the function and regulation of Cip1 are still poorly understood. Here we report that Cip1 expression is co-regulated by the cell-cycle-mediated factor Mcm1 and the stress-mediated factors Msn2/4. Overexpression of Cip1 arrests cell cycle through inhibition of Cdk1-G1 cyclin complexes at G1 stage and the stress-activated protein kinase-dependent Cip1 T65, T69, and T73 phosphorylation may strengthen the Cip1and Cdk1-G1 cyclin interaction...
July 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646136/recurrent-background-mutations-in-whi2-impair-proteostasis-and-degradation-of-misfolded-cytosolic-proteins-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
Sophie A Comyn, Stéphane Flibotte, Thibault Mayor
Proteostasis promotes viability at both the cellular and organism levels by maintaining a functional proteome. This requires an intricate protein quality control (PQC) network that mediates protein folding by molecular chaperones and removes terminally misfolded proteins via the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy. How changes within the PQC network can perturb proteostasis and shift the balance between protein folding and proteolysis remain poorly understood. However, given that proteostasis is altered in a number of conditions such as cancer and ageing, it is critical that we identify the factors that mediate PQC and understand the interplay between members of the proteostatic network...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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