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Rahel Kasteler, Linda M H Kam, Annette Weiss, Nicolas Waespe, Grit Sommer, Florian Singer, Nicolas X von der Weid, Marc Ansari, Claudia E Kuehni
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for pulmonary morbidity and mortality. International guidelines recommend pulmonary function tests (PFT) during follow-up care. This nationwide study assessed how many children received PFT within 5 years after pulmotoxic treatment in Switzerland, types of tests, and predictors for testing. METHODS: We included all children from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry who were diagnosed with cancer from 1990 to 2013 at age 0-16 years, survived for ≥2 years from diagnosis, and had pulmotoxic chemotherapy with bleomycin, busulfan, nitrosoureas, and/or chest radiotherapy...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Hsuan-Ping Lin, Siyouneh Baghdasarian, Martha R Singer, Melanie M Mott, M Loring Bradlee, Richard T Pickering, Lynn L Moore
Previous recommendations to limit dietary cholesterol intake have been eliminated for most adults. Questions remain about whether dietary cholesterol has adverse cardiovascular effects among individuals with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes (IFG/T2DM). We used data for 993 adults (40.9% female), ages 35⁻<65 years, with prevalent IFG/T2DM in the prospective Framingham Offspring Study to address this question. Dietary cholesterol was assessed using 3-day diet records at exams 3 and 5 and used to classify subjects into sex-specific tertiles of mean cholesterol intake...
June 14, 2018: Nutrients
An-Wen Chan, Kinwah Fung, Peter C Austin, S Joseph Kim, Lianne G Singer, Nancy N Baxter, Raed Alhusayen, Paula A Rochon
Solid organ transplant recipients have a high risk of keratinocyte carcinoma (non-melanoma skin cancer). Consensus-based transplant guidelines recommend annual dermatological examination but the impact on skin cancer-related outcomes is unclear. We conducted a population-based, retrospective, inception cohort study using administrative health databases in Ontario, Canada to evaluate the association between adherence to annual dermatology assessments (time-varying exposure) and keratinocyte carcinoma-related morbidity and mortality after transplantation...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Sascha Marx, Maximilian Splittstöhser, Frederik Kinnen, Eileen Moritz, Christy Joseph, Sebastian Paul, Heiko Paland, Carolin Seifert, Madlen Marx, Andreas Böhm, Edzard Schwedhelm, Kerstin Holzer, Stephan Singer, Christoph A Ritter, Sandra Bien-Möller, Henry W S Schroeder, Bernhard H Rauch
Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) suffer from an increased incidence of vascular thrombotic events. However, key influencing factors of the primary hemostasis have not been characterized in GBM patients to date. Thus, the present study determines the activation level of circulating platelets in GBM patients, in-vitro reactivity to agonist-induced platelet stimulation and the formation of circulating platelet-leucocyte conjugates as well as the plasma levels of the proinflammatory lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Norio Chihara, Asaf Madi, Takaaki Kondo, Huiyuan Zhang, Nandini Acharya, Meromit Singer, Jackson Nyman, Nemanja D Marjanovic, Monika S Kowalczyk, Chao Wang, Sema Kurtulus, Travis Law, Yasaman Etminan, James Nevin, Christopher D Buckley, Patrick R Burkett, Jason D Buenrostro, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Ana C Anderson, Aviv Regev, Vijay K Kuchroo
The expression of co-inhibitory receptors, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, on effector T cells is a key mechanism for ensuring immune homeostasis. Dysregulated expression of co-inhibitory receptors on CD4+ T cells promotes autoimmunity, whereas sustained overexpression on CD8+ T cells promotes T cell dysfunction or exhaustion, leading to impaired ability to clear chronic viral infections and diseases such as cancer1,2 . Here, using RNA and protein expression profiling at single-cell resolution in mouse cells, we identify a module of co-inhibitory receptors that includes not only several known co-inhibitory receptors (PD-1, TIM-3, LAG-3 and TIGIT) but also many new surface receptors...
June 13, 2018: Nature
Sean T Chen, Anne S Hellkamp, Richard C Becker, Scott D Berkowitz, Günter Breithardt, Keith A A Fox, Werner Hacke, Jonathan L Halperin, Graeme J Hankey, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Christopher C Nessel, Jonathan P Piccini, Daniel E Singer, Manesh R Patel
BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of polyvascular disease in patients enrolled in ROCKET AF. METHODS: Cox regression models were used to assess clinical outcomes and treatment effects of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and coronary, peripheral, or carotid artery disease, or any combination of the 3. RESULTS: A total of 655 (4.6%) patients had polyvascular disease (≥2 disease locations), and 3,391 (23...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
Ryan J Cornelius, Chong Zhang, Kayla J Erspamer, Larry N Agbor, Curt D Sigmund, Jeffrey D Singer, Chao-Ling Yang, David H Ellison
Familial hyperkalemic hypertension is caused by mutations in WNK kinases, or in proteins that mediate their degradation, KLHL3 and cullin 3 (Cul3). While the mechanisms by which WNK and KLHL3 mutations cause the disease are now clear, the effects of the disease-causing Cul3Δ403-459 mutation remain controversial. Possible mechanisms including hyperneddylation, altered ubiquitin ligase activity, decreased association with the COP9 signalosome (CSN), and increased association with and degradation of KLHL3 have all been postulated...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Susan Chadid, Martha R Singer, Bernard E Kreger, M Loring Bradlee, Lynn L Moore
BACKGROUND: Overweight and diabetes are known cancer risk factors. This study examines independent and combined effects of weight gain and metabolic dysfunction during middle-adult years on obesity-related cancer risk. METHODS: Subjects (n = 3850) aged 45-69 years at exams 3-5 in the Framingham Offspring Study were classified according to current and prior (~14 years earlier) weight status, interim weight change and prevalent metabolic dysfunction. Cancer risk among subjects who were overweight at baseline and remained overweight, as well as those who became overweight during follow-up, was compared with risk among normal-weight individuals...
June 13, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Alex K Mezei, Heather N Pedersen, Stephen Sy, Catherine Regan, Sheona M Mitchell-Foster, Josaphat Byamugisha, Musa Sekikubo, Heather Armstrong, Angeli Rawat, Joel Singer, Gina S Ogilvie, Jane J Kim, Nicole G Campos
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Uganda, despite the potential for prevention through organised screening. Community-based self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been proposed to reduce barriers to screening. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Advances in Screening and Prevention of Reproductive Cancers (ASPIRE) trial, conducted in Kisenyi, Uganda in April 2014 (n=500)...
June 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Adam J Singer, Henry Towery, Steve A McClain
OBJECTIVES: A major goal of burn management is to reduce the progression of necrosis in the zone of ischemia surrounding the central zone of necrosis. A rat comb burn model is often used to assess the progression of necrosis in the zone of ischemia. We compared various combinations of naproxen [NPX], N-acetyl cysteine [NAC], and tadalafil [TD] (a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used as a vasodilator to treat erectile dysfunction) in a rat comb burn model to determine their effects on injury progression...
June 9, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Vered Slonim-Nevo, Orly Sarid, Michael Friger, Doron Schwartz, Ruslan Sergienko, Avihu Pereg, Hillel Vardi, Terri Singer, Elena Chernin, Dan Greenberg, Shmuel Odes
Background: Psychological distress increases morbidity in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). We examined whether social support is associated with distress and disease activity. Methods : There were 110 UC and 147 CD patients who completed sociodemography, economic status, disease activity (UC: Patient Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (P-SCCAI), CD: Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index . (P-HBI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Brief Symptom Inventory with Global Severity Index (GSI) of psychological distress, and 2 health-related quality-of-life scales (SF-36 Physical Health and Mental Health, and Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ)...
June 8, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Katayoun Taghavi, Dipanwita Banerjee, Ranajit Mandal, Helena Kopp Kallner, Malin Thorsell, Therese Friis, Ljiljana Kocoska-Maras, Björn Strander, Albert Singer, Elisabeth Wikström
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional pilot study evaluates diagnostic accuracy of live colposcopy versus static image Swede-score evaluation for detecting significant precancerous cervical lesions greater than, or equal to grade 2 severity (CIN2+). METHODS: VIA or HrHPV positive women were examined using a mobile colposcope, in a rural clinic in Kolkata, India. Live versus static Swede-score colposcopy assessments were made independently. All assessments were by gynecologists, junior or expert...
June 11, 2018: BMC Women's Health
David W Niebuhr, Ligong Chen, Stephanie Shao, Jonathan Goldsmith, Celia Byrne, Darrell E Singer
Introduction: Sickle cell trait (SCT), the heterozygous carrier state for hemoglobin S, is present in an estimated 1.6% of all newborns and 7.3% in black individuals in the USA. SCT has long been considered a benign condition with anticipated normal life expectancy and no increased risk for chronic diseases. The medical literature is inconclusive on the potential association between SCT and chronic medical conditions (CMC) including chronic kidney disease, venous thromboembolism, and stroke...
June 8, 2018: Military Medicine
Eric Singer, Susanna Yau, Michael Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Urology Case Reports
Adam J Singer, Merry Taylor, Deborah LeBlanc, Kristen Meyers, Karol Perez, Henry C Thode, Jesse M Pines
BACKGROUND: Core laboratory testing may increase length of stay and delay care. OBJECTIVES: We compared length of emergency department (ED) care in patients receiving point-of-care testing (POCT) at triage vs. traditional core laboratory testing. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, case-controlled trial of adult patients with prespecified conditions requiring laboratory testing and had POCT performed by a nurse after triage for: a basic metabolic panel, troponin I, lactate, INR (i-STAT System), urinalysis (Beckman Coulter Icon), or urine pregnancy test...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gene R Quinn, Olivia N Severdija, Yuchiao Chang, Liane O Dallalzadeh, Daniel E Singer
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF) assume that stroke risk scheme point scores correspond to fixed stroke rates. However, reported stroke rates vary widely across AF cohort studies, including studies from the same country. Reasons for this variation are unclear. This study compares methodologies used to assemble and analyze large AF cohorts worldwide and assesses potential bias in estimating stroke rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: From a previous systematic review of AF cohorts, we analyzed studies including at least 5000 patients...
June 9, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Veronika Engert, Bethany E Kok, Lara M Puhlmann, Tobias Stalder, Clemens Kirschbaum, Filia Apostolakou, Chrysanthi Papanastasopoulou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Panagiota Pervanidou, George P Chrousos, Tania Singer
To gain a comprehensive understanding of the multidimensional complex systems structure of the stress response and related health outcomes, we utilized network analysis in a sample of 328 healthy participants in two steps. In a first step, we focused on associations between measures of basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and subjective stress perceptions. In a second step, we linked these diverse stress-related measures to biomarkers and self-repots of health and sleep. Overall, measures clustered depending on their method of assessment, with high correlations between different saliva-based indices of diurnal cortisol regulation, between cortisol and cortisone levels in hair, between different biological health indicators (systemic inflammatory activity and body mass index), between state (experience sampling) and trait (questionnaire-based) self-reports of stress and wellbeing, and between different self-reports of sleep...
June 6, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jessica Jaiswal, Stuart N Singer, Karolynn Siegel, Helen-Maria Lekas
HIV-related 'conspiracy beliefs' include ideas about the genocidal origin of HIV and the nature and purpose of HIV-related medications. These ideas have been widely documented as affecting myriad health behaviours and outcomes, including birth control use and HIV testing. Most HIV-related research has quantitatively explored this phenomenon, and further qualitative research is necessary to better understand the complexity of these beliefs as articulated by those who endorse them. Moreover, public health in general has over-emphasised the role of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study in explaining mistrust, rather than focus on ongoing social inequalities...
June 8, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
G Adamker, T Holzer, I Karakis, M Amitay, E Anis, S R Singer, Z Barnett-Itzhaki
Shigellosis causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing and developed countries, mostly among infants and young children. The World Health Organization estimates that more than one million people die from Shigellosis every year. In order to evaluate trends in Shigellosis in Israel in the years 2002-2015, we analysed national notifiable disease reporting data. Shigella sonnei was the most commonly identified Shigella species in Israel. Hospitalisation rates due to Shigella flexenri were higher in comparison with other Shigella species...
June 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Alison B Singer, Kristina W Whitworth, Line S Haug, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Antti Impinen, Eleni Papadopoulou, Matthew P Longnecker
INTRODUCTION: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are fluorinated organic compounds that have been used in a variety of industrial and consumer applications. Menstruation is implicated as a possible route of elimination for PFASs in women. The overall purpose of this study was to examine menstrual cycle characteristics as determinants of plasma PFAS concentrations in women. METHODS: Our study sample consisted of 1977 pregnant women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study...
June 4, 2018: Environmental Research
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