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Paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction

Kristina L Johnston, Hannah Bradford, Heather Hodges, Camille M Moore, Emily Nauman, J Tod Olin
INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), the condition previously known as paradoxical vocal fold motion and vocal cord dysfunction, is characterized by inappropriate glottic or supraglottic obstruction during high-intensity exercise, causing exertional dyspnea, frequently with stridor. EILO is definitively diagnosed through upper-airway visualization during a characteristic episode. Although respiratory retraining is a primary therapy for EILO, many patients report symptom persistence despite adequate performance of traditional techniques...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Sarah Graham, Emily Deardorff, Kristina Johnston, J Tod Olin
Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is the term for the condition previously named vocal cord dysfunction and paradoxical vocal fold motion. It is defined by glottic or supraglottic obstruction during periods of intense exercise. Not all patients respond to conventional therapy with speech-language pathology, behavioral health interventions, and treatment of contributing conditions. In this edition of Journal of Voice, the authors describe a novel series of respiratory retraining techniques, now called Olin EILOBI (EILO biphasic inspiratory) breathing techniques, specifically designed for athletes with EILO...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Marlene Garcia-Neuer, Donna Marie Lynch, Kathleen Marquis, Jayme Dowdall, Mariana Castells, David Edward Sloane
Vocal cord dysfunction, also known as paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM), is a disorder characterized by abnormal vocal cord adduction during inspiration. PVFM is commonly misdiagnosed as asthma because of the similarity of symptoms: cough, wheezing, chest pain, and dyspnea. We present the clinical vignette of a 36-year-old woman with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and multiple adverse drug reactions who presented with recurrent episodes of unrecognized PVFM during skin testing for drug allergy, omalizumab treatment, and tocilizumab desensitization...
January 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Ahmed Geneid, L-M Aaltonen, L Porra, J Peltonen, K Palmu, A Sovijärvi, P Piirilä
The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between the breathing sound spectra and glottal dimensions in exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction (EIVCD) during a bicycle ergometry test. Nineteen subjects (mean age 21.8 years and range 13-39 years) with suspected EIVCD were studied. Vocal folds were continuously imaged with videolaryngoscopy and breathing sounds were recorded during the bicycle exercise test. Twelve subjects showed paradoxical movement of the vocal folds during inspiration by the end of the exercise...
November 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Tian-Tee Ng
Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement Disorder is where the larynx exhibits paradoxical vocal cords closure during respiration, creating partial airway obstruction. Causes of vocal fold movement disorder are multifactorial, and patients describe tightness of throat, difficulty getting air in, have stridor, and do not respond to inhalers. We propose using transnasal laryngoscopy examination, which will show narrowing of vocal cords on inspiration, and The Pittsburgh Vocal Cord Dysfunction Index with a cutoff score of ≥4 to distinguish vocal fold movement disorder from asthma and other causes of stridor...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
Virginie Woisard, Xuelai Liu, Marie Christine Arné Bes, Marion Simonetta-Moreau
Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication...
February 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Nizhoni Denipah, Christopher M Dominguez, Erik P Kraai, Tania L Kraai, Paul Leos, Darren Braude
Paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder, also commonly termed vocal cord dysfunction, is a poorly understood cause of acute upper airway obstruction. Patients with paradoxical vocal fold motion frequently present to the emergency department (ED) with acute respiratory distress and stridor. Lack of familiarity with this disorder may lead to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and unnecessary intubations or surgical airway procedures. Although long-term management of paradoxical vocal fold motion is well described, there is a paucity of information about acute evaluation and management...
January 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Julie Depiazzi, Mark L Everard
Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy.The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice...
June 2016: Breathe
James Tod Olin, Matthew S Clary, Emily H Deardorff, Kristina Johnston, Michael J Morris, Mofiyinfolu Sokoya, Herman Staudenmayer, Kent L Christopher
Exercise as an important part of life for the health and wellness of children and adults. Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) is a consensus term used to describe a group of disorders previously called vocal cord dysfunction, paradoxical vocal fold motion, and numerous other terms. Exercise-ILO can impair one's ability to exercise, can be confused with asthma, leading to unnecessary prescription of asthma controller and rescue medication, and results in increased healthcare resource utilization including (rarely) emergency care...
February 2015: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Loveleen Guglani, Sarah Atkinson, Avinash Hosanagar, Lokesh Guglani
BACKGROUND: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) or paradoxical vocal-fold motion (PVFM) is a functional disorder of the vocal cords that requires multidisciplinary treatment. Besides relaxation techniques, the use of psychological interventions can help treat the underlying psychological co-morbidities. There is currently no literature that examines the effectiveness of psychological interventions for VCD/PVFM. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence for psychological interventions used for the treatment of patients with VCD/PVFM...
2014: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Douglas R Sidell, Karthik Balakrishnan, Catherine K Hart, J Paul Willging, Sandra K Knecht, Alessandro de Alarcon
OBJECTIVE: Exercise-induced airway obstruction in pediatric patients is a unique phenomenon with multiple potential etiologies. An accurate diagnosis can be challenging to establish in pediatric patients because they are frequently asymptomatic at rest. Exercise stress laryngoscopy (ESL) is a modality by which pediatric patients can be evaluated under physiologic conditions that produce their symptoms. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate (1) the diagnostic effectiveness of pediatric ESL and (2) the ability of ESL to guide treatment for "normal" and post-airway reconstruction patients with exercise intolerance...
June 2014: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Justin C McCarty, Berrylin J Ferguson
Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma...
February 2014: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Celso Eduardo Olivier, Daiana Guedes Pinto Argentão, Regiane Patussi dos Santos Lima, Mariana Dias da Silva, Raquel Acácia Pereira Gonçalves dos Santos
Vocal cord dysfunction (also called paradoxical vocal cord motion) or paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) is an event elicited by specific and nonspecific triggers in which its diagnosis is limited by the restricted number of available functional tests. This study was designed to appreciate the contribution of the spirometric changes elicited by the allergen-specific nasal provocation test (NPT) performed with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus for the diagnosis of PVFM in subjects with known sensitization to this allergen...
September 2013: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Anne E Vertigan, Sarah L Bone, Peter G Gibson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diseases associated with laryngeal dysfunction include chronic refractory cough (CRC), paradoxical vocal fold movement (PVFM), muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) and globus pharyngeus. We hypothesized the presence of a common sensory laryngeal dysfunction, the 'laryngeal hypersensitivity' syndrome, in these conditions. The aim of the study was to compare symptoms and sensory function in patients with CRC, PVFM, MTD and globus. METHODS: The 103 participants included healthy controls (n = 13) and four case groups: CRC (n = 33), PVFM (n = 28), globus pharyngeus (n = 11) and MTD (n = 18)...
August 2013: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Sally J K Gallena, Wei Tian, Arthur T Johnson, Jafar Vossoughi, Stephen A Sarles, Nancy Pearl Solomon
OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between respiratory resistance (Rr) values measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device (APD) to laryngoscopic images of glottal area (GA) in feigned paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM), also known as vocal cord dysfunction. HYPOTHESIS: There is a strong inverse relationship between Rr and GA such that laryngeal constriction can be detected and quantified by APD-measured Rr. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, single subject study...
May 2013: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Ron Balkissoon, Klaus Kenn
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and dysfunctional breathing (DB) disorders may mimic or coexist with asthma, leading to overtreatment with corticosteroids with consequent morbidity. Iatrogenic complications can be averted by early and correct diagnosis. VCD, also termed paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (PVFMD), is characterized by intermittent paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords, mainly during inspiration, leading to airflow obstruction and dyspnea. Patients with VCD may have repetitive emergency room visits due to acute dyspnea (mimicking exacerbations of asthma)...
December 2012: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ali Al-Alwan, David Kaminsky
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a syndrome characterized by the intermittent, abnormal paradoxical adduction of the true vocal cords during respiration resulting in variable upper airway obstruction. It is also commonly referred to as paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder. Patients with VCD usually present with intermittent shortness of breath of varying intensity, wheezing, stridor, choking, throat tightness, voice changes, or cough, and these symptoms often resolve quickly after relaxation or cessation of activity...
May 2012: Physician and Sportsmedicine
L Arick Forrest, Tiffany Husein, Omar Husein
Paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM), or vocal cord dysfunction, is a descriptive term for inappropriate adduction of the vocal folds during respiration. The laryngeal mistiming leads to breathing difficulty and is often misdiagnosed as refractory asthma. The etiology of PVCM has been unclear but has long been hypothesized to be psychological. The present thesis is a prospective study of 170 patients older than 18 years being evaluated for PVCM, with 117 of the 170 (68.8%) identified as having PVCM by video laryngoscopy...
April 2012: Laryngoscope
Andrea Nacci, Bruno Fattori, Giovanni Segnini, Iacopo Dallan, Erica Panicucci, Valeria Rocchi, Francesco Ursino
OBJECTIVES: Paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction (PVFD) is a disorder in the larynx featuring involuntary adduction of the vocal folds during the inspiratory phase of breathing. The symptoms include acute episodes of dyspnea and bouts of coughing. To date, there is no universally acknowledged treatment for PVFD, though respiratory retraining therapy is the treatment of choice. AIMS: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the results of long-term respiratory retraining therapy in cases of PVFD...
2011: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Anne E Vertigan, Peter G Gibson, Deborah G Theodoros, Alison L Winkworth
Sensory function may be important in the pathogenesis of Chronic Cough (CC) and Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement (PVFM). This paper aims to explore sensory issues related to the pathogenesis, classification, assessment and management of these conditions. Sensory disruption of the vagus nerve can occur through neural plasticity whereby a change occurs in the way a central neuron reacts to an incoming stimulus. Such disruption can be demonstrated through assessment of cough reflex sensitivity and extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness both of which may be increased in CC and PVFM...
2008: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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