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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347661/activity-driven-changes-in-the-mechanical-properties-of-fire-ant-aggregations
#1
Michael Tennenbaum, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves
Fire ant aggregations are active materials composed of individual constituents that are able to transform internal energy into work. We find using rheology and direct visualization that the aggregation undergoes activity cycles that affect the mechanical properties of the system. When the activity is high, the aggregation approximately equally stores and dissipates energy, it is more homogeneous, and exerts a high outward force. When the activity is low, the aggregation is predominantly elastic, it is more heterogeneous, and it exerts a small outward force...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299261/disturbance-modulated-symbioses-in-termitophily
#2
Ivan Monteiro, Arleu Barbosa Viana-Junior, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro Solar, Frederico de Siqueira Neves, Og DeSouza
Symbiosis, the living-together of unlike organisms, underlies every major transition in evolution and pervades most ecological dynamics. Among examples of symbioses, the simultaneous occupation of a termite nest by its builder termites and intruding invertebrate species (so-called termitophily) provides suitable macroscopic scenarios for the study of species coexistence in confined environments. Current evidence on termitophily abounds for dynamics occurring at the interindividual level within the termitarium, but is insufficient for broader scales such as the community and the landscape...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223179/intra-and-inter-specific-variation-in-alarm-pheromone-produced-by-solenopsis-fire-ants
#3
L Hu, R R Balusu, W-Q Zhang, O S Ajayi, Y-Y Lu, R-S Zeng, H Y Fadamiro, L Chen
Some fire ants of the genus Solenopsis have become invasive species in the southern United States displacing native species by competition. Although the displacement pattern seems clear, the mechanisms underlying competitive advantage remain unclear. The ability of ant workers to produce relatively larger amount of alarm pheromone may correspond to relative greater fitness among sympatric fire ant species. Here we report on quantitative intra-specific (i.e. inter-caste) and inter-specific differences of alarm pheromone component, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine (2E36DMP), for several fire ant species...
December 10, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196290/evolution-and-diversity-of-inherited-spiroplasma-in-myrmica-ants
#4
Matthew J Ballinger, Logan D Moore, Steve J Perlman
Microbial partners play an important role in the biology and ecology of animals. In insects, maternally-transmitted symbionts are especially common and can have host effects ranging from reproductive manipulation to nutrient provisioning and defense against natural enemies. In this study, we report a genus-wide association of Myrmica ants with the inherited bacterial symbiont, Spiroplasma We screen Myrmica ants collected from the wild, including the invasive European fire ant, Myrmica rubra, and find an extraordinarily high prevalence of this symbiont - 8 of 9 species, 42 of 43 colonies, and 250 of 276 individual workers were harboring Spiroplasma - only one host species was uninfected...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192073/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-new-isolate-of-solenopsis-invicta-virus-3-from-solenopsis-invicta-%C3%A3-richteri-hybrid-ants
#5
Steven M Valles, Jason B Oliver, Karla M Addesso
Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. We report here the full genome (10,383 nucleotides) of an isolate infecting Solenopsis invicta × richteri hybrid ants, which we have identified as SINV-3 hybrid.
November 30, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189938/trans-generational-but-not-early-life-exposure-to-stressors-influences-offspring-morphology-and-survival
#6
Dustin A S Owen, Travis R Robbins, Tracy Langkilde
Environmental changes, such as the introduction of non-native species, can impose novel selective pressures. This can result in changes in fitness-relevant traits within an individual's lifetime or across multiple generations. We investigated the effects of early life versus trans-generational exposure to a predatory invasive insect stressor, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), on the morphology and survival of the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus). We captured gravid lizards from high-stress populations with long histories of invasion by fire ants and from uninvaded sites...
November 30, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156294/phospholipase-a1-based-cross-reactivity-among-venoms-of-clinically-relevant-hymenoptera-from-neotropical-and-temperate-regions
#7
Amilcar Perez-Riverol, Luís Gustavo Romani Fernandes, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Débora Moitinho Abram, Gabriel Hideki Izuka Moraes, Frederic Jabs, Michaela Miehe, Henning Seismman, Mario Sergio Palma, Ricardo de Lima Zollner, Edzard Spillner, Márcia Regina Brochetto-Braga
Molecular cross-reactivity caused by allergen homology or cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) is a major challenge for diagnosis and immunotherapy of insect venom allergy. Venom phospholipases A1 (PLA1s) are classical, mostly non-glycosylated wasp and ant allergens that provide diagnostic benefit for differentiation of genuine sensitizations from cross-reactivity. As CCD-free molecules, venom PLA1s are not causative for CCD-based cross-reactivity. Little is known however about the protein-based cross-reactivity of PLA1 within vespid species...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122298/evoked-potential-and-eeg-study-of-the-neurotoxicity-of-hydramethylnon-in-rats
#8
George M Strain
The objective of the study was to assess the neurotoxicity, using electrodiagnostic tests, of hydramethylnon (Amdro, AC 217,300), an insecticide marketed for the treatment of red imported fire ants, cockroaches, and other insects. Animals were male Fisher 344 albino rats and Long-Evans hooded rats. Brainstem auditory, visual, and somatosensory evoked potentials (BAER, VEP, SEP) and electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded from implanted screw electrodes before and at multiple time points through day 10 after a single oral dose of hydramethylnon (at 50% or 75% of the LD50) plus vehicle, or vehicle alone...
October 31, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066556/seizures-and-sleep-in-the-thalamus-focal-limbic-seizures-show-divergent-activity-patterns-in-different-thalamic-nuclei
#9
Li Feng, Joshua E Motelow, Chanthia Ma, William Biche, Cian McCafferty, Nicholas Smith, Mengran Liu, Qiong Zhan, Ruonan Jia, Bo Xiao, Alvaro Duque, Hal Blumenfeld
The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT) and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023124/synthesis-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-fire-ant-venom-alkaloid-based-2-methyl-6-alkyl-%C3%AE-1-6-piperideines
#10
Yujie Yan, Yu An, Xiaozhong Wang, Yingqi Chen, Melissa R Jacob, Babu L Tekwani, Liyan Dai, Xing-Cong Li
The first synthesis of 2-methyl-6-pentadecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (1), a major alkaloid of the piperideine chemotype in fire ant venoms, and its analogues, 2-methyl-6-tetradecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (2) and 2-methyl-6-hexadecyl-Δ(1,6)-piperideine (3), was achieved by a facile synthetic method starting with glutaric acid (4) and urea (5). Compound 1 showed in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans with IC50 values of 6.6 and 12.4 μg/mL, respectively, and antibacterial activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with an IC50 value of 19...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967211/novel-use-of-aliphatic-n-methyl-ketones-as-a-fumigant-and-alternative-to-methyl-bromide-for-insect-control
#11
Jiwei Zhu, Anirudh Dhammi, Jaap B van Kretschmar, Edward L Vargo, Charles S Apperson, R Michael Roe
BACKGROUND: Fumigants like phosphine, methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride are highly effective for the control of structural, storage and agricultural arthropod pests. Unfortunately, many of these synthetic compounds are highly toxic to people, many pests have developed resistance to these compounds, and methyl bromide, the "gold standard" for fumigants, was de-registered because of its depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Alternative fumigant chemistry is needed. RESULTS: Several plant species produce n-aliphatic methyl ketones to prevent plant herbivory...
October 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938082/pseudacteon-phorid-flies-host-specificity-and-impacts-on-solenopsis-fire-ants
#12
Li Chen, Henry Y Fadamiro
Human commerce has resulted in the spread of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis species, worldwide. Six species of parasitic Pseudacteon phorid flies that are highly host specific to the Solenopsis saevissima complex of Solenopsis fire ants have been successfully released in the southern United States. The presence of Pseudacteon phorid flies, in addition to having direct mortality effects on their host ants, modifies foraging behavior and disrupts interspecific competition between host species and other ant species in the community...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902438/colony-level-behavioural-variation-correlates-with-differences-in-expression-of-the-foraging-gene-in-red-imported-fire-ants
#13
Alison A Bockoven, Craig J Coates, Micky D Eubanks
Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and has significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behaviour at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875172/the-biodiversity-cost-of-carbon-sequestration-in-tropical-savanna
#14
Rodolfo C R Abreu, William A Hoffmann, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Natashi A Pilon, Davi R Rossatto, Giselda Durigan
Tropical savannas have been increasingly viewed as an opportunity for carbon sequestration through fire suppression and afforestation, but insufficient attention has been given to the consequences for biodiversity. To evaluate the biodiversity costs of increasing carbon sequestration, we quantified changes in ecosystem carbon stocks and the associated changes in communities of plants and ants resulting from fire suppression in savannas of the Brazilian Cerrado, a global biodiversity hotspot. Fire suppression resulted in increased carbon stocks of 1...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873251/imported-fire-ant-envenomation-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-a-recognizable-form-of-arthropod-assault-reaction
#15
Gabriel Villada, Farhaan Hafeez, Jose Ollague, Carlos H Nousari, George W Elgart
BACKGROUND: Skin reactions to the sting of the imported fire ant have characteristic clinicopathological features. METHODS: One case of experimental envenomation was prospectively followed during 48 hours, with biopsies. In addition, 6 cases from our laboratory were retrospectively evaluated histopathologically for the following features: spongiosis, exocytosis (and type of cells), pustule formation, erosion/ulceration, epidermal necrosis, scale/crust, papillary dermal edema, inflammatory dermal infiltrate (cell type, density, depth, distribution, shape), red blood cell extravasation, vasculopathy and vasculitis...
December 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802030/solenopsis-geminata-tropical-fire-ant-anaphylaxis-among-thai-patients-its-allergens-and-specific-ige-reactivity
#16
Rutcharin Potiwat, Sasipa Tanyaratsrisakul, Santi Maneewatchararangsri, Wiparat Manuyakorn, Ticha Rerkpattanapipat, Yudthana Samung, Chukiat Sirivichayakul, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Raweerat Sitcharungsi
BACKGROUND: Specific IgE against Solenopsis invicta (imported fire ant) remains the current diagnostic tool for allergy to ants worldwide. However, S. invicta may not be the only cause of ant anaphylaxis in Thai patients. OBJECTIVE: To characterize ant species causing anaphylaxis in Thai patients and to test allergenic reactivity to whole body extracts (WBE) of S. geminata (tropical fire ants) in patients with evidence of IgE-mediated ant anaphylaxis. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with ant anaphylaxis were identified...
August 8, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791170/fire-ants-perpetually-rebuild-sinking-towers
#17
Sulisay Phonekeo, Nathan Mlot, Daria Monaenkova, David L Hu, Craig Tovey
In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712285/freeze-thaw-sample-preparation-method-improves-detection-of-volatile-compounds-in-insects-using-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction
#18
Jian Chen
Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is commonly used in analyzing insect volatiles. To improve the detection of volatiles in insects, a freeze-thaw method was applied to insect samples before the HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. Insect samples were first frozen at -80 °C for 10 min and then thawed at 25 °C for 5 min before SPME extraction was performed. The freeze-thaw method clearly improved the detection of volatile compounds for all six tested insect species, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri Forel, little black ants, Monomorium minimum (Buckley), pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus), eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), and spotted lady beetles, Coleomegilla maculate De Geer...
August 1, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695711/cuticular-hydrocarbon-profiles-differentiate-tropical-fire-ant-populations-solenopsis-geminata-hymenoptera-formicidae
#19
Lin Hu, Robert K Vander Meer, Sanford D Porter, Li Chen
The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from hexane rinses of workers from two Florida populations (dark and red forms) of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, were separated by silica gel chromatography and identified by GC-MS analysis. Both the dark form and the red form produce similar CHCs with carbon chain lengths ranging from 17 to 35. However, the relative percentages of these CHCs were consistently different between the two color forms. The largest CHC component in the dark form is tricosane, and (Z)-9-tricosene for the red form...
July 11, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644376/monitoring-effect-of-fire-on-ant-assemblages-in-brazilian-rupestrian-grasslands-contrasting-effects-on-ground-and-arboreal-fauna
#20
Diego Anjos, Ricardo Campos, Renata Campos, Sérvio Ribeiro
Fire is one of the most relevant ecological disturbances in nature. Little is known about the effects of fire on biodiversity in ecosystems like rupestrian grasslands, which share characteristics with savanna and forest biomes. Brazilian rupestrian grasslands are part of an endangered ecosystem that has been modified by anthropogenic fire events that have become more intense in recent decades. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fire on ground and arboreal ant assemblages through a two-year monitoring program (24 monthly samplings)...
June 23, 2017: Insects
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