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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769360/multiple-large-inversions-and-breakpoint-rewiring-of-gene-expression-in-the-evolution-of-the-fire-ant-social-supergene
#1
Yu-Ching Huang, Viet Dai Dang, Ni-Chen Chang, John Wang
Supergenes consist of co-adapted loci that segregate together and are associated with adaptive traits. In the fire ant Solenopsis invicta , two 'social' supergene variants regulate differences in colony queen number and other traits. Suppressed recombination in this system is maintained, in part, by a greater than 9 Mb inversion, but the supergene is larger. Has the supergene in S. invicta undergone multiple large inversions? The initial gene content of the inverted allele of a supergene would be the same as that of the wild-type allele...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768988/single-cell-recordings-to-target-the-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#2
Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Yan Zhao, Marcus L F Janssen, G Louis Wagner, Albert J Colon, Danny M W Hilkman, Erik Gommer, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, Govert Hoogland, Linda Ackermans, Lo J Bour, Richard J A Van Wezel, Paul Boon, Yasin Temel, Tjitske Heida, Vivianne H J M Van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Rob P W Rouhl
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a promising treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. However, therapy response varies and precise positioning of the DBS lead is potentially essential for maximizing therapeutic efficacy. We investigate if single-cell recordings acquired by microelectrode recordings can aid targeting of the ANT during surgery and hypothesize that the neuronal firing properties of the target region relate to clinical outcome. We prospectively included 10 refractory epilepsy patients and performed microelectrode recordings under general anesthesia to identify the change in neuronal signals when approaching and transecting the ANT...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727729/an-alarm-pheromone-reduces-ventral-tegmental-area-nucleus-accumbens-shell-responsivity
#3
Ana G Gutiérrez-García, Carlos M Contreras, Mauricio Saldivar-Lara
2-Heptanone (methyl n-amyl ketone) is a ketone that produces alarm reactions in insects (e.g., bees and ants). As an olfactory stimulus, 2-heptanone produces anxiety reactions in the short term and despair in the long term in rodent models. Among the anatomical connections of the olfactory system that integrate behavioral responses, connections between the amygdala and nucleus accumbens are important, which in turn form a circuit with the ventral tegmental area (VTA). 2-Heptanone increases the firing rate of amygdala neurons without participation of the vomeronasal organ...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721300/brain-gene-expression-analyses-in-virgin-and-mated-queens-of-fire-ants-reveal-mating-independent-and-socially-regulated-changes
#4
Travis L Calkins, Mei-Er Chen, Arinder K Arora, Chloe Hawkings, Cecilia Tamborindeguy, Patricia V Pietrantonio
Transcriptomes of dissected brains from virgin alate and dealate mated queens from polygyne fire ants ( Solenopsis invicta ) were analyzed and compared. Thirteen genes were upregulated in mated queen brain, and nine were downregulated. While many of the regulated genes were either uncharacterized or noncoding RNAs, those annotated genes included two hexamerin proteins, astakine neuropeptide, serine proteases, and serine protease inhibitors. We found that for select differentially expressed genes in the brain, changes in gene expression were most likely driven by the changes in physiological state (i...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659783/managed-fire-frequency-significantly-influences-the-litter-arthropod-community-in-longleaf-pine-flatwoods
#5
Rachel A Atchison, Jiri Hulcr, Andrea Lucky
Frequent prescribed burns are essential to pine forest restoration and management. Research studies have assessed effects of prescribed fire and burn frequency on plants and vertebrates, but impacts of fire on terrestrial invertebrate communities are still poorly understood. This case study investigated effects of burning frequency on species richness and community composition of social insects (ants, Hymenoptera: Formicidae and termites, Blattodea: Isoptera) in fire-managed Southern longleaf pine flatwoods in central Florida...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656567/major-venom-proteins-of-the-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-insights-into-possible-pheromone-binding-function-from-mass-spectrometric-analysis
#6
T Das, I Alabi, M Colley, F Yan, W Griffith, S Bach, S T Weintraub, R Renthal
Proteins in the venom of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta have been suggested to function in pheromone binding. Venom from queens and workers contains different isoforms of these proteins, consistent with the differing pheromones they secrete, but questions remain about the venom protein composition and glandular source. We found that the queen venom contains a previously uncharacterized pheromone-binding protein paralogue known as Sol i 2X1. Using imaging mass spectrometry, we located the main venom proteins in the poison sac, implying that pheromones might have to compete with venom alkaloids for binding...
April 15, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614132/only-multi-taxon-studies-show-the-full-range-of-arthropod-responses-to-fire
#7
Inam Yekwayo, James S Pryke, René Gaigher, Michael J Samways
Fire is a major driver in many ecosystems. Yet, little is known about how different ground-living arthropods survive fire. Using three sampling methods, and time-since-fire (last fire event: 3 months, 1 year, and 7 years), we investigate how ground-living arthropod diversity responds to fire, and how species richness, diversity, abundance, and composition of the four dominant taxa: ants, beetles, cockroaches and mites, respond. We did this in the naturally fire-prone Mediterranean-type scrubland vegetation (fynbos) of the Cape Floristic Region...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526717/biogenic-amine-signaling-systems-in-the-red-imported-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-possible-contributors-to-worker-division-of-labor
#8
Yi-Xiang Qi, Tian Zeng, Lei Wang, Yong-Yue Lu
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a dangerous invasive pest in the United States, China and other countries. Efficient division of labor is one of the main reasons for the success of this social insect. Biogenic amines are important regulators of worker division of labor in this eusocial insect, but the related molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we identified 10 candidate biogenic amine synthetic enzyme genes and 17 candidate biogenic amine receptor genes in the genome of S...
June 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510162/speedy-milking-of-fresh-venom-from-aculeate-hymenopterans
#9
Eduardo G P Fox, Meng Xu, Lei Wang, Li Chen, Yong-Yue Lu
A straightforward method for extracting aculeate arthropod venoms by centrifugation is described, based on adapting a glass insert containing a piece of metal mesh or glass wool into a centrifuge tube. Venom apparatuses are centrifuged for 30 s intervals at ≈2000-6000 g, with samples being dislodged between cycles. Venom from fire ants, honeybees, and a social wasp were extracted within minutes. The method is suited for small-scale bioassays and allows for faithful descriptions of unmodified toxin cocktails...
May 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466388/prospecting-for-viral-natural-enemies-of-the-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-in-argentina
#10
Steven M Valles, Sanford D Porter, Luis A Calcaterra
Metagenomics and next generation sequencing were employed to discover new virus natural enemies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren in its native range (i.e., Formosa, Argentina) with the ultimate goal of testing and releasing new viral pathogens into U.S. S. invicta populations to provide natural, sustainable control of this ant. RNA was purified from worker ants from 182 S. invicta colonies, which was pooled into 4 groups according to location. A library was created from each group and sequenced using Illumina Miseq technology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445768/hstrpa-of-the-red-imported-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-functions-as-a-nocisensor-and-uncovers-the-evolutionary-plasticity-of-hstrpa-channels
#11
Xinyue Wang, Tianbang Li, Makiko Kashio, Yijuan Xu, Makoto Tominaga, Tatsuhiko Kadowaki
Solenopsis invicta , the red imported fire ant, represents one of the most devastating invasive species. To understand their sensory physiology, we identified and characterized their Hymenoptera-specific (Hs) TRPA channel, SiHsTRPA. Consistent with the sensory functions of SiHsTRPA, it is activated by heat, an electrophile, and an insect repellent. Nevertheless, SiHsTRPA does not respond to most of the honey bee ortholog (AmHsTRPA)-activating compounds. The jewel wasp ortholog (NvHsTRPA) is activated by these compounds even though it outgroups both AmHsTRPA and SiHsTRPA...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414487/following-the-moving-and-changing-attachments-and-assemblages-of-addiction-applying-the-actor-network-approach-to-autobiographies
#12
Jukka Törrönen, Christoffer Tigerstedt
The article applies actor network theory (ANT) to autobiographical data on alcohol dependence to explore what ANT can offer to the analysis of 'addiction stories'. By defining 'addiction' as a relational achievement, as the effect of elements acting together as a configuration of human and non-human actors, the article demonstrates how the moving and changing attachments of addiction can be dynamically analyzed with concepts of 'assemblage', 'mediator', 'tendency', 'translation', 'trajectory', 'immutable mobile', 'fluid' and 'bush fire'...
April 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395962/potential-environmental-and-ecological-effects-of-global-climate-change-on-venomous-terrestrial-species-in-the-wilderness
#13
Robert K Needleman, Isabelle P Neylan, Timothy Erickson
INTRODUCTION: Climate change has been scientifically documented, and its effects on wildlife have been prognosticated. We sought to predict the overall impact of climate change on venomous terrestrial species. We hypothesize that given the close relationship between terrestrial venomous species and climate, a changing global environment may result in increased species migration, geographical redistribution, and longer seasons for envenomation, which would have repercussions on human health...
January 29, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357030/seed-supply-limits-seedling-recruitment-of-eucalyptus-miniata-interactions-between-seed-predation-by-ants-and-fire-in-the-australian-seasonal-tropics
#14
Samantha Ann Setterfield, Alan Neil Andersen
Seed predation can cause substantial seed losses and influence plant population dynamics, but the impact depends on the extent to which populations are limited by seed availability or favorable microsites for recruitment. Harvester ants are the dominant post-dispersal seed predators in Australia's tropical savannas, and their abundance and foraging efficiency, as well as the availability of seed and microsites, are affected by fire history. We undertook a predator-exclusion experiment to examine the interactive effects of fire history (no fire compared with annual burning over 5 years) and seed predation by ants on seedling establishment of the dominant savanna tree, Eucalyptus miniata, in northern Australia...
April 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347661/activity-driven-changes-in-the-mechanical-properties-of-fire-ant-aggregations
#15
Michael Tennenbaum, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves
Fire ant aggregations are active materials composed of individual constituents that are able to transform internal energy into work. We find using rheology and direct visualization that the aggregation undergoes activity cycles that affect the mechanical properties of the system. When the activity is high, the aggregation approximately equally stores and dissipates energy, it is more homogeneous, and exerts a high outward force. When the activity is low, the aggregation is predominantly elastic, it is more heterogeneous, and it exerts a small outward force...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299261/disturbance-modulated-symbioses-in-termitophily
#16
Ivan Monteiro, Arleu Barbosa Viana-Junior, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro Solar, Frederico de Siqueira Neves, Og DeSouza
Symbiosis, the living-together of unlike organisms, underlies every major transition in evolution and pervades most ecological dynamics. Among examples of symbioses, the simultaneous occupation of a termite nest by its builder termites and intruding invertebrate species (so-called termitophily) provides suitable macroscopic scenarios for the study of species coexistence in confined environments. Current evidence on termitophily abounds for dynamics occurring at the interindividual level within the termitarium, but is insufficient for broader scales such as the community and the landscape...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223179/intra-and-inter-specific-variation-in-alarm-pheromone-produced-by-solenopsis-fire-ants
#17
L Hu, R R Balusu, W-Q Zhang, O S Ajayi, Y-Y Lu, R-S Zeng, H Y Fadamiro, L Chen
Some fire ants of the genus Solenopsis have become invasive species in the southern United States displacing native species by competition. Although the displacement pattern seems clear, the mechanisms underlying competitive advantage remain unclear. The ability of ant workers to produce relatively larger amount of alarm pheromone may correspond to relative greater fitness among sympatric fire ant species. Here we report on quantitative intra-specific (i.e. inter-caste) and inter-specific differences of alarm pheromone component, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine (2E36DMP), for several fire ant species...
December 10, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196290/evolution-and-diversity-of-inherited-spiroplasma-symbionts-in-myrmica-ants
#18
Matthew J Ballinger, Logan D Moore, Steve J Perlman
Microbial partners play important roles in the biology and ecology of animals. In insects, maternally transmitted symbionts are especially common and can have host effects ranging from reproductive manipulation to nutrient provisioning and defense against natural enemies. In this study, we report a genus-wide association of Myrmica ants with the inherited bacterial symbiont Spiroplasma We screen Myrmica ants collected from the wild, including the invasive European fire ant, Myrmica rubra , and find an extraordinarily high prevalence of this symbiont-8 of 9 species, 42 of 43 colonies, and 250 of 276 individual workers harbored Spiroplasma -only one host species was uninfected...
February 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192073/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-new-isolate-of-solenopsis-invicta-virus-3-from-solenopsis-invicta-%C3%A3-richteri-hybrid-ants
#19
Steven M Valles, Jason B Oliver, Karla M Addesso
Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. We report here the full genome (10,383 nucleotides) of an isolate infecting Solenopsis invicta × richteri hybrid ants, which we have identified as SINV-3 hybrid.
November 30, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189938/trans-generational-but-not-early-life-exposure-to-stressors-influences-offspring-morphology-and-survival
#20
Dustin A S Owen, Travis R Robbins, Tracy Langkilde
Environmental changes, such as the introduction of non-native species, can impose novel selective pressures. This can result in changes in fitness-relevant traits within an individual's lifetime or across multiple generations. We investigated the effects of early life versus trans-generational exposure to a predatory invasive insect stressor, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), on the morphology and survival of the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus). We captured gravid lizards from high-stress populations with long histories of invasion by fire ants and from uninvaded sites...
February 2018: Oecologia
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