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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731828/geographical-variation-in-community-divergence-insights-from-tropical-forest-monodominance-by-ectomycorrhizal-trees
#1
Tadashi Fukami, Mifuyu Nakajima, Claire Fortunel, Paul V A Fine, Christopher Baraloto, Sabrina E Russo, Kabir G Peay
Convergence occurs in both species traits and community structure, but how convergence at the two scales influences each other remains unclear. To address this question, we focus on tropical forest monodominance, in which a single, often ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree species occasionally dominates forest stands within a landscape otherwise characterized by diverse communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees. Such monodominance is a striking potential example of community divergence resulting in alternative stable states...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731473/ninety-nine-de-novo-assembled-genomes-from-the-moose-alces-alces-rumen-microbiome-provide-new-insights-into-microbial-plant-biomass-degradation
#2
Olov Svartström, Johannes Alneberg, Nicolas Terrapon, Vincent Lombard, Ino de Bruijn, Jonas Malmsten, Ann-Marie Dalin, Emilie El Muller, Pranjul Shah, Paul Wilmes, Bernard Henrissat, Henrik Aspeborg, Anders F Andersson
The moose (Alces alces) is a ruminant that harvests energy from fiber-rich lignocellulose material through carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) produced by its rumen microbes. We applied shotgun metagenomics to rumen contents from six moose to obtain insights into this microbiome. Following binning, 99 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to 11 prokaryotic phyla were reconstructed and characterized based on phylogeny and CAZyme profile. The taxonomy of these MAGs reflected the overall composition of the metagenome, with dominance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722562/centers-of-excellence-in-healthcare-institutions-what-they-are-and-how-to-assemble-them
#3
James K Elrod, John L Fortenberry
BACKGROUND: Centers of excellence-specialized programs within healthcare institutions which supply exceptionally high concentrations of expertise and related resources centered on particular medical areas and delivered in a comprehensive, interdisciplinary fashion-afford many advantages for healthcare providers and the populations they serve. To achieve full value from centers of excellence, proper assembly is an absolute necessity, but guidance is somewhat limited. This effectively forces healthcare providers to pursue establishment largely via trial-and-error, diminishing opportunities for success...
July 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717122/disentangling-environmental-and-spatial-effects-on-phylogenetic-structure-of-angiosperm-tree-communities-in-china
#4
Hong Qian, Shengbin Chen, Jin-Long Zhang
Niche-based and neutrality-based theories are two major classes of theories explaining the assembly mechanisms of local communities. Both theories have been frequently used to explain species diversity and composition in local communities but their relative importance remains unclear. Here, we analyzed 57 assemblages of angiosperm trees in 0.1-ha forest plots across China to examine the effects of environmental heterogeneity (relevant to niche-based processes) and spatial contingency (relevant to neutrality-based processes) on phylogenetic structure of angiosperm tree assemblages distributed across a wide range of environment and space...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713657/290-metagenome-assembled-genomes-from-the-mediterranean-sea-a-resource-for-marine-microbiology
#5
Benjamin J Tully, Rohan Sachdeva, Elaina D Graham, John F Heidelberg
The Tara Oceans Expedition has provided large, publicly-accessible microbial metagenomic datasets from a circumnavigation of the globe. Utilizing several size fractions from the samples originating in the Mediterranean Sea, we have used current assembly and binning techniques to reconstruct 290 putative draft metagenome-assembled bacterial and archaeal genomes, with an estimated completion of ≥50%, and an additional 2,786 bins, with estimated completion of 0-50%. We have submitted our results, including initial taxonomic and phylogenetic assignments, for the putative draft genomes to open-access repositories for the scientific community to use in ongoing research...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712045/dynamics-of-soil-bacterial-communities-over-a-vegetation-season-relate-to-both-soil-nutrient-status-and-plant-growth-phenology
#6
Davide Francioli, Elke Schulz, François Buscot, Thomas Reitz
Soil microorganisms regulate element cycling and plant nutrition, mediate co-existence of neighbors, and stabilize plant communities. Many of these effects are dependent upon environmental conditions and, in particular, on nutrient quality and availability in soils. In this context, we set up a pot experiment in order to examine the combined effects of soil nutrient availability and microbial communities on plant-soil interactions and to investigate assemblage rules for soil bacterial communities under changed nutrient conditions...
July 15, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710403/plant-recording-across-two-centuries-reveals-dramatic-changes-in-species-diversity-of-a-mediterranean-archipelago
#7
Alessandro Chiarucci, Simone Fattorini, Bruno Foggi, Sara Landi, Lorenzo Lazzaro, János Podani, Daniel Simberloff
Although islands are model systems for investigating assembly of biological communities, long-term changes in archipelago communities are not well understood because of the lack of reliable data. By using a vast amount of floristic data we assembled a dataset of the plant species occurring on 16 islands of the Tuscan Archipelago, Italy, across two periods, 1830-1950 and 1951-2015. We collected 10,892 occurrence records for 1,831 species. We found major changes in the island plant assemblages between the two periods, with native flora significantly decreasing (-10...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707639/life-in-unexpected-places-employing-visual-thinking-strategies-in-global-health-training
#8
Jill Allison, Shree Mulay, Monica Kidd
BACKGROUND: The desire to make meaning out of images, metaphor, and other representations indicates higher-order cognitive skills that can be difficult to teach, especially in the complex and unfamiliar environments like those encountered in many global health experiences. Because reflecting on art can help develop medical students' imaginative and interpretive skills, we used visual thinking strategies (VTS) during an immersive 4-week global health elective for medical students to help them construct new understanding of the social determinants of health in a low-resource setting...
January 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706308/introduction-to-nematode-genome-and-transcriptome-announcements-in-the-journal-of-nematology
#9
Dee R Denver, Erik J Ragsdale, W Kelley Thomas, Inga A Zasada
The Journal of Nematology now offers publication of Nematode Genome Announcements (NGA) and Nematode Transcriptome Announcements (NTA). These brief reports announce the sequencing and assembly of a nematode genome or transcriptome resource, along with basic technical information on DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods used. This publishing initiative offers a new avenue to openly and concisely communicate the availability and relevance of genome and transcriptome sequence resources to the broader scientific community...
June 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704449/postfire-responses-of-the-woody-flora-of-central-chile-insights-from-a-germination-experiment
#10
Susana Gómez-González, Susana Paula, Lohengrin A Cavieres, Juli G Pausas
Fire is a selective agent shaping plant traits and community assembly in fire-prone ecosystems. However, in ecosystems with no fire history, it can be a cause of land degradation when it is suddenly introduced by humans, as plant species may not be able to respond to such novel disturbance. Unlike other Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTE) of the world, natural fires have not been frequent during the Quaternary in the matorral of Central Chile, and thus, plant adaptive responses are expected to be uncommon. We evaluated the effect of heat shock on seed survival and germination of 21 native woody plants of the Chilean matorral and compiled information on smoke-stimulation and resprouting, to evaluate the importance of fire-adaptive responses in the context of the other MTE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704402/are-disease-reservoirs-special-taxonomic-and-life-history-characteristics
#11
Benjamin T Plourde, Tristan L Burgess, Evan A Eskew, Tara M Roth, Nicole Stephenson, Janet E Foley
Pathogens that spill over between species cause a significant human and animal health burden. Here, we describe characteristics of animal reservoirs that are required for pathogen spillover. We assembled and analyzed a database of 330 disease systems in which a pathogen spills over from a reservoir of one or more species. Three-quarters of reservoirs included wildlife, and 84% included mammals. Further, 65% of pathogens depended on a community of reservoir hosts, rather than a single species, for persistence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702793/the-gut-eukaryotic-microbiota-influences-the-growth-performance-among-cohabitating-shrimp
#12
Wenfang Dai, Weina Yu, Jinjie Zhang, Jinyong Zhu, Zhen Tao, Jinbo Xiong
Increasing evidence has revealed a close interplay between the gut bacterial communities and host growth performance. However, until recently, studies generally ignored the contribution of eukaryotes, endobiotic organisms. To fill this gap, we used Illumina sequencing technology on eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene to compare the structures of gut eukaryotic communities among cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimp obtained from identically managed ponds. Results showed that a significant difference between gut eukaryotic communities differed significantly between water and intestine and among three shrimp categories...
July 12, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701808/assembly-patterns-of-soil-dwelling-lichens-after-glacier-retreat-in-the-european-alps
#13
Juri Nascimbene, Helmut Mayrhofer, Matteo Dainese, Peter Othmar Bilovitz
AIM: To assess the spatial-temporal dynamics of primary succession following deglaciation in soil-dwelling lichen communities. LOCATION: European Alps (Austria, Switzerland and Italy). METHODS: Five glacier forelands subjected to relevant glacier retreat during the last century were investigated. In each glacier foreland, three successional stages were selected at increasing distance from the glacier, corresponding to a gradient of time since deglaciation between 25 and 160 years...
June 2017: Journal of Biogeography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701376/the-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-genomes-of-the-facultatively-eusocial-orchid-bee-euglossa-dilemma
#14
Philipp Brand, Nicholas Saleh, Hailin Pan, Cai Li, Karen M Kapheim, Santiago R Ramírez
Bees provide indispensable pollination services to both agricultural crops and wild plant populations, and several species of bees have become important models for the study of learning and memory, plant-insect interactions and social behavior. Orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini) are especially important to the fields of pollination ecology, evolution, and species conservation. Here we report the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of the orchid bee Euglossa dilemma Bembé & Eltz. Euglossa dilemma was selected because it is widely distributed, highly abundant, and it was recently naturalized in the southeastern United States...
July 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701036/characterization-of-surface-active-biofilm-protein-bsla-in-self-assembling-langmuir-monolayer-at-the-air-water-interface
#15
Wei Liu, Shanghao Li, Zhuguang Wang, Elsa C Y Yan, Roger M Leblanc
Biofilm is an extracellular matrix of bacteria and serves as a protective shield of bacterial communities. It is crucial for microbial growth and one of the leading causes of human chronic infections as well. However, the structures and molecular mechanism of biofilm formation remain largely unknown. Here, we examined a protein, BslA, expressed in the biofilms of Bacillus subtilis. We characterized the Langmuir monolayers of BslA at the air/water interface. Using techniques in surface chemistry and spectroscopy, we found that BslA forms a stable and robust Langmuir monolayer at the air/water interface...
July 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696003/relative-abundance-of-candidatus-tenderia-electrophaga-is-linked-to-cathodic-current-in-an-aerobic-biocathode-community
#16
Anthony P Malanoski, Baochuan Lin, Brian J Eddie, Zheng Wang, W Judson Hervey, Sarah M Glaven
Biocathode microbial communities are proposed to catalyse a range of useful reactions. Unlike bioanodes, model biocathode organisms have not yet been successfully cultivated in isolation highlighting the need for culture-independent approaches to characterization. Biocathode MCL (Marinobacter, Chromatiaceae, Labrenzia) is a microbial community proposed to couple CO2 fixation to extracellular electron transfer and O2 reduction. Previous metagenomic analysis of a single MCL bioelectrochemical system (BES) resulted in resolution of 16 bin genomes...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693474/assembling-metagenomes-one-community-at-a-time
#17
Andries Johannes van der Walt, Marc Warwick van Goethem, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Thulani Peter Makhalanyane, Oleg Reva, Don Arthur Cowan
BACKGROUND: Metagenomics allows unprecedented access to uncultured environmental microorganisms. The analysis of metagenomic sequences facilitates gene prediction and annotation, and enables the assembly of draft genomes, including uncultured members of a community. However, while several platforms have been developed for this critical step, there is currently no clear framework for the assembly of metagenomic sequence data. RESULTS: To assist with selection of an appropriate metagenome assembler we evaluated the capabilities of nine prominent assembly tools on nine publicly-available environmental metagenomes, as well as three simulated datasets...
July 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685045/comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence-regarding-the-effectiveness-of-community-based-primary-health-care-in-improving-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-7-shared-characteristics-of-projects-with-evidence-of-long-term-mortality-impact
#18
Henry B Perry, Bahie M Rassekh, Sundeep Gupta, Paul A Freeman
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence about the long-term effectiveness of integrated community-based primary health care (CBPHC) in improving maternal, neonatal and child health. However, the interventions implemented and the approaches used by projects with such evidence can provide guidance for ending preventable child and maternal deaths by the year 2030. METHODS: A database of 700 assessments of the effectiveness of CBPHC in improving maternal, neonatal and child health has been assembled, as described elsewhere in this series...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685041/comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence-regarding-the-effectiveness-of-community-based-primary-health-care-in-improving-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-3-neonatal-health-findings
#19
Emma Sacks, Paul A Freeman, Kwame Sakyi, Mary Carol Jennings, Bahie M Rassekh, Sundeep Gupta, Henry B Perry
BACKGROUND: As the number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age continues to decline globally through programs to address the health of older infants, neonatal mortality is becoming an increasingly large proportion of under-5 deaths. Lack of access to safe delivery care, emergency obstetric care and postnatal care continue to be challenges for reducing neonatal mortality. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) and common components of programs aiming to improve health during the first 28 days of life...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680072/-arman-archaea-depend-on-association-with-euryarchaeal-host-in-culture-and-in-situ
#20
Olga V Golyshina, Stepan V Toshchakov, Kira S Makarova, Sergey N Gavrilov, Aleksei A Korzhenkov, Violetta La Cono, Erika Arcadi, Taras Y Nechitaylo, Manuel Ferrer, Ilya V Kublanov, Yuri I Wolf, Michail M Yakimov, Peter N Golyshin
Intriguing, yet uncultured 'ARMAN'-like archaea are metabolically dependent on other members of the microbial community. It remains uncertain though which hosts they rely upon, and, because of the lack of complete genomes, to what extent. Here, we report the co-culturing of ARMAN-2-related organism, Mia14, with Cuniculiplasma divulgatum PM4 during the isolation of this strain from acidic streamer in Parys Mountain (Isle of Anglesey, UK). Mia14 is highly enriched in the binary culture (ca. 10% genomic reads) and its ungapped 0...
July 5, 2017: Nature Communications
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