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Ancestral state reconstruction

Mónica C Soliz, María Laura Ponssa, Virginia Abdala
The development of the tetrapod pectoral and pelvic girdles is intimately linked to the proximal segments of the fore- and hindlimbs. Most studies on girdles are osteological and provide little information about soft elements such as muscles and tendons. Moreover, there are few comparative developmental studies. Comparative data gleaned from cleared-and-stained whole mounts and serial histological sections of 10 species of hylid frogs are presented here. Adult skeletal morphology, along with bones, muscles, and connective tissue of both girdles and their association with the proximal portions of the anuran fore- and hindlimbs are described...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Kevin J Badik, Joshua P Jahner, Joseph S Wilson
Our goals were to explore the relationship between biogeography and the evolution of fire-adaptive syndromes in the genus Pinus . We used a previously published time-calibrated phylogeny and conducted ancestral trait reconstruction to estimate the likely timing of diversification in Pinus , and to determine when fire-adaptive syndromes evolved in the lineage. To explore trait conservation among fire syndromes and to investigate historical biogeography, we constructed ancestral state reconstructions using the program RASP and estimated the degree of conservatism for fire-adapted traits in the program BaTS...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Gregory W Stull, Melanie Schori, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Our current understanding of flowering plant phylogeny provides an excellent framework for exploring various aspects of character evolution through comparative analyses. However, attempts to synthesize this phylogenetic framework with extensive morphological data sets have been surprisingly rare. Here, we explore character evolution in Asteridae (asterids), a major angiosperm clade, using an extensive morphological data set and a well-resolved phylogeny. METHODS: We scored 15 phenotypic characters (spanning chemistry, vegetative anatomy, and floral, fruit, and seed features) across 248 species for ancestral state reconstruction using a phylogenetic framework based on 73 plastid genes and the same 248 species...
April 14, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Tyler N Starr, Julia M Flynn, Parul Mishra, Daniel N A Bolon, Joseph W Thornton
Interactions among mutations within a protein have the potential to make molecular evolution contingent and irreversible, but the extent to which epistasis actually shaped historical evolutionary trajectories is unclear. To address this question, we experimentally measured how the fitness effects of historical sequence substitutions changed during the billion-year evolutionary history of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) ATPase domain beginning from a deep eukaryotic ancestor to modern Saccharomyces cerevisiae We found a pervasive influence of epistasis...
April 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Morgan Churchill, Jonathan H Geisler, Brian L Beatty, Anjali Goswami
Odontocete (echolocating whale) skulls exhibit extreme posterior displacement and overlapping of facial bones, here referred to as retrograde cranial telescoping. To examine retrograde cranial telescoping across 40 million years of whale evolution, we collected 3D scans of whale skulls spanning odontocete evolution. We used a sliding semilandmark morphometric approach with Procrustes superimposition and PCA to capture and describe the morphological variation present in the facial region, followed by Ancestral Character State Reconstruction (ACSR) and evolutionary model fitting on significant components to determine how retrograde cranial telescoping evolved...
April 6, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Ricardo Assunção Vialle, Asif U Tamuri, Nick Goldman
Accurate reconstruction of ancestral states is a critical evolutionary analysis when studying ancient proteins and comparing biochemical properties between parental or extinct species and their extant relatives. It relies on multiple sequence alignment (MSA) which may introduce biases, and it remains unknown how MSA methodological approaches impact ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR). Here, we investigate how MSA methodology modulates ASR using a simulation study of various evolutionary scenarios. We evaluate the accuracy of ancestral protein sequence reconstruction for simulated data and compare reconstruction outcomes using different alignment methods...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Forrest D Freund, William A Freyman, Carl J Rothfels
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Inferring the evolution of characters in Isoëtes has been problematic, as these plants are morphologically conservative and yet highly variable and homoplasious within that conserved base morphology. However, molecular phylogenies have given us a valuable tool for testing hypotheses of character evolution within the genus, such as the hypothesis of ongoing morphological reductions. METHODS: We examined the reduction in lobe number on the underground trunk, or corm, by combining the most recent molecular phylogeny with morphological descriptions gathered from the literature and observations of living specimens...
March 24, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Weston Testo, Benjamin Øllgaard, Ashley Field, Thaís Almeida, Michael Kessler, David Barrington
The Neotropical clade of the lycophyte genus Phlegmariurus is comprised of an estimated 150 described species and exhibits exceptional morphological and ecological diversity. Because of their simple morphology, frequent convergent evolution, and the recentness of the group's diversification, the delimitation of species and species groups has remained challenging. Here, we present a robustly support phylogeny of Neotropical Phlegmariurus based on six chloroplast markers and ca. 70% of known species, and use ancestral character state reconstruction to investigate morphological evolution in the clade, and define natural species groups...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Jan H Nagel, Michael J Wingfield, Bernard Slippers
Little is known regarding mating strategies in the Botryosphaeriaceae. To understand sexual reproduction in this fungal family, the mating type genes of Botryosphaeria dothidea and Macrophomina phaseolina, as well as several species of Diplodia, Lasiodiplodia and Neofusicoccum were characterized from whole genome assemblies. Comparisons between the mating type loci of these fungi showed that the mating type genes are highly variable, but in most cases the organization of these genes is conserved. Of the species considered, nine were homothallic and seven were heterothallic...
March 9, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Christopher Monit, Richard A Goldstein
Summary: Existing ancestral sequence reconstruction techniques are ill-suited to investigating substitutions on a single branch of interest. We present SubRecon, an implementation of a hybrid technique integrating joint and marginal reconstruction for protein sequence data. SubRecon calculates the joint probability of states at adjacent internal nodes in a phylogeny, i.e. how the state has changed along a branch. This does not condition on states at other internal nodes and includes site rate variation...
February 28, 2018: Bioinformatics
M Mardones, T Trampe-Jaschik, S Oster, M Elliott, H Urbina, I Schmitt, M Piepenbring
The order Phyllachorales ( Pezizomycotina , Ascomycota ) is a group of biotrophic, obligate plant parasitic fungi with a tropical distribution and high host specificity. Traditionally two families are recognised within this order: Phyllachoraceae and Phaeochoraceae , based mostly on morphological and host characteristics. Currently, the position of the order within the class Sordariomycetes is inconclusive, as well as the monophyly of the order, and its internal phylogenetic structure. Here we present a phylogeny of the order Phyllachorales based on sequence data of 29 species with a broad host range resulting from a wide geographical sampling...
December 2017: Persoonia
Ivona Horká, Sammy De Grave, Charles H J M Fransen, Adam Petrusek, Zdeněk Ďuriš
Several species of palaemonid shrimps are known to act as fish-cleaning symbionts, with cleaning interactions ranging from dedicated (obligate) to facultative. We confirmed five evolutionarily independent origins of fish cleaning symbioses within the family Palaemonidae based on a phylogenetic analysis and the ancestral state reconstruction of 68 species, including 13 fish-cleaners from the genera Ancylomenes, Brachycarpus, Palaemon, Periclimenes, and Urocaridella. We focus in particular on two distantly related lineages of fish cleaning shrimps with allopatric distributions, the Indo-West Pacific Ancylomenes and the western Atlantic monophyletic Ancylomenes/Periclimenes group, which exhibit striking similarities in morphology, colouration and complex behaviour...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Moh A Alkhamis, Carmina Gallardo, Cristina Jurado, Alejandro Soler, Marisa Arias, José M Sánchez-Vizcaíno
African swine fever (ASF) is a complex infectious disease of swine that constitutes devastating impacts on animal health and the world economy. Here, we investigated the evolutionary epidemiology of ASF virus (ASFV) in Eurasia and Africa using the concatenated gene sequences of the viral protein 72 and the central variable region of isolates collected between 1960 and 2015. We used Bayesian phylodynamic models to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the virus, to identify virus population demographics and to quantify dispersal patterns between host species...
2018: PloS One
Marisol De-la-Mora, Daniel Piñero, Ken Oyama, Brian Farrell, Susana Magallón, Juan Núñez-Farfán
The family Curculionidae (Coleoptera), the "true" weevils, have diversified tightly linked to the evolution of flowering plants. Here, we aim to assess diversification at a lower taxonomic level. We analyze the evolution of the genus Trichobaris in association with their host plants. Trichobaris comprises eight to thirteen species; their larvae feed inside the fruits of Datura spp. or inside the stem of wild and cultivated species of Solanaceae, such as potato, tobacco and tomato. We ask the following questions: 1) does the rostrum of Trichobaris species evolve according to the plant tissue used to oviposit, i...
February 24, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Lina Herbst, Mareike Fischer
We examine a mathematical question concerning the reconstruction accuracy of the Fitch algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral sequence of the most recent common ancestor given a phylogenetic tree and sequence data for all taxa under consideration. In particular, for the symmetric four-state substitution model which is also known as Jukes-Cantor model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that for any ultrametric phylogenetic tree and a symmetric model, the Fitch parsimony method using all terminal taxa is more accurate, or at least as accurate, for ancestral state reconstruction than using any particular terminal taxon or any particular pair of taxa...
February 23, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Peter J Hundt, Andrew M Simons
The dentition of fishes can be quite striking and is often correlated with a specific diet. Combtooth blennies have long incisiform oral teeth, unlike most actinopterygians. It has been suggested that the long tooth morphology is an adaptation for detritivory, but given the diversity of diets (detritus, coral polyps, polychaetes, and pieces of other fishes), are blenny teeth indeed monomorphic? Or does tooth variation associated with diet still exist at this extreme? To explore tooth and diet diversification, we used a new phylogenetic hypothesis of Blenniidae, measured tooth shape, number, and mode of attachment, and quantified blenniid diet...
February 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Renato Caparroz, Amanda V Rocha, Gustavo S Cabanne, Pablo Tubaro, Alexandre Aleixo, Emily M Lemmon, Alan R Lemmon
At least four mitogenome arrangements occur in Passeriformes and differences among them are derived from an initial tandem duplication involving a segment containing the control region (CR), followed by loss or reduction of some parts of this segment. However, it is still unclear how often duplication events have occurred in this bird order. In this study, the mitogenomes from two species of Neotropical passerines (Sicalis olivascens and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris) with different gene arrangements were first determined...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Tingting Duan, Xiaofang Deng, Shi Chen, Zhonglai Luo, Zhongtao Zhao, TieYao Tu, Nguyen Sinh Khang, Sylvain G Razafimandimbison, Dianxiang Zhang
Dioecy is a rare sexual system that is thought to represent an "evolutionary dead end". While many studies have addressed the evolution of dioecy and/or its relationship with the evolution of the woody habit, few have explored the relationship between dioecy and climbing habit, and their effects on diversification rates. Here, we study the evolution of sexual systems and growth habit in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) using a robust phylogeny of the genus based on eight plastid regions and a broad sampling of taxa (92 of the 132 species were sampled)...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Pável Matos-Maraví, Ronald M Clouse, Eli M Sarnat, Evan P Economo, John S LaPolla, Michaela Borovanska, Christian Rabeling, Jesse Czekanski-Moir, Fransina Latumahina, Edward O Wilson, Milan Janda
The Malay Archipelago and the tropical South Pacific (hereafter the Indo-Pacific region) are considered biodiversity hotspots, yet a general understanding of the origins and diversification of species-rich groups in the region remains elusive. We aimed to test hypotheses for the evolutionary processes driving insect species diversity in the Indo-Pacific using a higher-level and comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for an ant clade consisting of seven genera. We estimated divergence times and reconstructed the biogeographical history of ant species in the Prenolepis genus-group (Formicidae: Formicinae: Lasiini)...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Luiz Henrique M Fonseca, Lúcia G Lohmann
Combining high-throughput sequencing data with amplicon sequences allows the reconstruction of robust phylogenies based on comprehensive sampling of characters and taxa. Here, we combine Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing data to infer the phylogeny of the "Adenocalymma-Neojobertia" clade (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae), a diverse lineage of Neotropical plants, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We used NGS to obtain complete or nearly-complete plastomes of members of this clade, leading to a final dataset with 54 individuals, representing 44 members of ingroup and 10 outgroups...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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