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Benjamin Laenen, Jairo Patiño, Anders Hagborg, Aurélie Désamoré, Jian Wang, A Jonathan Shaw, Bernard Goffinet, Alain Vanderpoorten
A latitudinal diversity gradient towards the tropics appears as one most recurrent patterns in ecology, but the mechanisms underlying this pattern remain an area of controversy. In angiosperms, the tropical conservatism hypothesis proposes that most groups originated in the tropics and are adapted to a tropical climatic regime, and that relatively few species have evolved physiological adaptations to cold, dry or unpredictable climates. This mechanism is, however, unlikely to apply across land plants, and in particular, to liverworts, a group of about 7500 species, whose ability to withstand cold much better than their tracheophyte counterparts is at odds with the tropical conservatism hypothesis...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ryota Konno, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yutaka Kodama
Numerous studies have used genome-editing modules such as CRISPR-Cas9 for site-directed mutagenesis; however, evaluation of the efficiency of these modules remains a time-consuming process. Here, we report the development of SKL-mediated Peroxisome Targeting Imaging (SKLPT imaging), an efficient in vivo pre-evaluation method based on the change in subcellular localization of a fluorescent protein. In this method, frameshifts resulting from successful editing cause the fusion of green fluorescent protein to the peroxisome localization signal Serine-Lysine-Leucine (SKL)...
June 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Benjamin Métoyer, Nicolas Lebouvier, Edouard Hnawia, Gaëtan Herbette, Louis Thouvenot, Yoshinori Asakawa, Mohammed Nour, Phila Raharivelomanana
Volatile components of seven species of the Bazzanioideae sub-family (Lepidoziaceae) native to New Caledonia, including three endemic species ( Bazzania marginata , Acromastigum caledonicum and A. tenax ), were analyzed by GC-FID-MS in order to index these plants to known or new chemotypes. Detected volatile constituents in studied species were constituted mainly by sesquiterpene, as well as diterpene compounds. All so-established compositions cannot successfully index some of them to known chemotypes but afforded the discovery of new chemotypes such as cuparane/fusicoccane...
June 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tajammul Hussain, Blue Plunkett, Mahwish Ejaz, Richard V Espley, Oliver Kayser
The liverwort Radula marginata belongs to the bryophyte division of land plants and is a prospective alternate source of cannabinoid-like compounds. However, mechanistic insights into the molecular pathways directing the synthesis of these cannabinoid-like compounds have been hindered due to the lack of genetic information. This prompted us to do deep sequencing, de novo assembly and annotation of R. marginata transcriptome, which resulted in the identification and validation of the genes for cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Takahiro Yamada, Hiromu Takiguchi, Ken Ohmori, Keisuke Suzuki
The total syntheses of pusilatins A (2), B (3), and C (5), macrocyclic bisbibenzyl dimers isolated from Japanese liverwort are reported. The common monomeric unit (6) was prepared via macrocyclization of an o-sulfinylfluorobenzene derivative by SN Ar attack of an internal phenol, which was exploited for site-selective dimerizations en route to 2, 3, and 5.
June 4, 2018: Organic Letters
Hiroyoshi Kubo, Shunsuke Nozawa, Takuma Hiwatashi, Youichi Kondou, Ryo Nakabayashi, Tetsuya Mori, Kazuki Saito, Kojiro Takanashi, Takayuki Kohchi, Kimitsune Ishizaki
R2R3-MYB transcription factors constitute the largest gene family among plant transcription factor families. They became largely divergent during the evolution of land plants and regulate various biological processes. The functions of R2R3-MYBs are mostly characterized in seed plants but are poorly understood in non-seed plants. Here, we examined the function of two R2R3-MYB genes of Marchantia polymorpha (Mapoly0073s0038 and Mapoly0006s0226) that are closely related to subgroup 4 of the R2R3-MYB family. We performed LC/MS/MS metabolomics, RNA-seq analysis and expression analysis in overexpressors and knockout mutants of MpMYB14 and MpMYB02...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Rafał Wawrzyniak, Wiesław Wasiak, Beata Jasiewicz, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk, Alina Bączkiewicz, Katarzyna Buczkowska
Chemical constituents of cryptic species detected within the liverwort Aneura pinguis were identified using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Fibre coating with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) was used. A total of 48 samples of A. pinguis were analysed. The studied plants were identified genetically based on barcode DNA sequences and represented three cryptic species (A, B and F) of A. pinguis. Cryptic species A and B are genetically diverse; both represent three evolutionary lineages: A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3, respectively...
May 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
James B Pease, Joseph W Brown, Joseph F Walker, Cody E Hinchliff, Stephen A Smith
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phylogenetic support has been difficult to evaluate within the green plant tree of life partly due to a lack of specificity between conflicted versus poorly informed branches. As data sets continue to expand in both breadth and depth, new support measures are needed that are more efficient and informative. METHODS: We describe the Quartet Sampling (QS) method, a quartet-based evaluation system that synthesizes several phylogenetic and genomic analytical approaches...
March 2018: American Journal of Botany
Matt von Konrat, Thomas Campbell, Ben Carter, Matthew Greif, Mike Bryson, Juan Larraín, Laura Trouille, Steve Cohen, Eve Gaus, Ayesha Qazi, Eric Ribbens, Tatyana Livshultz, Taylor J Walker, Tomomi Suwa, Taylor Peterson, Yarency Rodriguez, Caitlin Vaughn, Christina Yang, Selma Aburahmeh, Brian Carstensen, Peter de Lange, Charlie Delavoi, Kalman Strauss, Justyna Drag, Blanka Aguero, Chris Snyder, Joann Martinec, Arfon Smith
Premise of the Study: Biological collections are uniquely poised to inform the stewardship of life on Earth in a time of cataclysmic biodiversity loss. Efforts to fully leverage collections are impeded by a lack of trained taxonomists and a lack of interest and engagement by the public. We provide a model of a crowd-sourced data collection project that produces quality taxonomic data sets and empowers citizen scientists through real contributions to science. Entitled MicroPlants, the project is a collaboration between taxonomists, citizen science experts, and teachers and students from universities and K-12...
February 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
Xingyue Liu, Gongle Shi, Fangyuan Xia, Xiumei Lu, Bo Wang, Michael S Engel
Camouflage and mimicry are staples among predator-prey interactions, and evolutionary novelties in behavior, anatomy, and physiology that permit such mimesis are rife throughout the biological world [1, 2]. These specializations allow for prey to better evade capture or permit predators to more easily approach their prey, or in some cases, the mimesis can serve both purposes. Despite the importance of mimesis and camouflage in predator-avoidance or hunting strategies, the long-term history of these traits is often obscured by an insufficient fossil record...
May 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Mélanie Rich, Pierre-Marc Delaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: New Phytologist
Siwen Li, Huanmin Niu, Yanan Qiao, Rongxiu Zhu, Yong Sun, Zhaojie Ren, Huiqing Yuan, Yun Gao, Yi Li, Wang Chen, Jinchuan Zhou, Hongxiang Lou
Five new terpenoids (1-5) including two dollabellane-type, one ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids and two sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the Chinese liverwort Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dumort., together with nine known terpenoids (6-14). Their structures were determined on the basis of analysis of MS and NMR spectroscopic data, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism calculations. The selected compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, 9 and 14 were screened for anti-inflammatory activities by the model of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production with macrophage cells, and the mechanism of the active compounds 1 and 2 were further explored...
May 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Philip Carella, Anna Gogleva, Marta Tomaselli, Carolin Alfs, Sebastian Schornack
The expansion of plants onto land was a formative event that brought forth profound changes to the earth's geochemistry and biota. Filamentous eukaryotic microbes developed the ability to colonize plant tissues early during the evolution of land plants, as demonstrated by intimate, symbiosis-like associations in >400 million-year-old fossils. However, the degree to which filamentous microbes establish pathogenic interactions with early divergent land plants is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the broad host-range oomycete pathogen Phytophthora palmivora colonizes liverworts, the earliest divergent land plant lineage...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Matthew A Gitzendanner, Pamela S Soltis, Gane K-S Wong, Brad R Ruhfel, Douglas E Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: For the past one billion years, green plants (Viridiplantae) have dominated global ecosystems, yet many key branches in their evolutionary history remain poorly resolved. Using the largest analysis of Viridiplantae based on plastid genome sequences to date, we examined the phylogeny and implications for morphological evolution at key nodes. METHODS: We analyzed amino acid sequences from protein-coding genes from complete (or nearly complete) plastomes for 1879 taxa, including representatives across all major clades of Viridiplantae...
March 2018: American Journal of Botany
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes, Júlio César Moreira de Brito, Elisa Monteze Bicalho, Janaína Guernica Silva, Maria de Fátima Gomides, Queila Souza Garcia, Cleber Cunha Figueredo
The physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Ricciocarpus natans to ciprofloxacin (Cipro) exposure under different growth temperatures were investigated. Cipro appears to act as an inhibitor of mitochondrial Complex III by blocking the oxidation of quinol, resulting in the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). H2 O2 accumulation upon Cipro exposure is responsible for decreased photosynthesis in plants. The amount of H2 O2 in plants is kept under control by antioxidant enzymes, whose activities are central to the responses of plants to Cipro yet are influenced by temperature...
July 2018: Chemosphere
Yuxia Gao, Wenqiang Wang, Tian Zhang, Zhen Gong, Huayao Zhao, Guan-Zhu Han
During plant-pathogen interactions, plants use intracellular proteins with nucleotide-binding site and Leu-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) domains to detect pathogens. NBS-LRR proteins represent a major class of plant disease resistance genes ( R -genes). Whereas R -genes have been well characterized in angiosperms, little is known about their origin and early diversification. Here, we perform comprehensive evolutionary analyses of R -genes in plants and report the identification of R -genes in basal-branching streptophytes, including charophytes, liverworts, and mosses...
May 2018: Plant Physiology
Keigo Nakamura, Tetsuya Hisanaga, Koichi Fujimoto, Keiji Nakajima, Hirofumi Wada
The female sex organ of the liverwort ( Marchantia polymorpha ) has a characteristic parasol-like form highly suitable for collecting water droplets containing sperm for fertilization. Motivated by this observation and using three-dimensional printing techniques, we develop a parasol-like rigid object that can grab, transport and release water droplets of a maximum size of about 1 cm. By combining experiments and scaling theory, we quantify the object's fundamental wetting and fluid dynamical properties. We construct a stability phase diagram and suggest that it is largely insensitive to properties of liquids such as surface tension and viscosity...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Michael Song, Li-Yaung Kuo, Layne Huiet, Kathleen M Pryer, Carl J Rothfels, Fay-Wei Li
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Gene space in plant plastid genomes is well characterized and annotated, yet we discovered an unrecognized open reading frame (ORF) in the fern lineage that is conserved across flagellate plants. METHODS: We initially detected a putative uncharacterized ORF by the existence of a highly conserved region between rps16 and matK in a series of matK alignments of leptosporangiate ferns. We mined available plastid genomes for this ORF, which we now refer to as ycf94, to infer evolutionary selection pressures and assist in functional prediction...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Yi-Feng Wu, Yu Zhao, Xin-Yan Liu, Shuai Gao, Ai-Xia Cheng, Hong-Xiang Lou
Liverworts, a section of the bryophyte plants which pioneered the colonization of terrestrial habitats, produce cyclic bisbibenzyls as a secondary metabolite. These compounds are generated via the phenylpropanoid pathway, similar with flavonoid biosynthesis for which bHLH transcription factors have been identified as one of the improtant regulators in higher plants. Here, a bHLH homolog (PabHLH) was isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum and its contribution to bisbibenzyl biosynthesis was explored...
March 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mira Park, Hyun Park, Hyoungseok Lee, Byeong-Ha Lee, Jungeun Lee
Organellar genomes of bryophytes are poorly represented with chloroplast genomes of only four mosses, four liverworts and two hornworts having been sequenced and annotated. Moreover, while Antarctic vegetation is dominated by the bryophytes, there are few reports on the plastid genomes for the Antarctic bryophytes. Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske is one of the most dominant moss species in the maritime Antarctic. It has been researched as an important marker for ecological studies and as an extremophile plant for studies on stress tolerance...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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