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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502748/cytochrome-p450-diversity-in-the-tree-of-life
#1
David R Nelson
Sequencing in all areas of the tree of life has produced >300,000 cytochrome P450 (CYP) sequences that have been mined and collected. Nomenclature has been assigned to >41,000 CYP sequences and the majority of the remainder has been sorted by BLAST searches into clans, families and subfamilies in preparation for naming. The P450 sequence space is being systematically explored and filled in. Well-studied groups like vertebrates are covered in greater depth while new insights are being added into uncharted territories like horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), tardigrades (Hypsibius dujardini), velvet worm (Euperipatoides_rowelli), and basal land plants like hornworts, liverworts and mosses...
May 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481281/the-functional-characterization-of-a-site-specific-apigenin-4-o-methyltransferase-synthesized-by-the-liverwort-species-plagiochasma-appendiculatum
#2
Hui Liu, Rui-Xue Xu, Shuai Gao, Ai-Xia Cheng
Apigenin, a widely distributed flavone, exhibits excellent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. In addition, the methylation of apigenin is generally considered to result in better absorption and greatly increased bioavailability. Here, four putative Class II methyltransferase genes were identified from the transcriptome sequences generated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum. Each was heterologously expressed as a His-fusion protein in Escherichia coli and their methylation activity against apigenin was tested...
May 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446636/insights-into-the-evolution-of-hydroxyproline-rich-glycoproteins-from-1000-plant-transcriptomes
#3
Kim L Johnson, Andrew M Cassin, Andrew Lonsdale, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Doug Soltis, Nicholas W Miles, Michael Melkonian, Barbara Melkonian, Michael K Deyholos, James Leebens-Mack, Carl J Rothfels, Dennis W Stevenson, Sean W Graham, Xumin Wang, Shuangxiu Wu, J Chris Pires, Patrick P Edger, Eric J Carpenter, Antony Bacic, Monika Susanne Doblin, Carolyn J Schultz
The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs) and proline-rich proteins (PRPs)...
April 26, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439859/genome-wide-profiling-of-histone-modifications-and-histone-variants-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-marchantia-polymorpha
#4
Ramesh Yelagandula, Akihisa Osakabe, Elin Axelsson, Frederic Berger, Tomokazu Kawashima
Histone modifications and histone variants barcode the genome and play major roles in epigenetic regulations. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a well-established method to investigate the landscape of epigenetic marks at a genomic level. Here, we describe procedures for conducting ChIP, subsequent NGS library construction, and data analysis on histone modifications and histone variants in Arabidopsis thaliana. We also describe an optimized nuclear isolation procedure to prepare chromatin for ChIP in the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, which is the emerging model plant ideal for evolutionary studies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419460/land-plants-drive-photorespiration-as-higher-electron-sink-comparative-study-of-post-illumination-transient-o2-uptake-rates-from-liverworts-to-angiosperms-through-ferns-and-gymnosperms
#5
Hitomi Hanawa, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Kana Nohira, Daisuke Takagi, Ginga Shimakawa, Takehiro Sejima, Kei-Ichiro Shaku, Amane Makino, Chikahiro Miyake
In higher plants, the electron-sink capacity of photorespiration contributes to alleviation of photoinhibition by dissipating excess energy under conditions when photosynthesis is limited. We addressed the question at what point in the evolution of photosynthetic organisms photorespiration began to function as electron sink and replaced the flavodiiron proteins which catalyze the reduction of O2 at photosystem I in cyanobacteria. Algae do not have a higher activity of photorespiration when CO2 assimilation is limited, and it can therefore not act as an electron sink...
April 17, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409637/halogenated-compounds-from-directed-fermentation-of-penicillium-concentricum-an-endophytic-fungus-of-the-liverwort-trichocolea-tomentella
#6
Tehane Ali, Masanori Inagaki, Hee-Byung Chai, Thomas Wieboldt, Chad Rapplye, L Harinantenaina Rakotondraibe
One new chlorinated xanthone, 6-chloro-3,8-dihydroxy-1-methylxanthone (1), a new 2-bromo-gentisyl alcohol (2), and a mixture of 6-epimers of 6-dehydroxy-6-bromogabosine C (3a and 3b), together with 19 previously identified compounds, epoxydon (4), norlichexanthone (5), 2-chlorogentisyl alcohol (6), hydroxychlorogentisyl quinone (7), 6-dehydroxy-6α-chlorogabosine C (8a), 6-dehydroxy-6β-chlorogabosine C (8b), gentisyl alcohol (9), gentisyl quinone (10), (R,S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (11), dehydrodechlorogriseofulvin (12), dechlorogriseofulvin (13), dehydrogriseofulvin (14), griseofulvin (15), ethylene glycol benzoate (16), alternariol (17), griseoxanthone C (18), drimiopsin H (19), griseophenone C (20), and griseophenone B (21), were isolated from cultures of Penicillium concentricum, a fungal endophyte of the liverwort Trichocolea tomentella...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400439/liverworts-breathe-easy
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381710/search-for-novel-antibacterial-compounds-and-targets
#8
REVIEW
Teruo Kuroda, Wakano Ogawa
 Drug-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been spreading; however, the development of new antibacterial drugs has not progressed accordingly. Novel antibacterial drugs or their candidate seeds need to be developed for effective antibiotic therapy. Under these conditions, the search for novel compounds and novel targets is important. In Okayama University, as a part of the Drug Discovery for Intractable Infectious Diseases project, we are proceeding with the development of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360929/talen-mediated-genome-editing-approaches-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha-yield-high-efficiencies-for-targeted-mutagenesis
#9
Sarah Kopischke, Esther Schüßler, Felix Althoff, Sabine Zachgo
BACKGROUND: The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha occupies a crucial position in land plant evolution and provides the opportunity to investigate adaptations to a terrestrial plant life style. Marchantia reverse genetic analyses have thus far been conducted by employing a homologous recombination approach, which yields an efficiency of around 3%. Availability of the characterized and suitable endogenous MpEF1α promoter prompted us to establish the TALEN gene targeting technique for Marchantia...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360923/adaptation-mechanisms-in-the-evolution-of-moss-defenses-to-microbes
#10
REVIEW
Inés Ponce de León, Marcos Montesano
Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334099/sex-differences-and-plasticity-in-dehydration-tolerance-insight-from-a-tropical-liverwort
#11
Rose A Marks, James F Burton, D Nicholas McLetchie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295410/diversity-of-strategies-for-escaping-reactive-oxygen-species-production-within-photosystem-i-among-land-plants-p700-oxidation-system-is-prerequisite-for-alleviating-photoinhibition-in-photosystem-i
#12
Daisuke Takagi, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Hitomi Hanawa, Tomohito Mabuchi, Ginga Shimakawa, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Chikahiro Miyake
In land plants, photosystem I (PSI) photoinhibition limits carbon fixation and causes growth defects. In addition, recovery from PSI photoinhibition takes much longer than PSII photoinhibition when the PSI core-complex is degraded by oxidative damage. Accordingly, PSI photoinhibition should be avoided in land plants, and land plants should have evolved mechanisms to prevent PSI photoinhibition. However, such protection mechanisms have not yet been identified, and it remains unclear whether all land plants suffer from PSI photoinhibition in the same way...
March 10, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263997/total-flavonoid-concentrations-of-bryophytes-from-tianmu-mountain-zhejiang-province-china-phylogeny-and-ecological-factors
#13
Xin Wang, Jianguo Cao, Xiling Dai, Jianbo Xiao, Yuhuan Wu, Quanxi Wang
The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244104/early-evolution-of-the-land-plant-circadian-clock
#14
Anna-Malin Linde, D Magnus Eklund, Akane Kubota, Eric R A Pederson, Karl Holm, Niclas Gyllenstrand, Ryuichi Nishihama, Nils Cronberg, Tomoaki Muranaka, Tokitaka Oyama, Takayuki Kohchi, Ulf Lagercrantz
While angiosperm clocks can be described as an intricate network of interlocked transcriptional feedback loops, clocks of green algae have been modelled as a loop of only two genes. To investigate the transition from a simple clock in algae to a complex one in angiosperms, we performed an inventory of circadian clock genes in bryophytes and charophytes. Additionally, we performed functional characterization of putative core clock genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the hornwort Anthoceros agrestis...
February 28, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223991/the-comparison-of-expressed-candidate-secreted-proteins-from-two-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-unravels-common-and-specific-molecular-tools-to-invade-different-host-plants
#15
Laurent Kamel, Nianwu Tang, Mathilde Malbreil, Hélène San Clemente, Morgane Le Marquer, Christophe Roux, Nicolas Frei Dit Frey
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), belonging to the fungal phylum Glomeromycota, form mutualistic symbioses with roots of almost 80% of land plants. The release of genomic data from the ubiquitous AMF Rhizophagus irregularis revealed that this species possesses a large set of putative secreted proteins (RiSPs) that could be of major importance for establishing the symbiosis. In the present study, we aimed to identify SPs involved in the establishment of AM symbiosis based on comparative gene expression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219451/quantitative-morphological-analysis-of-2d-images-of-complex-shaped-branching-biological-growth-forms-the-example-of-branching-thalli-of-liverworts
#16
Pirom Konglerd, Catherine Reeb, Fredrik Jansson, Jaap A Kaandorp
BACKGROUND: Many organisms such as plants can be characterized as complex-shaped branching forms. The morphological quantification of the forms is a support for a number of areas such as the effects of environmental factors and species discrimination. To date, there is no software package suitable for our dataset representing the forms. We therefore formulate methods for extracting morphological measurements from images of the forms. RESULTS: As a case study we analyze two-dimensional images of samples from four groups belonging to three species of thalloid liverworts, genus Riccardia...
February 20, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197715/vacuolar-ion-channels-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha-influence-of-ion-channel-inhibitors
#17
Mateusz Koselski, Kazimierz Trebacz, Halina Dziubinska
Potassium-permeable slow activating vacuolar channels (SV) and chloride-permeable channels in the vacuole of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha were characterized in respect to calcium dependence, selectivity, and pharmacology. The patch-clamp method was used in the study of ion channel activity in the vacuoles from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The whole-vacuole recordings allowed simultaneous observation of two types of currents-predominant slow activated currents recorded at positive voltages and fast activated currents recorded at negative voltages...
May 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174248/mpwip-regulates-air-pore-complex-development-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#18
Victor A S Jones, Liam Dolan
The colonisation of the land by plants was accompanied by the evolution of complex tissues and multicellular structures comprising different cell types as morphological adaptations to the terrestrial environment. Here, we show that the single WIP protein in the early-diverging land plant Marchantia polymorpha L. is required for the development of the multicellular gas exchange structure: the air pore complex. This 16-cell barrel-shaped structure surrounds an opening between epidermal cells that facilitates the exchange of gases between the chamber containing the photosynthetic cells inside the plant and the air outside...
April 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162041/n-hexanal-and-z-3-hexenal-are-generated-from-arachidonic-acid-and-linolenic-acid-by-a-lipoxygenase-in-marchantia-polymorpha-l
#19
Moataz M Tawfik, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Takayuki Kohchi, Takao Koeduka, Kenji Matsui
Most terrestrial plants form green leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are mainly composed of six-carbon (C6) compounds. In our effort to study the distribution of the ability of lipoxygenase (LOX) to form GLVs, we found that a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, formed n-hexanal and (Z)-3-hexenal. Some LOXs execute a secondary reaction to form short chain volatiles. One of the LOXs from M. polymorpha (MpLOX7) oxygenized arachidonic and α-linolenic acids at almost equivalent efficiency and formed C6-aldehydes during its catalysis; these are likely formed from hydroperoxides of arachidonic and α-linolenic acids, with a cleavage of the bond between carbon at the base of the hydroperoxy group and carbon of double bond, which is energetically unfavorable...
June 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160212/phthalides-distribution-in-nature-chemical-reactivity-synthesis-and-biological-activity
#20
Alejandra León, Mayela Del-Ángel, José Luis Ávila, Guillermo Delgado
Phthalides are a relatively small group of natural compounds confined to several plant families and some genera of fungi and liverworts. They are divided into two structural groups, the monomeric and dimeric phthalides, and known mainly as bioactive constituents of different plant species used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Asia, Europe, and North America.The first reports on the chemistry of phthalides appeared at the end of the nineteenth century, in which they were identified as the odor constituents of the essential oil of celery (Apium graveolens) by Ciamician and Silber (1897)...
2017: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products
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