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Mark N Puttick, Jennifer L Morris, Tom A Williams, Cymon J Cox, Dianne Edwards, Paul Kenrick, Silvia Pressel, Charles H Wellman, Harald Schneider, Davide Pisani, Philip C J Donoghue
The evolutionary emergence of land plant body plans transformed the planet. However, our understanding of this formative episode is mired in the uncertainty associated with the phylogenetic relationships among bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, and mosses) and tracheophytes (vascular plants). Here we attempt to clarify this problem by analyzing a large transcriptomic dataset with models that allow for compositional heterogeneity between sites. Zygnematophyceae is resolved as sister to land plants, but we obtain several distinct relationships between bryophytes and tracheophytes...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Hanqing Guo, Nu Wang, Tami R McDonald, Anke Reinders, John M Ward
Plant ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh superfamily have only been previously characterized in flowering plants (angiosperms). Plant AMT1s are electrogenic, while plant AMT2s are electroneutral and MEP and Rh transporters in other organisms are electroneutral. We analyzed the transport function of MpAMT1;2 from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha, a liverwort. MpAMT1;2 was shown to localize to the plasma membrane in Marchantia gametophyte thallus by stable transformation using a C-terminal citrine fusion...
February 12, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Naoki Minamino, Takehiko Kanazawa, Atsuko Era, Kazuo Ebine, Akihiko Nakano, Takashi Ueda
The RAB GTPase is an evolutionarily conserved machinery component of membrane trafficking, which is the fundamental system for cell viability and higher-order biological functions. The composition of RAB GTPases in each organism is closely related to the complexity and organization of the membrane-trafficking pathway, which has been developed uniquely to realize the organism-specific membrane trafficking system. Comparative genomics has suggested that terrestrialization and/or multicellularization were associated with the expansion of membrane trafficking pathways in green plants, which has yet to be validated in basal land plant lineages...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hai-Na Yu, Xin-Yan Liu, Shuai Gao, Bin Sun, Hong-Bo Zheng, Mei Ji, Ai-Xia Cheng, Hong-Xiang Lou
Chalcone synthases (CHSs) of the type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), catalyze the formation of a tetraketide intermediate from a CoA-tethered starter and malonyl-CoA but use different cyclization mechanisms to produce distinct chemical scaffolds. Herein, we characterized CHS and CHS-like enzymes (designated MpCHS and MpCHSL1, 2 and 3) from Marchantia paleacea and determined the crystal structure of MpCHSL1. MpCHS catalyzed a Claisen condensation to form chalcone, while MpCHSLs catalyzed the formation of lactonized α-pyrones in vitro...
January 31, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jessica M Nelson, Duncan A Hauser, Rosemary Hinson, A Jonathan Shaw
Fungal symbioses are ubiquitous in plants, but their effects have mostly been studied in seed plants. This study aimed to assess the diversity of fungal endophyte effects in a bryophyte and identify factors contributing to the variability of outcomes in these interactions. Fungal endophyte cultures and axenic liverwort clones were isolated from wild populations of the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. These collections were combined in a gnotobiotic system to test the effects of fungal isolates on the growth rates of hosts under laboratory conditions...
February 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Shohei Yamaoka, Ryuichi Nishihama, Yoshihiro Yoshitake, Sakiko Ishida, Keisuke Inoue, Misaki Saito, Keitaro Okahashi, Haonan Bao, Hiroyuki Nishida, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Takayuki Kohchi
Land plants differentiate germ cells in the haploid gametophyte. In flowering plants, a generative cell is specified as a precursor that subsequently divides into two sperm cells in the developing male gametophyte, pollen. Generative cell specification requires cell-cycle control and microtubule-dependent nuclear relocation (reviewed in [1-3]). However, the generative cell fate determinant and its evolutionary origin are still unknown. In bryophytes, gametophytes produce eggs and sperm in multicellular reproductive organs called archegonia and antheridia, respectively, or collectively called gametangia...
January 17, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Zongwei Yue, Xinhua Xiao, Jinbao Wu, Xiaozhou Zhou, Weilong Liu, Yaxi Liu, Houhua Li, Guoqiang Chen, Yingli Wu, Xiaoguang Lei
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy that is characterized by clonal proliferation of myeloid blasts. Despite the progress that has been made in the treatment of various malignant hematopoietic diseases, the effective treatment of AML remains very challenging. Differentiation therapy has emerged as a promising approach for leukemia treatment, and new and effective chemical agents to trigger the differentiation of AML cells, especially drug-resistant cells, are urgently required. Herein, the natural product jungermannenone C, a tetracyclic diterpenoid isolated from liverworts, is reported to induce cell differentiation in AML cells...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Marc W Schmid, Alejandro Giraldo-Fonseca, Moritz Rövekamp, Dmitry Smetanin, John L Bowman, Ueli Grossniklaus
BACKGROUND: In plants, the existence and possible role of epigenetic reprogramming has been questioned because of the occurrence of stably inherited epialleles. Evidence suggests that epigenetic reprogramming does occur during land plant reproduction, but there is little consensus on the generality and extent of epigenetic reprogramming in plants. We studied DNA methylation dynamics during the life cycle of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. We isolated thalli and meristems from male and female gametophytes, archegonia, antherozoids, as well as sporophytes at early and late developmental stages, and compared their DNA methylation profiles...
January 25, 2018: Genome Biology
Nick W Albert, Amali H Thrimawithana, Tony K McGhie, William A Clayton, Simon C Deroles, Kathy E Schwinn, John L Bowman, Brian R Jordan, Kevin M Davies
The flavonoid pathway is hypothesized to have evolved during land colonization by plants c. 450 Myr ago for protection against abiotic stresses. In angiosperms, R2R3MYB transcription factors are key for environmental regulation of flavonoid production. However, angiosperm R2R3MYB gene families are larger than those of basal plants, and it is not known whether the regulatory system is conserved across land plants. We examined whether R2R3MYBs regulate the flavonoid pathway in liverworts, one of the earliest diverging land plant lineages...
January 24, 2018: New Phytologist
Tiina A Salminen, D Magnus Eklund, Valentin Joly, Kristina Blomqvist, Daniel P Matton, Johan Edqvist
When plants conquered land, they developed specialized organs, tissues, and cells in order to survive in this new and harsh terrestrial environment. New cell polymers such as the hydrophobic lipid-based polyesters cutin, suberin, and sporopollenin were also developed for protection against water loss, radiation, and other potentially harmful abiotic factors. Cutin and waxes are the main components of the cuticle, which is the waterproof layer covering the epidermis of many aerial organs of land plants. Although the in vivo functions of the group of lipid binding proteins known as lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are still rather unclear, there is accumulating evidence suggesting a role for LTPs in the transfer and deposition of monomers required for cuticle assembly...
January 15, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Sha Zheng, Wenqiang Chang, Ming Zhang, Hongzhuo Shi, Hongxiang Lou
This study aimed to characterize the antifungal effects of chiloscyphenol A (CA), a natural small molecule isolated from Chinese liverworts, and investigate its mode of action. CA was effective against five tested Candida species with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8-32 μg/ml and exhibited fungicidal activity against Candida albicans in both the planktonic state and mature biofilms. The in vivo study using Caenorhabditis elegans showed that CA prolonged the survival of C. albicans infected worms...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jill Kowal, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G Duckett, Martin I Bidartondo, Katie J Field
Background and Aims: The rhizoids of leafy liverworts (Jungermanniales, Marchantiophyta) are commonly colonized by the ascomycete fungus Pezoloma ericae. These associations are hypothesized to be functionally analogous to the ericoid mycorrhizas (ErMs) formed by P. ericae with the roots of Ericaceae plants in terms of bi-directional phosphorus for carbon exchange; however, this remains unproven. Here, we test whether associations between the leafy liverwort Cephalozia bicuspidata and P...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
Ángela Ares, Misao Itouga, Yukari Kato, Hitoshi Sakakibara
In this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation, tissue distribution and physiological responses to different metal concentration (0.2 and 2 mM) and time of exposure of 1, 2 and 3 weeks with cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) using the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Our data showed, on one hand, a significant enrichment and tissue translocation of Cu, Zn, and specially Cd, reaching concentrations of 1800 µg g- 1 in 3 weeks. On the other hand, Pb exhibited the lowest concentration values (50 µg g- 1), and 90% of the total concentration in the rhizoids...
December 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Daniel Lang, Kristian K Ullrich, Florent Murat, Jörg Fuchs, Jerry Jenkins, Fabian B Haas, Mathieu Piednoel, Heidrun Gundlach, Michiel Van Bel, Rabea Meyberg, Cristina Vives, Jordi Morata, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Manuel Hiss, Wellington Muchero, Yasuko Kamisugi, Omar Saleh, Guillaume Blanc, Eva L Decker, Nico van Gessel, Jane Grimwood, Richard D Hayes, Sean W Graham, Lee E Gunter, Stuart McDaniel, Sebastian N W Hoernstein, Anders Larsson, Fay-Wei Li, Pierre-Francois Perroud, Jeremy Phillips, Priya Ranjan, Daniel S Rokshar, Carl J Rothfels, Lucas Schneider, Shengqiang Shu, Dennis W Stevenson, Fritz Thümmler, Michael Tillich, Juan Carlos Villarreal A, Thomas Widiez, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Ann Wymore, Yong Zhang, Andreas D Zimmer, Ralph S Quatrano, Klaus F X Mayer, David Goodstein, Josep M Casacuberta, Klaas Vandepoele, Ralf Reski, Andrew C Cuming, Jerry Tuskan, Florian Maumus, Jérome Salse, Jeremy Schmutz, Stefan A Rensing
The draft genome of the moss model, Physcomitrella patens, comprised approximately 2,000 unordered scaffolds. In order to enable analyses of genome structure and evolution we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly using genetic linkage as well as (end) sequencing of long DNA fragments. We find that 57% of the genome comprises transposable elements (TEs), some of which may be actively transposing during the life cycle. Unlike in flowering plant genomes, gene- and TE-rich regions show an overall even distribution along the chromosomes...
December 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Xiao Wang, Lin Li, Rongxiu Zhu, Jiaozhen Zhang, Jinchuan Zhou, Hongxiang Lou
Six new pairs of bibenzyl-based meroterpenoid enantiomers, (±)-rasumatranin A-D (1-4) and (±)-radulanin M and N (5 and 6), and six known compounds were isolated from the adnascent Chinese liverwort, Radula sumatrana. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data and chiral phase HPLC-ECD analyses. The structures of 1 and 7 were also confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Cytotoxicity tests of the isolated compounds showed that 6-hydroxy-3-methyl-8-phenylethylbenzo[b]oxepin-5-one (8) showed activity against the human cancer cell lines MCF-7, PC-3, and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 3...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Alina Bączkiewicz, Monika Szczecińska, Jakub Sawicki, Adam Stebel, Katarzyna Buczkowska
Aneura pinguis is a thalloid liverwort species with broad geographical distribution. It is composed of cryptic species, however, the number of cryptic species within A. pinguis is not known. Five cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, rpoC1, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) and the entire nuclear ITS region were studied in 130 samples of A. pinguis from different geographical regions. The relationships between the cryptic species of A. pinguis, A. maxima and A. mirabilis were analyzed. All of the examined samples were clustered into 10 clades corresponding to 10 cryptic species of A...
2017: PloS One
Yuta Fujii, Yutaka Kodama
Chloroplasts alter their subcellular positions in response to ambient light and temperature conditions. This well-characterized light-induced response, which was first described nearly 100 years ago, is regulated by the blue-light photoreceptor, phototropin. By contrast, the molecular mechanism of low temperature-induced chloroplast relocation (i.e., the cold-avoidance response) was unexplored until its discovery in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris in 2008. Because this response is also regulated by phototropin, it was thought to occur in a blue light-dependent manner...
December 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Philip Carella, Sebastian Schornack
The colonization of plant tissues by pathogenic and symbiotic microbes is associated with a strong and directed effort to reprogram host cells in order to permit, promote, and sustain microbial growth. In response to colonization, hosts accommodate or sequester invading microbes by activating a set of complex regulatory programs that initiate symbioses or bolster defenses. Extensive research has elucidated a suite of molecular and physiological responses occurring in plant hosts and their microbial partners, however this information is mostly limited to model systems representing evolutionary young plant lineages such as angiosperms...
November 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shean-Yeaw Ng, Takashi Kamada, Monica Suleiman, Charles Santhanaraju Vairappan
The Bornean liverwort Gottschelia schizopleura was investigated phytochemically for the first time. Two new and four previously known clerodane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the MeOH extract of G. schizopleura through a series of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the new metabolites were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data (1D NMR, 2D NMR, HRESIMS and IR). All the isolated compounds 1-6 were tested against human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and Mus musculus skin melanoma (B16-F10)...
November 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
Andrew F Galloway, Martin J Pedersen, Beverley Merry, Susan E Marcus, Joshua Blacker, Liane G Benning, Katie J Field, J Paul Knox
Soil is a crucial component of the biosphere and is a major sink for organic carbon. Plant roots are known to release a wide range of carbon-based compounds into soils, including polysaccharides, but the functions of these are not known in detail. Using a monoclonal antibody to plant cell wall xyloglucan, we show that this polysaccharide is secreted by a wide range of angiosperm roots, and relatively abundantly by grasses. It is also released from the rhizoids of liverworts, the earliest diverging lineage of land plants...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
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