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Adriana Basile, Sergio Sorbo, Marco Lentini, Barbara Conte, Sergio Esposito
The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily contaminated Sarno River (Campania, South Italy), using Pellia neesiana (Pelliaceae Metzgeriales) in order to propose this liverwort as a potential bioindicator, able to record the effects of water pollution, particularly the one related to metal (loid) contamination. Samples of P. neesiana in nylon bags were disposed floating for one week on the waters of Sarno River in three sites characterised by an increasing pollution...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Eftychios Frangedakis, Denis Saint-Marcoux, Laura A Moody, Ester Rabbinowitsch, Jane A Langdale
Class I KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX) proteins regulate development of the multicellular diploid sporophyte in both mosses and flowering plants; however, the morphological context in which they function differs. In order to determine how Class I KNOX function was modified as land plants evolved, phylogenetic analyses and cross-species complementation assays were performed. Our data reveal that a duplication within the charophyte sister group to land plants led to distinct Class I and Class II KNOX gene families...
November 25, 2016: New Phytologist
Nayoung Lee, Giltsu Choi
Phytochromes are red and far-red light photoreceptors that regulate the responses of plants to light throughout their life cycles. Phytochromes do this in part by inhibiting the function of a group of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors called phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs). Arabidopsis has eight PIFs that function sometimes redundantly and sometimes distinctively depending on their expression patterns and protein stability, as well as on variations in the promoters they target in vivo. PIF-like proteins exist in other seed plants and non-vascular plants where they also regulate light responses...
November 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Suvi Honkanen, Victor A S Jones, Giulia Morieri, Clement Champion, Alexander J Hetherington, Steve Kelly, Hélène Proust, Denis Saint-Marcoux, Helen Prescott, Liam Dolan
To discover mechanisms that controlled the growth of the rooting system in the earliest land plants, we identified genes that control the development of rhizoids in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. 336,000 T-DNA transformed lines were screened for mutants with defects in rhizoid growth, and a de novo genome assembly was generated to identify the mutant genes. We report the identification of 33 genes required for rhizoid growth, of which 6 had not previously been functionally characterized in green plants...
November 11, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Noriyuki Suetsugu, Takeshi Higa, Masamitsu Wada
Light-induced chloroplast movement is found in most plant species, including algae and land plants. In land plants with multiple small chloroplasts, under weak light conditions, the chloroplasts move towards the light and accumulate on the periclinal cell walls to efficiently perceive light for photosynthesis (the accumulation response). Under strong light conditions, chloroplasts escape from light to avoid photodamage (the avoidance response). In most plant species, blue light induces chloroplast movement and phototropin receptor kinases are the blue light receptors...
November 17, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jing Yan Tang, Jing Ma, Xue Dong Li, Yan Hong Li
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the bacteria associated with the bryophytes showed that there were abundant bacteria inhabited in/on these hosts. However, the type of bacteria and whether these discriminate between different bryophytes based on a particular factor remains largely unknown. RESULTS: This study was designed to analyze the biodiversity and community of the bacteria associated with ten liverworts and ten mosses using Illumina-sequencing techniques based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene...
November 16, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Anton Liaimer, John B Jensen, Elke Dittmann
Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shuai Gao, Hai-Na Yu, Yi-Feng Wu, Xin-Yan Liu, Ai-Xia Cheng, Hong-Xiang Lou
Some commercially important vinyl derivatives are produced by the decarboxylation of phenolic acids. Enzymatically, this process can be achieved by phenolic acid decarboxylases (PADs), which are able to act on phenolic acid substrates such as ferulic and p-coumaric acid. Although many microbial PADs have been characterized, little is known regarding their plant homologs. Transcriptome sequencing in the liverworts has identified seven putative PADs, which share a measure of sequence identity with microbial PADs, but are typically much longer proteins...
November 1, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yume Imada, Makoto Kato
Dipteran larval morphology exhibits overwhelming variety, affected by their diverse feeding habits and habitat use. In particular, larval mouthpart morphology is associated with feeding behavior, providing key taxonomic traits. Despite most larval Brachycera being carnivorous, a basal brachyceran family, Rhagionidae, contains bryophyte-feeding taxa with multiple feeding habits. To elucidate the life history, biology, and morphological evolution of the bryophyte-feeding rhagionids, the larval feeding behavior and morphology, and the adult oviposition behavior of four species belonging to three genera of Spaniinae (Spania Meigen, Litoleptis Chillcott and Ptiolina Zetterstedt) are described...
2016: PloS One
Qidong Jia, Guanglin Li, Tobias G Köllner, Jianyu Fu, Xinlu Chen, Wangdan Xiong, Barbara J Crandall-Stotler, John L Bowman, David J Weston, Yong Zhang, Li Chen, Yinlong Xie, Fay-Wei Li, Carl J Rothfels, Anders Larsson, Sean W Graham, Dennis W Stevenson, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Jonathan Gershenzon, Feng Chen
The vast abundance of terpene natural products in nature is due to enzymes known as terpene synthases (TPSs) that convert acyclic prenyl diphosphate precursors into a multitude of cyclic and acyclic carbon skeletons. Yet the evolution of TPSs is not well understood at higher levels of classification. Microbial TPSs from bacteria and fungi are only distantly related to typical plant TPSs, whereas genes similar to microbial TPS genes have been recently identified in the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii The goal of this study was to investigate the distribution, evolution, and biochemical functions of microbial terpene synthase-like (MTPSL) genes in other plants...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Benjamin E Carter, Juan Larraín, Alžběta Manukjanová, Blanka Shaw, A Jonathan Shaw, Jochen Heinrichs, Peter de Lange, Monica Suleiman, Louis Thouvenot, Matt von Konrat
Frullania subgenus Microfrullania is a clade of ca. 15 liverwort species occurring in Australasia, Malesia, and southern South America. We used combined nuclear and chloroplast sequence data from 265 ingroup accessions to test species circumscriptions and estimate the biogeographic history of the subgenus. With dense infra-specific sampling, we document an important role of long-distance dispersal in establishing phylogeographic patterns of extant species. At deeper time scales, a combination of phylogenetic analyses, divergence time estimation and ancestral range estimation were used to reject vicariance and to document the role of long-distance dispersal in explaining the evolution and biogeography of the clade across the southern Hemisphere...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Lumír Ondřej Hanuš, Stefan Martin Meyer, Eduardo Muñoz, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Giovanni Appendino
Covering up to January 2016Cannabis sativa L. is a prolific, but not exclusive, producer of a diverse group of isoprenylated resorcinyl polyketides collectively known as phytocannabinoids. The modular nature of the pathways that merge into the phytocannabinoid chemotype translates in differences in the nature of the resorcinyl side-chain and the degree of oligomerization of the isoprenyl residue, making the definition of phytocannabinoid elusive from a structural standpoint. A biogenetic definition is therefore proposed, splitting the phytocannabinoid chemotype into an alkyl- and a β-aralklyl version, and discussing the relationships between phytocannabinoids from different sources (higher plants, liverworts, fungi)...
October 10, 2016: Natural Product Reports
Shun Kimura, Yutaka Kodama
The subcellular positioning of chloroplasts can be changed by alterations in the environment such as light and temperature. For example, in leaf mesophyll cells, chloroplasts localize along anticlinal cell walls under high-intensity light, and along periclinal cell walls under low-intensity light. These types of positioning responses are involved in photosynthetic optimization. In light-mediated chloroplast positioning responses, chloroplasts move to the appropriate positions in an actin-dependent manner, although some exceptions also depend on microtubule...
2016: PeerJ
Jairo Patiño, Jian Wang, Matt A M Renner, S Robbert Gradstein, Benjamin Laenen, Nicolas Devos, A Jonathan Shaw, Alain Vanderpoorten
Why some species exhibit larger geographical ranges than others, and to what extent does variation in range size affect diversification rates, remains a fundamental, but largely unanswered question in ecology and evolution. Here, we implement phylogenetic comparative analyses and ancestral area estimations in Radula, a liverwort genus of Cretaceous origin, to investigate the mechanisms that explain differences in geographical range size and diversification rates among lineages. Range size was phylogenetically constrained in the two sub-genera characterized by their almost complete Australasian and Neotropical endemicity, respectively...
September 21, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Santosh Kumar, Chase Kempinski, Xun Zhuang, Ayla Norris, Sibongile Mafu, Jiachen Zi, Stephen A Bell, Stephen Eric Nybo, Scott E Kinison, Zuodong Jiang, Sheba Goklany, Kristin B Linscott, Xinlu Chen, Qidong Jia, Shoshana D Brown, John L Bowman, Patricia C Babbitt, Reuben J Peters, Feng Chen, Joe Chappell
Marchantia polymorpha is a basal terrestrial land plant, which like most liverworts accumulates structurally diverse terpenes believed to serve in deterring disease and herbivory. Previous studies have suggested that the mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways, present in evolutionarily diverged plants, are also operative in liverworts. However, the genes and enzymes responsible for the chemical diversity of terpenes have yet to be described. In this study, we resorted to a HMMER search tool to identify 17 putative terpene synthase genes from M...
October 2016: Plant Cell
Marcela Rosato, Aleš Kovařík, Ricardo Garilleti, Josep A Rosselló
Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown...
2016: PloS One
Sergio Galindo-Trigo, Julie E Gray, Lisa M Smith
Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are regulators of plant development through allowing cells to sense their extracellular environment. They facilitate detection of local endogenous signals, in addition to external biotic and abiotic stimuli. The Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L) protein kinase subfamily, which contains FERONIA, plays a central role in regulating fertilization and in cell expansion mechanisms such as cell elongation and tip growth, as well as having indirect links to plant-pathogen interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Noriyuki Suetsugu, Atsushi Takemiya, Sam-Geun Kong, Takeshi Higa, Aino Komatsu, Ken-Ichiro Shimazaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Masamitsu Wada
In green plants, the blue light receptor kinase phototropin mediates various photomovements and developmental responses, such as phototropism, chloroplast photorelocation movements (accumulation and avoidance), stomatal opening, and leaf flattening, which facilitate photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, two phototropins (phot1 and phot2) redundantly mediate these responses. Two phototropin-interacting proteins, NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3) and ROOT PHOTOTROPISM 2 (RPT2), which belong to the NPH3/RPT2-like (NRL) family of BTB (broad complex, tramtrack, and bric à brac) domain proteins, mediate phototropism and leaf flattening...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
James Smith, Yiwen Yang, Shahar Levy, Oluwatoyin Oluwayemi Adelusi, Michael G Hahn, Malcolm A O'Neill, Maor Bar-Peled
Apiose is a branched monosaccharide that is present in the cell wall pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan and in numerous plant secondary metabolites. These apiose-containing glycans are synthesized using UDP-apiose as the donor. UDP-apiose (UDP-Api) together with UDP-xylose is formed from UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) by UDP-Api synthase (UAS). It was hypothesized that the ability to form Api distinguishes vascular plants from the avascular plants and green algae. UAS from several dicotyledonous plants has been characterized; however, it is not known if avascular plants or green algae produce this enzyme...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Li-Gen Lin, Carolina Oi Lam Ung, Zhe-Ling Feng, Li Huang, Hao Hu
Diterpenoid dimers are rare in nature and mainly found in higher plants including the families Acanthaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Calceolariaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Meliaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Taxaceae, Velloziaceae, and Zingiberaceae. In addition, a few diterpenoid dimers have been also reported from fungi (Psathyrellaceae), liverworts (Scapaniaceae), and a gorgonian (Gorgoniidae). They feature a wide variety of structures due to different core skeletons, linkage patterns, substituents, and configurations...
October 2016: Planta Medica
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