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Benjamin E Carter, Juan Larraín, Alžběta Manukjanová, Blanka Shaw, A Jonathan Shaw, Jochen Heinrichs, Peter de Lange, Monica Suleiman, Louis Thouvenot, Matt von Konrat
Frullania subgenus Microfrullania is a clade of ca. 15 liverwort species occurring in Australasia, Malesia, and southern South America. We used combined nuclear and chloroplast sequence data from 265 ingroup accessions to test species circumscriptions and estimate the biogeographic history of the subgenus. With dense infra-specific sampling, we document an important role of long-distance dispersal in establishing phylogeographic patterns of extant species. At deeper time scales, a combination of phylogenetic analyses, divergence time estimation and ancestral range estimation were used to reject vicariance and to document the role of long-distance dispersal in explaining the evolution and biogeography of the clade across the southern Hemisphere...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Lumír Ondřej Hanuš, Stefan Martin Meyer, Eduardo Muñoz, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Giovanni Appendino
Covering up to January 2016Cannabis sativa L. is a prolific, but not exclusive, producer of a diverse group of isoprenylated resorcinyl polyketides collectively known as phytocannabinoids. The modular nature of the pathways that merge into the phytocannabinoid chemotype translates in differences in the nature of the resorcinyl side-chain and the degree of oligomerization of the isoprenyl residue, making the definition of phytocannabinoid elusive from a structural standpoint. A biogenetic definition is therefore proposed, splitting the phytocannabinoid chemotype into an alkyl- and a β-aralklyl version, and discussing the relationships between phytocannabinoids from different sources (higher plants, liverworts, fungi)...
October 10, 2016: Natural Product Reports
Shun Kimura, Yutaka Kodama
The subcellular positioning of chloroplasts can be changed by alterations in the environment such as light and temperature. For example, in leaf mesophyll cells, chloroplasts localize along anticlinal cell walls under high-intensity light, and along periclinal cell walls under low-intensity light. These types of positioning responses are involved in photosynthetic optimization. In light-mediated chloroplast positioning responses, chloroplasts move to the appropriate positions in an actin-dependent manner, although some exceptions also depend on microtubule...
2016: PeerJ
Jairo Patiño, Jian Wang, Matt A M Renner, S Robbert Gradstein, Benjamin Laenen, Nicolas Devos, A Jonathan Shaw, Alain Vanderpoorten
Why some species exhibit larger geographical ranges than others, and to what extent does variation in range size affect diversification rates, remains a fundamental, but largely unanswered question in ecology and evolution. Here, we implement phylogenetic comparative analyses and ancestral area estimations in Radula, a liverwort genus of Cretaceous origin, to investigate the mechanisms that explain differences in geographical range size and diversification rates among lineages. Range size was phylogenetically constrained in the two sub-genera characterized by their almost complete Australasian and Neotropical endemicity, respectively...
September 21, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Santosh Kumar, Chase Kempinski, Xun Zhuang, Ayla Norris, Sibongile Mafu, Jiachen Zi, Stephen A Bell, S Eric Nybo, Scott E Kinison, Zuodong Jiang, Sheba Goklany, Kristin B Linscott, Xinlu Chen, Qidong Jia, Shoshana D Brown, John L Bowman, Patricia C Babbitt, Reuben J Peters, Feng Chen, Joe Chappell
Marchantia polymorpha is a basal terrestrial land plant, which like most liverworts accumulates structurally diverse terpenes believed to serve in deterring disease and herbivory. Previous studies have suggested that the mevalonate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways, present in evolutionarily diverged plants, are also operative in liverworts. However, the genes and enzymes responsible for the chemical diversity of terpenes have yet to be described. In the current study, we resorted to a HMMER search tool to identify 17 putative terpene synthase genes from M...
September 20, 2016: Plant Cell
Marcela Rosato, Aleš Kovařík, Ricardo Garilleti, Josep A Rosselló
Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown...
2016: PloS One
Sergio Galindo-Trigo, Julie E Gray, Lisa M Smith
Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are regulators of plant development through allowing cells to sense their extracellular environment. They facilitate detection of local endogenous signals, in addition to external biotic and abiotic stimuli. The Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L) protein kinase subfamily, which contains FERONIA, plays a central role in regulating fertilization and in cell expansion mechanisms such as cell elongation and tip growth, as well as having indirect links to plant-pathogen interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Noriyuki Suetsugu, Atsushi Takemiya, Sam-Geun Kong, Takeshi Higa, Aino Komatsu, Ken-Ichiro Shimazaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Masamitsu Wada
In green plants, the blue light receptor kinase phototropin mediates various photomovements and developmental responses, such as phototropism, chloroplast photorelocation movements (accumulation and avoidance), stomatal opening, and leaf flattening, which facilitate photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, two phototropins (phot1 and phot2) redundantly mediate these responses. Two phototropin-interacting proteins, NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3) and ROOT PHOTOTROPISM 2 (RPT2), which belong to the NPH3/RPT2-like (NRL) family of BTB (broad complex, tramtrack, and bric à brac) domain proteins, mediate phototropism and leaf flattening...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
James Smith, Yiwen Yang, Shahar Levy, Oluwatoyin Oluwayemi Adelusi, Michael G Hahn, Malcolm A O'Neill, Maor Bar-Peled
Apiose is a branched monosaccharide that is present in the cell wall pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) and apiogalacturonan (ApiGalA) and in numerous plant secondary metabolites. These apiose-containing glycans are synthesized using UDP-apiose as the donor. UDP-apiose (UDP-Api) together with UDP-xylose is formed from UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) by UDP-Api synthase (UAS). It was hypothesized that the ability to form Api distinguishes vascular plants from the avascular plants and green algae...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Li-Gen Lin, Carolina Oi Lam Ung, Zhe-Ling Feng, Li Huang, Hao Hu
Diterpenoid dimers are rare in nature and mainly found in higher plants including the families Acanthaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Calceolariaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Meliaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Taxaceae, Velloziaceae, and Zingiberaceae. In addition, a few diterpenoid dimers have been also reported from fungi (Psathyrellaceae), liverworts (Scapaniaceae), and a gorgonian (Gorgoniidae). They feature a wide variety of structures due to different core skeletons, linkage patterns, substituents, and configurations...
October 2016: Planta Medica
Arcady Mushegian, Alexey Shipunov, Santiago F Elena
BACKGROUND: The known plant viruses mostly infect angiosperm hosts and have RNA or small DNA genomes. The only other lineage of green plants with a relatively well-studied virome, unicellular chlorophyte algae, is mostly infected by viruses with large DNA genomes. Thus RNA viruses and small DNA viruses seem to completely displace large DNA virus genomes in late branching angiosperms. To understand better the expansion of RNA viruses in the taxonomic span between algae and angiosperms, we analyzed the transcriptomes of 66 non-angiosperm plants characterized by the 1000 Plants Genomes Project...
2016: BMC Biology
Jinchuan Zhou, Jiaozhen Zhang, Ruijuan Li, Jun Liu, Peihong Fan, Yi Li, Mei Ji, Yiwen Dong, Huiqing Yuan, Hongxiang Lou
Many exceptional labdane-type diterpenoids have been exclusively found in liverworts, which serve as taxonomic molecules or play important ecological roles in interactions among organisms. Three unprecedented labdane-type diterpenoids hapmnioides A (1), B (2), and C (3) formed through cascade rearrangement from the Chinese liverwort Haplomitrium mnioides are reported. Their structures were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis coupled with single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their anti-inflammatory activities were also preliminarily tested...
September 2, 2016: Organic Letters
Rui-Juan Li, Song Wang, Gang Li, Jin-Chuan Zhou, Jiao-Zhen Zhang, You-Ming Zhang, Guo-Sheng Shi, Hong-Xiang Lou
In our continuing program to find new bioactive compounds from the Chinese liverworts, four new kaurane-type diterpenoids, 6β,9α-dihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (1), 6β,9α,12β-trihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (2), 5α,6β,9α-trihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (3), and 9α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-ol (4), have been isolated from the Chinese liverwort Jungermannia comata Nees. Five known kaurane-type diterpenoids (5-9) and four known trachylobane-type diterpenoids (10-13) were also obtained. The structures of the new compounds were established unequivocally on the basis of spectroscopic data...
July 23, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Daniel E Stanton, Catherine Reeb
Morphometric analysis of organisms has undergone a dramatic renaissance in recent years, embracing a range of novel computational and imaging techniques to provide new approaches to phenotypic characterization. These innovations have often developed piece-meal, and may reflect the taxonomic specializations and biases of their creators. In this review, we aim to provide a brief introduction to applications and applicability of modern morphometrics to non-vascular land plants, an often overlooked but evolutionarily and ecologically important group...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
M Tanaka, T Esaki, H Kenmoku, T Koeduka, Y Kiyoyama, T Masujima, Y Asakawa, K Matsui
Liverworts are a rich source of a diverse array of specialized metabolites, such as terpenoids and benzenoids, which are potentially useful for pharmaceutical or agrochemical applications, and also provide clues to elucidate the strategy by which liverworts adapt to the terrestrial environment. Liverworts, belonging to orders Marchantiales and Jungermanniales, possess oil bodies. In Marchantia polymorpha L., oil bodies are confined to scattered idioblastic oil body cells. It has been assumed that the specialized metabolites in M...
October 2016: Phytochemistry
Leonor C Boavida, Jörg D Becker
The genetic regulation of cell patterning within plant gametophytes remains poorly understood. Now, two new studies in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha shed light on the conserved function of an RKD transcription factor as a key regulator of egg cell fate in the land plant lineage.
July 11, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Yume Imada
Here we report the larval phytophagous habit of Litoleptis for the first time, and describe six new species of Litoleptis in Japan; L. japonica n. sp., L. kiiensis n. sp., L. niyodoensis n. sp., L. himukaensis n. sp., L. izuensis n. sp., and L. asterellaphile n. sp. All the species described here are thallus-miners of liverworts belonging to Aytoniaceae and Conocephalaceae (Marchantiopsida: Marchantiophyta). Each fly species mined thalli of only one of the following genera: Conocephalum, Reboulia, and Asterella...
2016: Zootaxa
Pradeep Yerramsetty, Matt Stata, Rebecca Siford, Tammy L Sage, Rowan F Sage, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Victor A Albert, James O Berry
BACKGROUND: RLSB, an S-1 domain RNA binding protein of Arabidopsis, selectively binds rbcL mRNA and co-localizes with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) within chloroplasts of C3 and C4 plants. Previous studies using both Arabidopsis (C3) and maize (C4) suggest RLSB homologs are post-transcriptional regulators of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA. While RLSB accumulates in all Arabidopsis leaf chlorenchyma cells, in C4 leaves RLSB-like proteins accumulate only within Rubisco-containing bundle sheath chloroplasts of Kranz-type species, and only within central compartment chloroplasts in the single cell C4 plant Bienertia...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Moritz Rövekamp, John L Bowman, Ueli Grossniklaus
Unlike in animals, the life cycle of land plants alternates between two multicellular generations, the haploid gametophyte and the diploid sporophyte [1]. Gamete differentiation initiates the transition from the gametophyte to the sporophyte generation and, upon maturation, the egg cell establishes a quiescent state that is maintained until fertilization. This quiescence represents a hallmark of the gametophyte-sporophyte transition. The underlying molecular mechanisms are complex and best characterized in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana [2-4]...
July 11, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Satoshi Koi, Tetsuya Hisanaga, Katsutoshi Sato, Masaki Shimamura, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Keiji Nakajima
In contrast to animals, in which the germ cell lineage is established during embryogenesis, plant germ cells are generated in reproductive organs via reprogramming of somatic cells. The factors that control germ cell differentiation and reprogramming in plants are poorly understood. Members of the RKD subfamily of plant-specific RWP-RK transcription factors have been implicated in egg cell formation in Arabidopsis based on their expression patterns and ability to cause an egg-like transcriptome upon ectopic expression [1]; however, genetic evidence of their involvement is lacking, due to possible genetic redundancy, haploid lethality, and the technical difficulty of analyzing egg cell differentiation in angiosperms...
July 11, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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