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Xiao Wang, Lin Li, Rongxiu Zhu, Jiaozhen Zhang, Jinchuan Zhou, Hongxiang Lou
Six new pairs of bibenzyl-based meroterpenoid enantiomers, (±)-rasumatranin A-D (1-4) and (±)-radulanin M and N (5 and 6), and six known compounds were isolated from the adnascent Chinese liverwort, Radula sumatrana. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data and chiral phase HPLC-ECD analyses. The structures of 1 and 7 were also confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Cytotoxicity tests of the isolated compounds showed that 6-hydroxy-3-methyl-8-phenylethylbenzo[b]oxepin-5-one (8) showed activity against the human cancer cell lines MCF-7, PC-3, and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 3...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Alina Bączkiewicz, Monika Szczecińska, Jakub Sawicki, Adam Stebel, Katarzyna Buczkowska
Aneura pinguis is a thalloid liverwort species with broad geographical distribution. It is composed of cryptic species, however, the number of cryptic species within A. pinguis is not known. Five cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, rpoC1, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) and the entire nuclear ITS region were studied in 130 samples of A. pinguis from different geographical regions. The relationships between the cryptic species of A. pinguis, A. maxima and A. mirabilis were analyzed. All of the examined samples were clustered into 10 clades corresponding to 10 cryptic species of A...
2017: PloS One
Yuta Fujii, Yutaka Kodama
Chloroplasts alter their subcellular positions in response to ambient light and temperature conditions. This well-characterized light-induced response, which was first described nearly 100 years ago, is regulated by the blue-light photoreceptor, phototropin. By contrast, the molecular mechanism of low temperature-induced chloroplast relocation (i.e., the cold-avoidance response) was unexplored until its discovery in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris in 2008. Because this response is also regulated by phototropin, it was thought to occur in a blue light-dependent manner...
December 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Philip Carella, Sebastian Schornack
The colonization of plant tissues by pathogenic and symbiotic microbes is associated with a strong and directed effort to reprogram host cells in order to permit, promote, and sustain microbial growth. In response to colonization, hosts accommodate or sequester invading microbes by activating a set of complex regulatory programs that initiate symbioses or bolster defenses. Extensive research has elucidated a suite of molecular and physiological responses occurring in plant hosts and their microbial partners, however this information is mostly limited to model systems representing evolutionary young plant lineages such as angiosperms...
November 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shean-Yeaw Ng, Takashi Kamada, Monica Suleiman, Charles Santhanaraju Vairappan
The Bornean liverwort Gottschelia schizopleura was investigated phytochemically for the first time. Two new and four previously known clerodane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the MeOH extract of G. schizopleura through a series of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the new metabolites were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data (1D NMR, 2D NMR, HRESIMS and IR). All the isolated compounds 1-6 were tested against human promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and Mus musculus skin melanoma (B16-F10)...
November 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
Andrew F Galloway, Martin J Pedersen, Beverley Merry, Susan E Marcus, Joshua Blacker, Liane G Benning, Katie J Field, J Paul Knox
Soil is a crucial component of the biosphere and is a major sink for organic carbon. Plant roots are known to release a wide range of carbon-based compounds into soils, including polysaccharides, but the functions of these are not known in detail. Using a monoclonal antibody to plant cell wall xyloglucan, we show that this polysaccharide is secreted by a wide range of angiosperm roots, and relatively abundantly by grasses. It is also released from the rhizoids of liverworts, the earliest diverging lineage of land plants...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
Ai-Xia Cheng, Xuebin Zhang, Xiao-Juan Han, Yu-Ying Zhang, Shuai Gao, Chang-Jun Liu, Hong-Xiang Lou
Flavonoids ubiquitously distribute to the terrestrial plants and chalcone isomerase (CHI)-catalyzed intramolecular and stereospecific cyclization of chalcones is a committed step in the production of flavonoids. However, so far the bona fide CHIs are found only in vascular plants, and their origin and evolution remains elusive. We conducted transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence search, subsequent phylogenetic analysis, and detailed biochemical and genetic characterization to explore the potential existence of CHI proteins in the basal bryophyte liverwort species and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii...
October 30, 2017: New Phytologist
Marta Ramírez, Norma Kamiya, Susana Popich, Yoshinori Asakawa, Alicia Bardón
Three new compounds, a bicyclogermacrene (1) and two 2,3-secoaromadendrane esters (2 and 3), together with (13S)-13-hydroxy-8,14-labdadiene (4), fusicogigantone B (5), 3α, 14-diacetoxy-2-hydoxybicyclogermacrene (6), fusicogigantone A (7), neofuranoplagiochilal (8), plagiochiline B (9), furanoplagiochilal (10), trans-nerolidol, spathulenol, α-tocopherol and (+) globulol were isolated from an Argentine collection of Plagiochila diversifolia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive mono and bidimensional NMR studies...
October 10, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Yoshinori Asakawa, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk
Comparatively little attention has been paid to the bryophytes for use in the human diet or medicine in spite of the presence of 23 000 species globally. Several hundred new compounds have been isolated from the liverworts (Marchantiophyta), and more than 40 new carbon skeletons of terpenoids and aromatic compounds were found. Most of the liverworts studied elaborate characteristic odiferous, pungent, and bitter-tasting compounds, of which many show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergic contact dermatitis, cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-HIV, plant growth regulatory, neurotrophic, NO production and superoxide anion radical release inhibitory, muscle relaxing, antiobesity, piscicidal, and nematocidal activities...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Hirotaka Kato, Masaru Kouno, Mayuko Takeda, Hidemasa Suzuki, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Ryuichi Nishihama, Takayuki Kohchi
Cell division patterning is important to determine body shape in plants. Nuclear auxin signaling mediated by AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors affects plant growth and development through regulation of cell division, elongation and differentiation. The evolutionary origin of the ARF-mediated pathway dates back to at least the common ancestor of bryophytes and other land plants. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has three phylogenetically distinct ARFs: MpARF1, the sole 'activator' ARF; and MpARF2 and MpARF3, two 'repressor' ARFs...
July 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
John L Bowman, Takayuki Kohchi, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Jerry Jenkins, Shengqiang Shu, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Shohei Yamaoka, Ryuichi Nishihama, Yasukazu Nakamura, Frédéric Berger, Catherine Adam, Shiori Sugamata Aki, Felix Althoff, Takashi Araki, Mario A Arteaga-Vazquez, Sureshkumar Balasubrmanian, Kerrie Barry, Diane Bauer, Christian R Boehm, Liam Briginshaw, Juan Caballero-Perez, Bruno Catarino, Feng Chen, Shota Chiyoda, Mansi Chovatia, Kevin M Davies, Mihails Delmans, Taku Demura, Tom Dierschke, Liam Dolan, Ana E Dorantes-Acosta, D Magnus Eklund, Stevie N Florent, Eduardo Flores-Sandoval, Asao Fujiyama, Hideya Fukuzawa, Bence Galik, Daniel Grimanelli, Jane Grimwood, Ueli Grossniklaus, Takahiro Hamada, Jim Haseloff, Alexander J Hetherington, Asuka Higo, Yuki Hirakawa, Hope N Hundley, Yoko Ikeda, Keisuke Inoue, Shin-Ichiro Inoue, Sakiko Ishida, Qidong Jia, Mitsuru Kakita, Takehiko Kanazawa, Yosuke Kawai, Tomokazu Kawashima, Megan Kennedy, Keita Kinose, Toshinori Kinoshita, Yuji Kohara, Eri Koide, Kenji Komatsu, Sarah Kopischke, Minoru Kubo, Junko Kyozuka, Ulf Lagercrantz, Shih-Shun Lin, Erika Lindquist, Anna M Lipzen, Chia-Wei Lu, Efraín De Luna, Robert A Martienssen, Naoki Minamino, Masaharu Mizutani, Miya Mizutani, Nobuyoshi Mochizuki, Isabel Monte, Rebecca Mosher, Hideki Nagasaki, Hirofumi Nakagami, Satoshi Naramoto, Kazuhiko Nishitani, Misato Ohtani, Takashi Okamoto, Masaki Okumura, Jeremy Phillips, Bernardo Pollak, Anke Reinders, Moritz Rövekamp, Ryosuke Sano, Shinichiro Sawa, Marc W Schmid, Makoto Shirakawa, Roberto Solano, Alexander Spunde, Noriyuki Suetsugu, Sumio Sugano, Akifumi Sugiyama, Rui Sun, Yutaka Suzuki, Mizuki Takenaka, Daisuke Takezawa, Hirokazu Tomogane, Masayuki Tsuzuki, Takashi Ueda, Masaaki Umeda, John M Ward, Yuichiro Watanabe, Kazufumi Yazaki, Ryusuke Yokoyama, Yoshihiro Yoshitake, Izumi Yotsui, Sabine Zachgo, Jeremy Schmutz
The evolution of land flora transformed the terrestrial environment. Land plants evolved from an ancestral charophycean alga from which they inherited developmental, biochemical, and cell biological attributes. Additional biochemical and physiological adaptations to land, and a life cycle with an alternation between multicellular haploid and diploid generations that facilitated efficient dispersal of desiccation tolerant spores, evolved in the ancestral land plant. We analyzed the genome of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a member of a basal land plant lineage...
October 5, 2017: Cell
Charles F Delwiche, Charles A Goodman, Caren Chang
The genome of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha is an important step toward development of a new plant model system (Bowman et al., 2017). Liverworts may be the sister taxon to all other land plants, and the genome shows features that illuminate the ancestor of all land plants and give insights into how plant systems function and evolved.
October 5, 2017: Cell
Tengfei Xu, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Phytochromes are red/far-red light receptors in plants involved in the regulation of growth and development in response to changes in the ambient environment. An important mode of action of plant phytochromes depends on their light-regulated relocation from the cytosol into the nucleus and control of gene expression; in addition, there is also evidence for a cytosolic or plasma membrane associated function of phytochromes in different species. The PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) form a subgroup of the bHLH transcription factors and it is well established that PIFs are key components of phytochrome downstream signalling in the nucleus of seed plants...
October 6, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Siwen Li, Hongzhuo Shi, Wenqiang Chang, Yi Li, Ming Zhang, Yanan Qiao, Hongxiang Lou
We isolated twelve sesquiterpenes from Chinese liverwort Tritomaria quinquedentata (Huds.) Buch., including four new compounds. Among them, five eudesmane sesquiterpenes were ineffective against Candida albicans wild strain SC5314 but active towards efflux pumps-deficient strain DSY654 using Alamar blue assay. Further test of the most active agent of ent-isoalantolactone (8, ent-iLL) showed that it also inhibited the yeast-to-hyphal switch of DSY654 cells. The intracellular content measurement using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that ent-iLL was intracellularly accumulated in C...
September 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Gonzalo Soriano, Catherine Cloix, Monika Heilmann, Encarnación Núñez-Olivera, Javier Martínez-Abaigar, Gareth I Jenkins
The ultraviolet-B (UV-B) photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) mediates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B in Arabidopsis through differential gene expression, but little is known about UVR8 in other species. Bryophyte lineages were the earliest diverging embryophytes, thus being the first plants facing the UV-B regime typical of land. We therefore examined whether liverwort and moss species have functional UVR8 proteins and whether they are regulated similarly to Arabidopsis UVR8. We examined the expression, dimer/monomer status, cellular localisation and function of Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens UVR8 in experiments with bryophyte tissue and expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-UVR8 fusions in Nicotiana leaves and transgenic Arabidopsis...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
Frances C Sussmilch, Nadia M Atallah, Timothy J Brodribb, Jo Ann Banks, Scott A M McAdam
Homologs of the Arabidopsis core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling component OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) are best known for their role in closing stomata in angiosperm species. We recently characterized a fern OST1 homolog, GAMETOPHYTES ABA INSENSITIVE ON ANTHERDIOGEN 1 (GAIA1), which is not required for stomatal closure in ferns, consistent with physiologic evidence that shows the stomata of these plants respond passively to changes in leaf water status. Instead, gaia1 mutants reveal a critical role in ABA signaling for spore dormancy and sex determination, in a system regulated by antagonism between ABA and the gibberellin (GA)-derived fern hormone antheridiogen (ACE)...
September 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Daniel H Norris, Ekaphan Kraichak, Allen C Risk, Diane Lucas, Dorothy J Allard, Frida Rosengren, Theresa A Clark, Nicole Fenton, Michael Tessler, Nonkululo Phephu, Evelyne T Lennette
BACKGROUND: A survey of the understory bryophytes in the Nectandra Cloud Forest Preserve yielded 1083 specimens distributed among 55 families, represented by 74 genera of mosses, 75 genera of liverworts and 3 of hornworts. We studied and analyzed the bryophytic distribution on six types of substrates: 1) corticolous, 2) epiphyllous, 3) saxicolous, 4) terricolous, 5) aquatic and 6) lignicolous. The richness and composition of bryophyte genera are compared to those of other previous bryophyte surveys from 4 other sites with different oceanic exposures, climatic and geographic conditions in Costa Rica...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
Shuichi Shimmura, Mikio Nozoe, Shota Kitora, Satoko Kin, Shigeru Matsutani, Yoko Ishizaki, Yoichi Nakahira, Takashi Shiina
The transcription of photosynthesis genes encoded by the plastid genome is mainly mediated by a prokaryotic-type RNA polymerase called plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP). Standard PEP-dependent promoters resemble bacterial sigma-70-type promoters containing the so-called -10 and -35 elements. On the other hand, an unusual light- and stress-responsive promoter (psbD LRP) that is regulated by a 19-bp AAG-box immediately upstream of the -35 element has been mapped upstream of the psbD-psbC operon in some angiosperms...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ulrich Kutschera, Karl J Niklas
Experimental work has shown that Boron (i.e., Boric acid, B) is an essential and multifunctional microelement for vascular plant development. In addition to its other functions, which include xylem development and lignin biosynthesis, we now know that B is involved in phytohormone-signaling and influences the mechanical properties of intercellular pectins. From these data, we conclude that B played an important role during the evolutionary development of lignified tissues, and that it may have been involved in the evolution of vascular plant roots, as hypothesized by D...
July 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nagisa Nagaoka, Akihiro Yamashita, Rina Kurisu, Yuta Watari, Fumiko Ishizuna, Nobuhissro Tsutsumi, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Shin-Ichi Arimura
Mitochondria increase in number by the fission of existing mitochondria. Mitochondrial fission is needed to provide mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four kinds of genes have been reported to be involved in mitochondrial fission. Two of them, DRP3 (dynamin-related protein3) and FIS1 (FISSION1), are well conserved in eukaryotes. The other two are plant-specific ELM1 (elongated mitochondria1) and PMD (peroxisomal and mitochondrial division). To better understand the commonality and diversity of mitochondrial fission factors in land plants, we examined mitochondrial fission-related genes in a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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