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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735405/profiling-abscisic-acid-induced-changes-in-fatty-acid-composition-in-mosses
#1
Suhas Shinde, Shivakumar Devaiah, Aruna Kilaru
In plants, change in lipid composition is a common response to various abiotic stresses. Lipid constituents of bryophytes are of particular interest as they differ from that of flowering plants. Unlike higher plants, mosses have high content of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Such lipids are considered to be important for survival of nonvascular plants. Here, using abscisic acid (ABA )-induced changes in lipid composition in Physcomitrella patens as an example, a protocol for total lipid extraction and quantification by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) is described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695681/bi-directional-cos-exchange-in-bryophytes-challenges-its-use-as-a-tracer-for-gross-primary-productivity
#2
Georg Wohlfahrt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676660/drp3-and-elm1-are-required-for-mitochondrial-fission-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#3
Nagisa Nagaoka, Akihiro Yamashita, Rina Kurisu, Yuta Watari, Fumiko Ishizuna, Nobuhissro Tsutsumi, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Shin-Ichi Arimura
Mitochondria increase in number by the fission of existing mitochondria. Mitochondrial fission is needed to provide mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four kinds of genes have been reported to be involved in mitochondrial fission. Two of them, DRP3 (dynamin-related protein3) and FIS1 (FISSION1), are well conserved in eukaryotes. The other two are plant-specific ELM1 (elongated mitochondria1) and PMD (peroxisomal and mitochondrial division). To better understand the commonality and diversity of mitochondrial fission factors in land plants, we examined mitochondrial fission-related genes in a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666381/the-evolution-of-hydrophobic-cell-wall-biopolymers-from-algae-to-angiosperms
#4
Karl J Niklas, Edward D Cobb, Antonio J Matas
The transition from an aquatic ancestral condition to a terrestrial environment exposed the first land plants to the desiccating effects of air and potentially large fluctuations in temperature and light intensity. To be successful, this transition necessitated metabolic, physiological, and morphological modifications, among which one of the most important was the capacity to synthesize hydrophobic extracellular biopolymers such as those found in the cuticular membrane, suberin, lignin, and sporopollenin, which collectively reduce the loss of water, provide barriers to pathogens, protect against harmful levels of UV radiation, and rigidify targeted cell walls...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645261/genome-wide-analysis-of-udp-glycosyltransferase-super-family-in-brassica-rapa-and-brassica-oleracea-reveals-its-evolutionary-history-and-functional-characterization
#5
Jingyin Yu, Fan Hu, Komivi Dossa, Zhaokai Wang, Tao Ke
BACKGROUND: Glycosyltransferases comprise a highly divergent and polyphyletic multigene family that is involved in widespread modification of plant secondary metabolites in a process called glycosylation. According to conserved domains identified in their amino acid sequences, these glycosyltransferases can be classified into a single UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) 1 superfamily. RESULTS: We performed genome-wide comparative analysis of UGT genes to trace evolutionary history in algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and angiosperms; then, we further investigated the expansion mechanisms and function characterization of UGT gene families in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604835/correction-total-flavonoid-concentrations-of-bryophytes-from-tianmu-mountain-zhejiang-province-china-phylogeny-and-ecological-factors
#6
Xin Wang, Jianguo Cao, Xiling Dai, Jianbo Xiao, Yuhuan Wu, Quanxi Wang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173003.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603535/stand-structure-and-substrate-diversity-as-two-major-drivers-for-bryophyte-distribution-in-a-temperate-montane-ecosystem
#7
Yun Chen, Shuai Niu, Peikun Li, Hongru Jia, Hailiang Wang, Yongzhong Ye, Zhiliang Yuan
Elucidating the major drivers of bryophyte distribution is the first step to protecting bryophyte diversity. Topography, forest, substrates (ground, tree trunks, roots, rocks, and rotten wood), and spatial factor, which factors are the major drivers of bryophyte distribution? In this study, 53 plots were set in 400 m(2) along the elevation gradient in Xiaoqinling, China. All bryophytes in the plots were collected and identified. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between bryophyte and substrate diversity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587992/the-isolation-and-functional-characterization-of-three-liverwort-genes-encoding-cinnamate-4-hydroxylase
#8
Xin-Yan Liu, Hai-Na Yu, Shuai Gao, Yi-Feng Wu, Ai-Xia Cheng, Hong-Xiang Lou
The plant phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the synthesis of a wide variety of secondary metabolites. The second step in phenylpropanoid synthesis is carried out by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzyme cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), which catalyzes the p-hydroxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumarate. Genes encoding C4H have been characterized in many vascular plant species, but as yet not in any bryophyte species. Here, a survey of the transcriptome sequences of four liverwort species was able to identify eight putative C4Hs...
May 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572458/the-dnaj-like-zinc-finger-protein-hcf222-is-required-for-thylakoid-membrane-biogenesis-in-plants
#9
Stephanie Hartings, Susanne Paradies, Bianca Karnuth, Sabrina Eisfeld, Jasmin Mehsing, Christian Wolff, Tatjana Levey, Peter Westhoff, Karin Meierhoff
To understand the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane in higher plants and to identify auxiliary proteins required to build up this highly complex membrane system, we have characterized the allelic nuclear mutants high chlorophyll fluorescence222-1 (hcf222-1) and hcf222-2 and isolated the causal gene by map-based cloning. In the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant hcf222-1, the accumulation of the cytochrome b6f (Cytb6f) complex was reduced to 30% compared with the wild type. Other thylakoid membrane complexes accumulated to normal levels...
July 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527144/the-effects-of-experimentally-supplied-lead-nitrate-on-three-common-mediterranean-moss-species
#10
Jennifer Cogolludo, Belén Estébanez, Nagore G Medina
We assess here, through an experimental simulation using lead nitrate, the response to lead deposition of three common Mediterranean bryophyte species in the family Pottiaceae. Five concentrations of lead nitrate (from 0 to 10(-3) M) were sprayed for 4 months on plants belonging to Tortula muralis (reported as toxitolerant), Syntrichia ruralis (medium-tolerant), and Tortula subulata (less tolerant). The three species showed a remarkably high tolerance to lead nitrate, with a low incidence of damage even at concentrations as high as 10(-4) M...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505373/gene-duplication-leads-to-altered-membrane-topology-of-a-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-in-seed-plants
#11
Hugues Renault, Minttu De Marothy, Gabriella Jonasson, Patricia Lara, David R Nelson, IngMarie Nilsson, François André, Gunnar von Heijne, Danièle Werck-Reichhart
Evolution of the phenolic metabolism was critical for the transition of plants from water to land. A cytochrome P450, CYP73, with cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activity, catalyzes the first plant-specific and rate-limiting step in this pathway. The CYP73 gene is absent from green algae, and first detected in bryophytes. A CYP73 duplication occurred in the ancestor of seed plants and was retained in Taxaceae and most angiosperms. In spite of a clear divergence in primary sequence, both paralogs can fulfill comparable cinnamate hydroxylase roles both in vitro and in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491120/microscopy-of-physcomitrella-patens-sperm-cells
#12
Nelly A Horst, Ralf Reski
BACKGROUND: Archegoniates (bryophytes, ferns and gymnosperms), such as the moss Physcomitrella patens, possess freely motile sperm cells (spermatozoids) which reach the egg cell via surface water. Although these motile flagellated sperm cells are a traditional botanical subject, they have not been thoroughly analysed in the flagship non-seed plant model species P. patens. Protocols are required to determine the behaviour of wild type sperms as a prerequisite for future research such as the characterization of mutants or factors that influence sperm number, morphology, viability and motility...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470778/multiple-innovations-underpinned-branching-form-diversification-in-mosses
#13
Yoan Coudert, Neil E Bell, Claude Edelin, C Jill Harrison
Broad-scale evolutionary comparisons have shown that branching forms arose by convergence in vascular plants and bryophytes, but the trajectory of branching form diversification in bryophytes is unclear. Mosses are the most species-rich bryophyte lineage and two sub-groups are circumscribed by alternative reproductive organ placements. In one, reproductive organs form apically, terminating growth of the primary shoot (gametophore) axis. In the other, reproductive organs develop on very short lateral branches...
May 4, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469187/habitat-connectivity-and-in-stream-vegetation-control-temporal-variability-of-benthic-invertebrate-communities
#14
K-L Huttunen, H Mykrä, J Oksanen, A Astorga, R Paavola, T Muotka
One of the key challenges to understanding patterns of β diversity is to disentangle deterministic patterns from stochastic ones. Stochastic processes may mask the influence of deterministic factors on community dynamics, hindering identification of the mechanisms causing variation in community composition. We studied temporal β diversity (among-year dissimilarity) of macroinvertebrate communities in near-pristine boreal streams across 14 years. To assess whether the observed β diversity deviates from that expected by chance, and to identify processes (deterministic vs...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467665/bryophyte-gas-exchange-dynamics-along-varying-hydration-status-reveal-a-significant-carbonyl-sulphide-cos-sink-in-the-dark-and-cos-source-in-the-light
#15
Teresa E Gimeno, Jérôme Ogée, Jessica Royles, Yves Gibon, Jason B West, Régis Burlett, Sam P Jones, Joana Sauze, Steven Wohl, Camille Benard, Bernard Genty, Lisa Wingate
Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is a potential tracer of gross primary productivity (GPP), assuming a unidirectional COS flux into the vegetation that scales with GPP. However, carbonic anhydrase (CA), the enzyme that hydrolyses COS, is expected to be light independent, and thus plants without stomata should continue to take up COS in the dark. We measured net CO2 (A(C) ) and COS (A(S) ) uptake rates from two astomatous bryophytes at different relative water contents (RWCs), COS concentrations, temperatures and light intensities...
May 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457640/whole-organism-concentration-ratios-in-wildlife-inhabiting-australian-uranium-mining-environments
#16
Gillian A Hirth, Mathew P Johansen, Julia G Carpenter, Andreas Bollhöfer, Nicholas A Beresford
Wildlife concentration ratios for (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po and isotopes of Th and U from soil, water, and sediments were evaluated for a range of Australian uranium mining environments. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CRwo-media) were developed for 271 radionuclide-organism pairs within the terrestrial and freshwater wildlife groups. Australian wildlife often has distinct physiological attributes, such as the lower metabolic rates of macropod marsupials as compared with placental mammals. In addition, the Australian CRswo-media originate from tropical and semi-arid climates, rather than from the temperate-dominated climates of Europe and North America from which most (>90%) of internationally available CRwo-media values originate...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447172/selenium-speciation-in-the-fountain-creek-watershed-and-its-effects-on-fish-diversity
#17
James Carsella, Igor Melnykov, Sandra Bonetti, Irma Sánchez-Lombardo, Debbie C Crans
Se is an environmental concern as it can be toxic if present in high concentrations even though it is a dietary requirement for all animals. Se levels are a special concern in the Fountain Creek Watershed located in southeastern Colorado whose geological source is the Se-rich Pierre Shale. Segments of Fountain Creek have Se water levels that exceed the current EPA limit of 5 µg/l. In the studies described here, the effects of river water containing selenium were examined on fish populations at different sites along the Fountain Creek Watershed...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446636/insights-into-the-evolution-of-hydroxyproline-rich-glycoproteins-from-1000-plant-transcriptomes
#18
Kim L Johnson, Andrew M Cassin, Andrew Lonsdale, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Douglas E Soltis, Nicholas W Miles, Michael Melkonian, Barbara Melkonian, Michael K Deyholos, James Leebens-Mack, Carl J Rothfels, Dennis W Stevenson, Sean W Graham, Xumin Wang, Shuangxiu Wu, J Chris Pires, Patrick P Edger, Eric J Carpenter, Antony Bacic, Monika S Doblin, Carolyn J Schultz
The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442597/the-emergence-evolution-and-diversification-of-the-mir390-tas3-arf-pathway-in-land-plants
#19
Rui Xia, Jing Xu, Blake C Meyers
In plants, miR390 directs the production of tasiRNAs from TRANS-ACTING SIRNA3 (TAS3) transcripts to regulate AUXIN RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ARF) genes, critical for auxin signaling; these tasiRNAs are known as tasiARFs. To understand the evolution of this miR390-TAS3-ARF pathway, we characterized homologs of these three genes from thousands of plant species, from bryophytes to angiosperms. We found the lower-stem region of MIR390 genes, critical for accurate DICER-LIKE1 processing, is conserved in sequence in seed plants...
June 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424206/extending-the-fossil-record-of-polytrichaceae-early-cretaceous-meantoinea-alophosioides-gen-et-sp-nov-permineralized-gametophytes-with-gemma-cups-from-vancouver-island
#20
Alexander C Bippus, Ruth A Stockey, Gar W Rothwell, Alexandru M F Tomescu
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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