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Bryophytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349719/shifts-in-the-importance-of-the-species-pool-and-environmental-controls-of-epiphytic-bryophyte-richness-across-multiple-scales
#1
Nagore G Medina, Matthew A Bowker, Joaquín Hortal, Vicente Mazimpaka, Francisco Lara
Species richness is influenced by a nested set of environmental factors, but how do these factors interact across several scales? Our main aim is to disentangle the relative importance of environmental filters and the species pool on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes across spatial scales. To do so, we sampled epiphytic bryophytes in 43 oak forests across the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. As predictors we used climate, descriptors of forest structure and micro-environment. We applied structural equation modeling to relate these variables with richness and cover at three scales: locality (forest), stand (three stands per forest), and sample (a quadrate in a tree)...
January 18, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285397/divergent-evolutionary-patterns-of-the-mapk-cascade-genes-in-brassica-rapa-and-plant-phylogenetics
#2
Peng Wu, Wenli Wang, Ying Li, Xilin Hou
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade signal transduction modules play crucial roles in regulating many biological processes in plants. These cascades are composed of three classes of hierarchically organized protein kinases, MAPKKKs, MAPKKs and MAPKs. Here, we analyzed gene retention, phylogenetic, evolution and expression patterns of MAPK cascade genes in Brassica rapa. We further found that the MAPK branches, classes III and IV, appeared after the split of bryophytes and green algae after analyzing the MAPK cascade genes in 8 species, and their rapid expansion led to the great size of the families of MAPKs...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237241/the-p-patens-chromosome-scale-assembly-reveals-moss-genome-structure-and-evolution
#3
Daniel Lang, Kristian K Ullrich, Florent Murat, Jörg Fuchs, Jerry Jenkins, Fabian B Haas, Mathieu Piednoel, Heidrun Gundlach, Michiel Van Bel, Rabea Meyberg, Cristina Vives, Jordi Morata, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Manuel Hiss, Wellington Muchero, Yasuko Kamisugi, Omar Saleh, Guillaume Blanc, Eva L Decker, Nico van Gessel, Jane Grimwood, Richard D Hayes, Sean W Graham, Lee E Gunter, Stuart McDaniel, Sebastian N W Hoernstein, Anders Larsson, Fay-Wei Li, Pierre-Francois Perroud, Jeremy Phillips, Priya Ranjan, Daniel S Rokshar, Carl J Rothfels, Lucas Schneider, Shengqiang Shu, Dennis W Stevenson, Fritz Thümmler, Michael Tillich, Juan Carlos Villarreal A, Thomas Widiez, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Ann Wymore, Yong Zhang, Andreas D Zimmer, Ralph S Quatrano, Klaus F X Mayer, David Goodstein, Josep M Casacuberta, Klaas Vandepoele, Ralf Reski, Andrew C Cuming, Jerry Tuskan, Florian Maumus, Jérome Salse, Jeremy Schmutz, Stefan A Rensing
The draft genome of the moss model, Physcomitrella patens, comprised approximately 2,000 unordered scaffolds. In order to enable analyses of genome structure and evolution we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly using genetic linkage as well as (end) sequencing of long DNA fragments. We find that 57% of the genome comprises transposable elements (TEs), some of which may be actively transposing during the life cycle. Unlike in flowering plant genomes, gene- and TE-rich regions show an overall even distribution along the chromosomes...
December 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227995/restoration-of-floodplain-meadows-effects-on-the-re-establishment-of-mosses
#4
Dorota Michalska-Hejduk, Grzegorz J Wolski, Matthias Harnisch, Annette Otte, Anna Bomanowska, Tobias W Donath
Vascular plants serve as target species for the evaluation of restoration success as they account for most of the plant species diversity and vegetation cover. Although bryophytes contribute considerably to the species diversity of meadows, they are rarely addressed in restoration projects. This project is a first step toward making recommendations for including mosses in alluvial floodplain restoration projects. The opportunity to assess the diversity and ecological requirements of mosses on floodplain meadows presented itself within the framework of a vegetation monitoring that took place in 2014 on meadows located along the northern Upper Rhine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223164/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-moss-brachythecium-rivulare-hypnales-brachytheciaceae
#5
D V Goryunov, M D Logacheva, M S Ignatov, I A Milyutina, A V Fedorova, A V Troitsky
The mitochondrial genome of the pleurocarpous moss Brachythecium rivulare has been sequenced and annotated. The genome consists of 104,460 base pairs and has approximately the same gene set and organization as other bryophyte mitogenomes. Whole mitochondrial genome comparison between B. rivulare and Physcomitrella patens, Tetraphis pellucida, Anomodon rugelii, and Anomodon attenuatus was performed. The primary cause of bryophyte mitochondrial gene length variation was found to be numerous indels in the introns...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223127/be-my-baby-patterning-toward-plant-germ-cells
#6
REVIEW
Keiji Nakajima
In flowering plants, germ cells are formed via tightly coordinated patterning processes that facilitate specification of spore mother cells and meiosis during sporogenesis, as well as functional differentiation of germ cells in gametogenesis. Studies using the conventional Arabidopsis system and the newly emerged bryophyte system have revealed novel interactions between regulatory factors that restrict the number of spore mother cells, and evolutionarily conserved factors that promote germ cell differentiation...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222063/evolutionary-dynamism-in-bryophytes-phylogenomic-inferences-confirm-rapid-radiation-in-the-moss-family-funariaceae
#7
Rafael Medina, Matthew Johnson, Yang Liu, Nicholas Wilding, Terry A Hedderson, Norman Wickett, Bernard Goffinet
Rapid diversifications of plants are primarily documented and studied in angiosperms, which are perceived as evolutionarily dynamic. Recent studies have, however, revealed that bryophytes have also undergone periods of rapid radiation. The speciose family Funariaceae, including the model taxon Physcomitrella patens, is one such lineage. Here, we infer relationships among major lineages within the Entosthodon-Physcomitrium complex from virtually complete organellar exomes (i.e., 123 genes) obtained through high throughput sequencing of genomic libraries enriched in these loci via targeted locus capture...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212052/biotic-diversity-of-benthic-macroinvertebrates-at-contrasting-glacier-fed-systems-in-patagonia-mountains-the-role-of-environmental-heterogeneity-facing-global-warming
#8
María Laura Miserendino, Cecilia Brand, Luis B Epele, Cecilia Y Di Prinzio, Guillermo H Omad, Miguel Archangelsky, Oscar Martínez, Adriana M Kutschker
Patagonia is by far the largest glacierized area in South America. However, little is known about ecology, functioning and biodiversity of glacier-fed streams facing global warming. We investigated changes in environmental features and macroinvertebrate communities along a longitudinal gradient of glacier influence of two Patagonian systems that differ in glacier cover magnitude and the spatial sequence of lotic and lentic phases. Both glaciers, Torrecillas (~5.5km2, Torrecillas system) and Cónico (~0.44km2, Baggilt system), are retreating...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202268/metal-loid-accumulation-in-aquatic-plants-of-a-mining-area-potential-for-water-quality-biomonitoring-and-biogeochemical-prospecting
#9
Paulo J C Favas, João Pratas, Nelson Rodrigues, Rohan D'Souza, Mayank Varun, Manoj S Paul
Aquatic bryophytes can accumulate extremely high levels of chemical elements because of their unique morphology and physiology which is markedly different from vascular plants. Four aquatic mosses-Fontinalis squamosa, Brachythecium rivulare, Platyhypnidium riparioides, Thamnobryum alopecurum-and a freshwater red alga Lemanea fluviatilis along with water samples from the streams of Góis mine region in Central Portugal were analyzed for 46 elements. Despite being below detection levels in the water samples, the elements Zr, V, Cr, Mo, Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pt, Ag, Ge and Bi were obtained in the plant samples...
November 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196341/vapor-pressure-deficit-predicts-epiphyte-abundance-across-an-elevational-gradient-in-a-tropical-montane-region
#10
Sybil G Gotsch, Kenneth Davidson, Jessica G Murray, Vanessa J Duarte, Danel Draguljić
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are important ecosystems to study and preserve because of their high biodiversity and critical roles in local and regional ecosystem processes. TMCFs may be particularly affected by changes in climate because of the narrow bands of microclimate they occupy and the vulnerability of TMCF species to projected increases in cloud base heights and drought. A comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of TMCFs is lacking and difficult to attain because of variation in topography within and across TMCF sites...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192140/the-gibberellin-gid1-della-signalling-module-exists-in-evolutionarily-ancient-conifers
#11
Ran Du, Shihui Niu, Yang Liu, Xinrui Sun, Ilga Porth, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Wei Li
Gibberellins (GAs) participate in controlling various aspects of basic plant growth responses. With the exception of bryophytes, GA signalling in land plants, such as lycophytes, ferns and angiosperms, is mediated via GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and DELLA proteins. To explore whether this GID1-DELLA mechanism is present in pines, we cloned an orthologue (PtGID1) of Arabidopsis AtGID1a and two putative DELLA proteins (PtDPL; PtRGA) from Pinus tabuliformis, a widespread indigenous conifer species in China, and studied their recombinant proteins...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177478/manipulation-of-bryophyte-hosts-by-pathogenic-and-symbiotic-microbes
#12
Philip Carella, Sebastian Schornack
The colonization of plant tissues by pathogenic and symbiotic microbes is associated with a strong and directed effort to reprogram host cells in order to permit, promote, and sustain microbial growth. In response to colonization, hosts accommodate or sequester invading microbes by activating a set of complex regulatory programs that initiate symbioses or bolster defenses. Extensive research has elucidated a suite of molecular and physiological responses occurring in plant hosts and their microbial partners, however this information is mostly limited to model systems representing evolutionary young plant lineages such as angiosperms...
November 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158982/genome-wide-in-silico-identification-of-membrane-bound-transcription-factors-in-plant-species
#13
Shixiang Yao, Lili Deng, Kaifang Zeng
Membrane-bound transcription factors (MTFs) are located in cellular membranes due to their transmembrane domains. In plants, proteolytic processing is considered to be the main mechanism for MTF activation, which ensures the liberation of MTFs from membranes and further their translocation into the nucleus to regulate gene expression; this process skips both the transcriptional and translational stages, and thus it guarantees the prompt responses of plants to various stimuli. Currently, information concerning plant MTFs is limited to model organisms, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, and little is known in other plant species at the genome level...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143417/can-antarctic-lichens-acclimatise-to-changes-in-temperature
#14
Claudia Colesie, Burkhard Büdel, Vaughan Hurry, T G Allan Green
The Antarctic Peninsula, a tundra biome dominated by lichens and bryophytes, is an ecozone undergoing rapid temperature shifts. Such changes may demand a high physiological plasticity of the local lichen species in order for them to maintain their role as key drivers in this pristine habitat. This study examines the response of net photosynthesis and respiration to increasing temperatures for three Antarctic lichen species with different ecological response amplitudes. We hypothesise that negative effects caused by increased temperatures can be mitigated by thermal acclimation of respiration and/or photosynthesis...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137206/ancient-food-habits-dictate-that-food-can-be-medicine-but-medicine-cannot-be-food
#15
Hit Kishore Goswami, Hitendra Kumar Ram
Background: Extensive surveys of several population settlements in different parts of India-covering plains, mountains, valleys, river banks and deeper areas of forests at different altitudes-between 1968 and 2016 demonstrated that the basic vital need of hunger is being fulfilled since antiquity by plants in the wild. Methods: Based on collections, consultations with local population personnel and literature searches, this paper presents many plants that are commonly used as food and focuses on their products, which are rich in alkaloids, polysaccharides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, aminoacids, fatty acids and antibiotics etc...
November 13, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131847/evolutionary-history-of-callose-synthases-in-terrestrial-plants-with-emphasis-on-proteins-involved-in-male-gametophyte-development
#16
Lenka Záveská Drábková, David Honys
Callose is a plant-specific polysaccharide (β-1,3-glucan) playing an important role in angiosperms in many developmental processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Callose is synthesised at the plasma membrane of plant cells by callose synthase (CalS) and, among others, represents the main polysaccharide in the callose wall surrounding the tetrads of developing microspores and in the growing pollen tube wall. CalS proteins involvement in spore development is a plesiomorphic feature of terrestrial plants, but very little is known about their evolutionary origin and relationships amongst the members of this protein family...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105792/desiccation-tolerance-in-physcomitrella-patens-rate-of-dehydration-and-the-involvement-of-endogenous-aba
#17
Lihong Xiao, Abou Yobi, Karen L Koster, Yikun He, Melvin J Oliver
The moss Physcomitrella patens, a model system for basal land plants, tolerates several abiotic stresses, including dehydration. We previously reported that Physcomitrella patens survives equilibrium dehydration to -13 MPa in a closed system at 91% RH. Tolerance of desiccation to water potentials below -100 MPa was only achieved by pre-treatment with exogenous ABA. We report here that gametophores, but not protonemata, can survive desiccation below -100 MPa after a gradual drying regime in an open system, without exogenous ABA...
November 6, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091345/a-method-for-the-direct-detection-of-airborne-dispersal-in-lichens
#18
S Eaton, C Zuniga, J Czyzewski, C J Ellis, D Genney, D Haydon, N Mirzai, R Yahr
This paper sets out a novel method to determine dispersal distances in lichens. Direct measurement of dispersal often remains difficult for lichens and other small inconspicuous species because of the need to track microscopic reproductive propagules, which even if they can be captured, cannot be identified using traditional morphological approaches. A low-cost device (<£200) was developed in order to trap the reproductive propagules of lichens, capable of sampling around 0.1m(3) of air per minute. In parallel, molecular techniques were developed to enable species specific detection of propagules caught by the devices, with identification using novel species-specific primers and optimization of a standard DNA extraction and nested PCR protocol...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083033/identification-of-chalcone-isomerase-in-the-basal-land-plants-reveals-an-ancient-evolution-of-enzymatic-cyclization-activity-for-synthesis-of-flavonoids
#19
Ai-Xia Cheng, Xuebin Zhang, Xiao-Juan Han, Yu-Ying Zhang, Shuai Gao, Chang-Jun Liu, Hong-Xiang Lou
Flavonoids ubiquitously distribute to the terrestrial plants and chalcone isomerase (CHI)-catalyzed intramolecular and stereospecific cyclization of chalcones is a committed step in the production of flavonoids. However, so far the bona fide CHIs are found only in vascular plants, and their origin and evolution remains elusive. We conducted transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence search, subsequent phylogenetic analysis, and detailed biochemical and genetic characterization to explore the potential existence of CHI proteins in the basal bryophyte liverwort species and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii...
October 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065214/changing-contributions-of-stochastic-and-deterministic-processes-in-community-assembly-over-a-successional-gradient
#20
Inger Elisabeth Måren, Jutta Kapfer, Per Arild Aarrestad, John-Arvid Grytnes, Vigdis Vandvik
Successional dynamics in plant community assembly may result from both deterministic and stochastic ecological processes. The relative importance of different ecological processes is expected to vary over the successional sequence, between different plant functional groups, and with the disturbance levels and land-use management regimes of the successional systems. We evaluate the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in bryophyte and vascular plant community assembly after fire in grazed and un-grazed anthropogenic coastal heathlands in Northern Europe...
October 24, 2017: Ecology
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