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Kaisa Lehosmaa, Jussi Jyväsjärvi, Jari Ilmonen, Pekka M Rossi, Lauri Paasivirta, Timo Muotka
Degradation of freshwater ecosystems has engendered legislative mandates for the protection and management of surface waters while groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) have received much less attention. This is so despite biodiversity and functioning of GDEs are currently threatened by several anthropogenic stressors, particularly intensified land use and groundwater contamination. We assessed the impacts of land drainage (increased input of dissolved organic carbon, DOC, from peatland drainage) and impaired groundwater chemical quality (NO3 - -N enrichment from agricultural or urban land use) on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in 20 southern Finnish cold-water springs using several taxonomic and functional measures...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Angela Taboada, Javier Calvo-Fernández, Elena Marcos, Leonor Calvo
Elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a major driver of change, altering the structure/functioning of nutrient-poor Calluna vulgaris-heathlands over Europe. These effects amply proven for north-western/central heathlands may, however, vary across the ecosystem's distribution, especially at the range limits, as heathlands are highly vulnerable to land-use changes combined with present climate change. This is an often overlooked and greatly understudied aspect of the ecology of heathlands facing global change...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Katarzyna Puczko, Piotr Zieliński, Szymon Jusik, Anita Kołakowska, Elżbieta Jekatierynczuk-Rudczyk
Many freshwater ecosystems face severe threats from anthropogenic disturbances. In the field, we investigated the morphology of spring niches and the species richness of vascular plants and bryophytes in 16 springs, draining the quaternary aquifers, located in two different environments-an urban area (city of Białystok) and a protected area (Knyszyn Forest Landscape Park, NE Poland). In total, 47 vascular plant and 45 bryophyte species were recorded, representing mostly crenophytes including protected species...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
James B Pease, Joseph W Brown, Joseph F Walker, Cody E Hinchliff, Stephen A Smith
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phylogenetic support has been difficult to evaluate within the green plant tree of life partly due to a lack of specificity between conflicted versus poorly informed branches. As data sets continue to expand in both breadth and depth, new support measures are needed that are more efficient and informative. METHODS: We describe the Quartet Sampling (QS) method, a quartet-based evaluation system that synthesizes several phylogenetic and genomic analytical approaches...
March 2018: American Journal of Botany
S Izquieta-Rojano, M López-Aizpún, J J Irigoyen, J M Santamaría, C Santamaría, E Lasheras, R Ochoa-Hueso, D Elustondo
Ammonia (NH3 ) emissions are linked to eutrophication, plant toxicity and ecosystem shifts from N to P limitation. Bryophytes are key components of terrestrial ecosystems, yet highly sensitive to N deposition. Hence, physiological responses of mosses may be indicative of NH3 -related impacts, and thus useful to foresee future ecosystem damages and establish atmospheric Critical Levels (CLEs). In this work, samples of Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. were seasonally collected along a well-defined NH3 concentration gradient in an oak woodland during a one-year period...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guo Qing Tang, Fu Zhong Wu, Wan Qin Yang, Zhuang Wang, Qin Wang, Zi Yi Liang, Chen Hui Chang, Jun Li
Bryophyte plays an important role in nutrient enrichment and cycling in the forest ecosystems. The role of bryophyte in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles might be affected by forest regeneration and growth substrate. To understand the role of bryophyte in N and P cycling in the forest ecosystem, we measured the contents of N and P in the bryophytes that grew on different positions (gap center, gap edge, and closed canopy) and growth substrates (standing tree, fallen log, snag, large dead branch, stump and forest floor) in an alpine forest ecosystem...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Gokilavani Thangavel, Saraswati Nayar
MADS box transcription factors have been studied extensively in flowering plants but remain less studied in non-seed plants. MADS box is one such example of a gene which is prevalent across many classes of plants ranging from chlorophyta to embryophyta as well as fungi and animals. MADS box transcription factors are of two types, Type I and Type II. Type II transcription factors (TF) that consist of a MADS domain, I region, K domain, and C terminal domain are discussed in this review. The Type II/ MIKC class is widespread across charophytes and all major lineages of land plants but unknown in green and red algae...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maidul I Choudhury, Brendan G McKie, Sara Hallin, Frauke Ecke
The importance of aquatic plant diversity in regulating nutrient cycling in wetlands remains poorly understood. We investigated how variation in macrophyte growth form (emerging, submerged and bryophyte) combinations and species mixtures affect nitrogen (N) removal from the water and N accumulation in plant biomass. We conducted a wetland mesocosm experiment for 100 days during July-September 2015. Twelve species were grown in mono- and in two-species mixed cultures for a total of 32 single and two-growth form combinations...
April 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Samuel D Gamboa-Tuz, Alejandro Pereira-Santana, Tao Zhao, M Eric Schranz, Enrique Castano, Luis C Rodriguez-Zapata
The Transmembrane BAX Inhibitor Motif containing (TMBIM) superfamily, divided into BAX Inhibitor (BI) and Lifeguard (LFG) families, comprises a group of cytoprotective cell death regulators conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, no research has focused on the evolution of this superfamily in plants. We identified 685 TMBIM proteins in 171 organisms from Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya, and provided a phylogenetic overview of the whole TMBIM superfamily. Then, we used orthology and synteny network analyses to further investigate the evolution and expansion of the BI and LFG families in 48 plants from diverse taxa...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Alison W Roberts, Jelle Lahnstein, Yves S Y Hsieh, Xiaohui Xing, Kuok Yap, Arielle M Chaves, Tess R Scavuzzo-Duggan, George Dimitroff, Andrew Lonsdale, Eric M Roberts, Vincent Bulone, Geoffrey B Fincher, Monika Susanne Doblin, Antony Bacic, Rachel A Burton
Mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (MLG), an abundant cell wall polysaccharide in the Poaceae, has been detected in ascomycetes, algae, and seedless vascular plants, but not in eudicots. Although MLG has not been reported in bryophytes, a predicted glycosyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens (Pp3c12_24670) is similar to a bona fide ascomycete MLG synthase. We tested whether Pp3c12_24670 encodes an MLG synthase by expressing it in wild tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) and testing for release of diagnostic oligosaccharides from the cell walls by either lichenase or (1,4)-β-glucan endohydrolase...
April 19, 2018: Plant Cell
Michal Horsák, Vendula Polášková, Marie Zhai, Jindřiška Bojková, Vít Syrovátka, Vanda Šorfová, Jana Schenková, Marek Polášek, Tomáš Peterka, Michal Hájek
Climate warming and associated environmental changes lead to compositional shifts and local extinctions in various ecosystems. Species closely associated with rare island-like habitats such as groundwater-dependent spring fens can be severely threatened by these changes due to a limited possibility to disperse. It is, however, largely unknown to what extent mesoclimate affects species composition in spring fens, where microclimate is buffered by groundwater supply. We assembled an original landscape-scale dataset on species composition of the most waterlogged parts of isolated temperate spring fens in the Western Carpathian Mountains along with continuously measured water temperature and hydrological, hydrochemical, and climatic conditions...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew A Gitzendanner, Pamela S Soltis, Gane K-S Wong, Brad R Ruhfel, Douglas E Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: For the past one billion years, green plants (Viridiplantae) have dominated global ecosystems, yet many key branches in their evolutionary history remain poorly resolved. Using the largest analysis of Viridiplantae based on plastid genome sequences to date, we examined the phylogeny and implications for morphological evolution at key nodes. METHODS: We analyzed amino acid sequences from protein-coding genes from complete (or nearly complete) plastomes for 1879 taxa, including representatives across all major clades of Viridiplantae...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Anna Amagai, Yoshimasa Honda, Shinnosuke Ishikawa, Yurie Hara, Mayuri Kuwamura, Akihisa Shinozawa, Naoyuki Sugiyama, Yasushi Ishihama, Daisuke Takezawa, Yoichi Sakata, Kazuo Shinozaki, Taishi Umezawa
Abscisic acid (ABA) and its signaling system are important for land plants to survive in terrestrial conditions. Here, we took a phosphoproteomic approach to elucidate the ABA signaling network in Physcomitrella patens, a model species of basal land plants. Our phosphoproteomic analysis detected 4,630 phosphopeptides from P. patens wild-type and two ABA-responsive mutants, a disruptant of group A 2C-type protein phosphatase (PP2C) (ppabi1a/b) and AR7, a defective mutant in ARK identified as an upstream regulator of SnRK2...
March 25, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Michael Song, Li-Yaung Kuo, Layne Huiet, Kathleen M Pryer, Carl J Rothfels, Fay-Wei Li
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Gene space in plant plastid genomes is well characterized and annotated, yet we discovered an unrecognized open reading frame (ORF) in the fern lineage that is conserved across flagellate plants. METHODS: We initially detected a putative uncharacterized ORF by the existence of a highly conserved region between rps16 and matK in a series of matK alignments of leptosporangiate ferns. We mined available plastid genomes for this ORF, which we now refer to as ycf94, to infer evolutionary selection pressures and assist in functional prediction...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Monika Janišová, Katarína Skokanová, Tomáš Hlásny
Tephroseris longifolia agg. is a complex group of outcrossing perennials distributed throughout Central Europe. Recent morphological study revealed six morphotypes corresponding to five previously distinguished subspecies, together with Alpine and Pannonian morphotypes of T. longifolia subsp. longifolia . The delimited morphotypes differ in relative DNA content, geographical range, and rarity. We compared ecological niches of the six morphotypes in order to assess the impact of ecological differentiation on the speciation processes within the T...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yi-Feng Wu, Yu Zhao, Xin-Yan Liu, Shuai Gao, Ai-Xia Cheng, Hong-Xiang Lou
Liverworts, a section of the bryophyte plants which pioneered the colonization of terrestrial habitats, produce cyclic bisbibenzyls as a secondary metabolite. These compounds are generated via the phenylpropanoid pathway, similar with flavonoid biosynthesis for which bHLH transcription factors have been identified as one of the improtant regulators in higher plants. Here, a bHLH homolog (PabHLH) was isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum and its contribution to bisbibenzyl biosynthesis was explored...
March 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mathieu Pottier, Dimitri Gilis, Marc Boutry
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) fixes atmospheric CO2 into organic compounds and is composed of eight copies each of a large subunit (RbcL) and a small subunit (RbcS). Recent reports have revealed unusual RbcS, which are expressed in particular tissues and confer higher catalytic rate, lesser affinity for CO2 , and a more acidic profile of the activity versus pH. The resulting Rubisco was proposed to be adapted to a high CO2 environment and recycle CO2 generated by the metabolism. These RbcS belong to a cluster named T (for trichome), phylogenetically distant from cluster M, which gathers well-characterized RbcS expressed in mesophyll or bundle-sheath tissues...
May 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Ayaka Ito, Chieko Sugita, Mizuho Ichinose, Yoshinobu Kato, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshiharu Shikanai, Mamoru Sugita
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are known to play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation in plant organelles. However, the function of the majority of PPR proteins remains unknown. To examine their functions, Physcomitrella patens PpPPR_66 knockout (KO) mutants were generated and characterized. The KO mosses exhibited a wild-type-like growth phenotype but showed aberrant chlorophyll fluorescence due to defects in chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) activity. Immunoblot analysis suggested that disruption of PpPPR_66 led to a complete loss of the chloroplast NDH complex...
May 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mira Park, Hyun Park, Hyoungseok Lee, Byeong-Ha Lee, Jungeun Lee
Organellar genomes of bryophytes are poorly represented with chloroplast genomes of only four mosses, four liverworts and two hornworts having been sequenced and annotated. Moreover, while Antarctic vegetation is dominated by the bryophytes, there are few reports on the plastid genomes for the Antarctic bryophytes. Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske is one of the most dominant moss species in the maritime Antarctic. It has been researched as an important marker for ecological studies and as an extremophile plant for studies on stress tolerance...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marko S Sabovljević, Marieluise Weidinger, Aneta D Sabovljević, Wolfram Adlassnig, Ingeborg Lang
Bryophytes are usually taken as good bioindicators. However, they represent a large group of terrestrial plants and they express an enormous range of peculiarities within the plant kingdom. With the aim to search for a common pattern of zinc binding, we established axenical in vitro cultures of a dozen bryophyte species that include hornworts, thallose, and leafy liverworts, as well as acrocarp and pleurocarp mosses. The species were grown free of contaminants for many years prior to the application of different treatments, i...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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