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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923130/plant-evo-devo-how-tip-growth-evolved
#1
Stefan A Rensing
Apical elongation of polarized plant cells (tip growth) occurs in root hairs of flowering plants and in rhizoids of bryophytes. A new report shows that the formation of these cells relies on genes already present in the first land plants.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920791/extending-a-single-residue-switch-for-abbreviating-catalysis-in-plant-ent-kaurene-synthases
#2
Meirong Jia, Reuben J Peters
Production of ent-kaurene as a precursor for important signaling molecules such as the gibberellins seems to have arisen early in plant evolution, with corresponding cyclase(s) present in all land plants (i.e., embryophyta). The relevant enzymes seem to represent fusion of the class II diterpene cyclase that produces the intermediate ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP) and the subsequently acting class I diterpene synthase that produces ent-kaurene, although the bifunctionality of the ancestral gene is only retained in certain early diverging plants, with gene duplication and sub-functionalization leading to distinct ent-CPP synthases and ent-kaurene synthases (KSs) generally observed...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896464/a-hypergravity-environment-increases-chloroplast-size-photosynthesis-and-plant-growth-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#3
Kaori Takemura, Hiroyuki Kamachi, Atsushi Kume, Tomomichi Fujita, Ichirou Karahara, Yuko T Hanba
The physiological and anatomical responses of bryophytes to altered gravity conditions will provide crucial information for estimating how plant physiological traits have evolved to adapt to significant increases in the effects of gravity in land plant history. We quantified changes in plant growth and photosynthesis in the model plant of mosses, Physcomitrella patens, grown under a hypergravity environment for 25 days or 8 weeks using a custom-built centrifuge equipped with a lighting system. This is the first study to examine the response of bryophytes to hypergravity conditions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895654/a-comprehensive-phylogeny-reveals-functional-conservation-of-the-uv-b-photoreceptor-uvr8-from-green-algae-to-higher-plants
#4
María B Fernández, Vanesa Tossi, Lorenzo Lamattina, Raúl Cassia
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is present in sunlight (280-315 nm) and has diverse effects on living organisms. Low fluence rate of exposure induces a specific photomorphogenic response regulated by the UV-B response locus 8 (UVR8) receptor. UVR8 was first described in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the absence of stimuli it is located in the cytoplasm as a homodimer. However, upon UV-B irradiation, it switches to a monomer and interacts with the ubiquitin ligase E3 COP1 via the UVR8 β-propeller domain and the VP core. This induces the expression of the transcription factor HY5 leading to changes in the expression of genes associated with UV-B acclimation and stress tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886385/nonreciprocal-complementation-of-knox-gene-function-in-land-plants
#5
Eftychios Frangedakis, Denis Saint-Marcoux, Laura A Moody, Ester Rabbinowitsch, Jane A Langdale
Class I KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX) proteins regulate development of the multicellular diploid sporophyte in both mosses and flowering plants; however, the morphological context in which they function differs. In order to determine how Class I KNOX function was modified as land plants evolved, phylogenetic analyses and cross-species complementation assays were performed. Our data reveal that a duplication within the charophyte sister group to land plants led to distinct Class I and Class II KNOX gene families...
November 25, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883193/auxin-transport-in-the-evolution-of-branching-forms
#6
REVIEW
C Jill Harrison
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes...
November 24, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882647/host-and-tissue-variation-overshadow-the-response-of-boreal-moss-associated-fungal-communities-to-increased-nitrogen-load
#7
Marie L Davey, Marte J Skogen, Einar Heegaard, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud, Mikael Ohlson
Human activity has more than doubled the amount of nitrogen entering the global nitrogen cycle, and the boreal forest biome is a nitrogen-limited ecosystem sensitive to nitrogen load perturbation. Although bryophyte-associated microbes contribute significantly to boreal forest ecosystem function, particularly in carbon and nitrogen cycling, little is known about their responses to anthropogenic global change. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the ITS2 region of rDNA was used to investigate how fungal communities associated with three bryophyte species responded to increased nitrogen loads in a long-term fertilization experiment in a boreal Picea abies forest in southern Norway...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861610/the-chloroplast-srp-systems-of-chaetosphaeridium-globosum-and-physcomitrella-patens-as-intermediates-in-the-evolution-of-srp-dependent-protein-transport-in-higher-plants
#8
Dominik Ziehe, Beatrix Dünschede, Mira Zenker, Silke Funke, Marc M Nowaczyk, Danja Schünemann
The bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP) mediates the cotranslational targeting of membrane proteins and is a high affinity complex consisting of a SRP54 protein subunit (Ffh) and an SRP RNA. The chloroplast SRP (cpSRP) pathway has adapted throughout evolution to enable the posttranslational targeting of the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins (LHCPs) to the thylakoid membrane. In spermatophytes (seed plants), the cpSRP lacks the SRP RNA and is instead formed by a high affinity interaction of the conserved 54-kD subunit (cpSRP54) with the chloroplast-specific cpSRP43 protein...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859075/gastropods-slow-down-succession-and-maintain-diversity-in-cryptogam-communities
#9
Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Markus Fischer
Herbivore effects on diversity and succession were often studied in plants, but not in cryptogams. Besides direct herbivore effects on cryptogams, we expected indirect effects by changes in competitive interactions among cryptogams. Therefore, we conducted a long-term gastropod exclusion experiment testing for grazing effects on epiphytic cryptogam communities. We estimated the grazing damage, cover and diversity of cryptogams before gastropods were excluded and three and six years thereafter. Gastropod herbivory pronouncedly affected cryptogams, except for bryophytes, strongly depending on host tree species and duration of gastropod exclusion...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853542/electrical-output-of-bryophyte-microbial-fuel-cell-systems-is-sufficient-to-power-a-radio-or-an-environmental-sensor
#10
Paolo Bombelli, Ross J Dennis, Fabienne Felder, Matt B Cooper, Durgaprasad Madras Rajaraman Iyer, Jessica Royles, Susan T L Harrison, Alison G Smith, C Jill Harrison, Christopher J Howe
Plant microbial fuel cells are a recently developed technology that exploits photosynthesis in vascular plants by harnessing solar energy and generating electrical power. In this study, the model moss species Physcomitrella patens, and other environmental samples of mosses, have been used to develop a non-vascular bryophyte microbial fuel cell (bryoMFC). A novel three-dimensional anodic matrix was successfully created and characterized and was further tested in a bryoMFC to determine the capacity of mosses to generate electrical power...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852238/illumina-sequencing-based-community-analysis-of-bacteria-associated-with-different-bryophytes-collected-from-tibet-china
#11
Jing Yan Tang, Jing Ma, Xue Dong Li, Yan Hong Li
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the bacteria associated with the bryophytes showed that there were abundant bacteria inhabited in/on these hosts. However, the type of bacteria and whether these discriminate between different bryophytes based on a particular factor remains largely unknown. RESULTS: This study was designed to analyze the biodiversity and community of the bacteria associated with ten liverworts and ten mosses using Illumina-sequencing techniques based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene...
November 16, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812169/bryophyte-feeders-in-a-basal-brachyceran-lineage-diptera-rhagionidae-spaniinae-adult-oviposition-behavior-and-changes-in-the-larval-mouthpart-morphology-accompanied-with-the-diet-shifts
#12
Yume Imada, Makoto Kato
Dipteran larval morphology exhibits overwhelming variety, affected by their diverse feeding habits and habitat use. In particular, larval mouthpart morphology is associated with feeding behavior, providing key taxonomic traits. Despite most larval Brachycera being carnivorous, a basal brachyceran family, Rhagionidae, contains bryophyte-feeding taxa with multiple feeding habits. To elucidate the life history, biology, and morphological evolution of the bryophyte-feeding rhagionids, the larval feeding behavior and morphology, and the adult oviposition behavior of four species belonging to three genera of Spaniinae (Spania Meigen, Litoleptis Chillcott and Ptiolina Zetterstedt) are described...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760156/moss-mediates-the-influence-of-shrub-species-on-soil-properties-and-processes-in-alpine-tundra
#13
C Guillermo Bueno, Scott N Williamson, Isabel C Barrio, Ágústa Helgadóttir, David S HiK
In tundra ecosystems, bryophytes influence soil processes directly and indirectly through interactions with overstory shrub species. We experimentally manipulated moss cover and measured seasonal soil properties and processes under two species of deciduous shrubs with contrasting canopy structures, Salix planifolia pulchra and Betula glandulosa-nana complex. Soil properties (seasonal temperature, moisture and C:N ratios) and processes (seasonal litter decomposition and soil respiration) were measured over twelve months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729721/phylogenetic-analysis-and-photoregulation-of-siroheme-biosynthesis-genes-uroporphyrinogen-iii-methyltransferase-and-sirohydrochlorin-ferrochelatase-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Sampurna Garai, Naveen Chandra Joshi, Baishnab C Tripathy
Uroporphyrinogen III methyl transferase (UPM1) and Sirohydrochlorin ferrochelatase (SIRB) are the important genes involved in the biosynthesis of siroheme, the prosthetic group of nitrite reductases (NiR) and sulfite reductases (SiR) involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Both UPM1 and SIRB could be potential candidate genes targeted for sustainable agriculture especially in N-deficient soil. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes are highly conserved among algae, bryophytes and vascular plants including dicots and monocots...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714463/metacommunity-ecology-meets-biogeography-effects-of-geographical-region-spatial-dynamics-and-environmental-filtering-on-community-structure-in-aquatic-organisms
#15
Jani Heino, Janne Soininen, Janne Alahuhta, Jyrki Lappalainen, Risto Virtanen
Metacommunity patterns and underlying processes in aquatic organisms have typically been studied within a drainage basin. We examined variation in the composition of six freshwater organismal groups across various drainage basins in Finland. We first modelled spatial structures within each drainage basin using Moran eigenvector maps. Second, we partitioned variation in community structure among three groups of predictors using constrained ordination: (1) local environmental variables, (2) spatial variables, and (3) dummy variable drainage basin identity...
October 6, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698577/the-mosses-bryophyta-of-capit%C3%A3-n-prat-province-ais%C3%A3-n-region-southern-chile
#16
Juan Larraín
The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile (Pohlia longicollis (Hedw...
2016: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661065/high-migration-rates-shape-the-postglacial-history-of-amphi-atlantic-bryophytes
#17
Aurélie Désamoré, Jairo Patiño, Patrick Mardulyn, Stuart F Mcdaniel, Florian Zanatta, Benjamin Laenen, Alain Vanderpoorten
Paleontological evidence and current patterns of angiosperm species richness suggest that European biota experienced more severe bottlenecks than North American ones during the last glacial maximum. How well this pattern fits other plant species is less clear. Bryophytes offer a unique opportunity to contrast the impact of the last glacial maximum in North America and Europe because about 60% of the European bryoflora is shared with North America. Here, we use population genetic analyses based on approximate Bayesian computation on eight amphi-Atlantic species to test the hypothesis that North American populations were less impacted by the last glacial maximum, exhibiting higher levels of genetic diversity than European ones and ultimately serving as a refugium for the postglacial recolonization of Europe...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645140/lichen-secondary-metabolites-affect-growth-of-physcomitrella-patens-by-allelopathy
#18
Michal Goga, Sebastian J Antreich, Martin Bačkor, Wolfram Weckwerth, Ingeborg Lang
Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid...
September 19, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625671/phylogeny-and-expression-analyses-reveal-important-roles-for-plant-pks-iii-family-during-the-conquest-of-land-by-plants-and-angiosperm-diversification
#19
Lulu Xie, Pingli Liu, Zhixin Zhu, Shifan Zhang, Shujiang Zhang, Fei Li, Hui Zhang, Guoliang Li, Yunxiao Wei, Rifei Sun
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, types I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS)-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622766/conserved-organisation-of-45s-rdna-sites-and-rdna-gene-copy-number-among-major-clades-of-early-land-plants
#20
Marcela Rosato, Aleš Kovařík, Ricardo Garilleti, Josep A Rosselló
Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown...
2016: PloS One
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