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Shixiang Yao, Lili Deng, Kaifang Zeng
Membrane-bound transcription factors (MTFs) are located in cellular membranes due to their transmembrane domains. In plants, proteolytic processing is considered to be the main mechanism for MTF activation, which ensures the liberation of MTFs from membranes and further their translocation into the nucleus to regulate gene expression; this process skips both the transcriptional and translational stages, and thus it guarantees the prompt responses of plants to various stimuli. Currently, information concerning plant MTFs is limited to model organisms, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, and little is known in other plant species at the genome level...
2017: PeerJ
Claudia Colesie, Burkhard Büdel, Vaughan Hurry, T G Allan Green
The Antarctic Peninsula, a tundra biome dominated by lichens and bryophytes, is an ecozone undergoing rapid temperature shifts. Such changes may demand a high physiological plasticity of the local lichen species in order for them to maintain their role as key drivers in this pristine habitat. This study examines the response of net photosynthesis and respiration to increasing temperatures for three Antarctic lichen species with different ecological response amplitudes. We hypothesise that negative effects caused by increased temperatures can be mitigated by thermal acclimation of respiration and/or photosynthesis...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
Hit Kishore Goswami, Hitendra Kumar Ram
Background: Extensive surveys of several population settlements in different parts of India-covering plains, mountains, valleys, river banks and deeper areas of forests at different altitudes-between 1968 and 2016 demonstrated that the basic vital need of hunger is being fulfilled since antiquity by plants in the wild. Methods: Based on collections, consultations with local population personnel and literature searches, this paper presents many plants that are commonly used as food and focuses on their products, which are rich in alkaloids, polysaccharides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, aminoacids, fatty acids and antibiotics etc...
November 13, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Lenka Záveská Drábková, David Honys
Callose is a plant-specific polysaccharide (β-1,3-glucan) playing an important role in angiosperms in many developmental processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Callose is synthesised at the plasma membrane of plant cells by callose synthase (CalS) and, among others, represents the main polysaccharide in the callose wall surrounding the tetrads of developing microspores and in the growing pollen tube wall. CalS proteins involvement in spore development is a plesiomorphic feature of terrestrial plants, but very little is known about their evolutionary origin and relationships amongst the members of this protein family...
2017: PloS One
Lihong Xiao, Abou Yobi, Karen L Koster, Yikun He, Melvin J Oliver
The moss Physcomitrella patens, a model system for basal land plants, tolerates several abiotic stresses, including dehydration. We previously reported that Physcomitrella patens survives equilibrium dehydration to -13 MPa in a closed system at 91% RH. Tolerance of desiccation to water potentials below -100 MPa was only achieved by pre-treatment with exogenous ABA. We report here that gametophores, but not protonemata, can survive desiccation below -100 MPa after a gradual drying regime in an open system, without exogenous ABA...
November 6, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
S Eaton, C Zuniga, J Czyzewski, C J Ellis, D Genney, D Haydon, N Mirzai, R Yahr
This paper sets out a novel method to determine dispersal distances in lichens. Direct measurement of dispersal often remains difficult for lichens and other small inconspicuous species because of the need to track microscopic reproductive propagules, which even if they can be captured, cannot be identified using traditional morphological approaches. A low-cost device (<£200) was developed in order to trap the reproductive propagules of lichens, capable of sampling around 0.1m(3) of air per minute. In parallel, molecular techniques were developed to enable species specific detection of propagules caught by the devices, with identification using novel species-specific primers and optimization of a standard DNA extraction and nested PCR protocol...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
Ai-Xia Cheng, Xuebin Zhang, Xiao-Juan Han, Yu-Ying Zhang, Shuai Gao, Chang-Jun Liu, Hong-Xiang Lou
Flavonoids ubiquitously distribute to the terrestrial plants and chalcone isomerase (CHI)-catalyzed intramolecular and stereospecific cyclization of chalcones is a committed step in the production of flavonoids. However, so far the bona fide CHIs are found only in vascular plants, and their origin and evolution remains elusive. We conducted transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence search, subsequent phylogenetic analysis, and detailed biochemical and genetic characterization to explore the potential existence of CHI proteins in the basal bryophyte liverwort species and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii...
October 30, 2017: New Phytologist
Inger Elisabeth Måren, Jutta Kapfer, Per Arild Aarrestad, John-Arvid Grytnes, Vigdis Vandvik
Successional dynamics in plant community assembly may result from both deterministic and stochastic ecological processes. The relative importance of different ecological processes is expected to vary over the successional sequence, between different plant functional groups, and with the disturbance levels and land-use management regimes of the successional systems. We evaluate the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in bryophyte and vascular plant community assembly after fire in grazed and un-grazed anthropogenic coastal heathlands in Northern Europe...
October 24, 2017: Ecology
Gabriela R Cerqueira, Anna Luiza Ilkiu-Borges, Leandro V Ferreira
This study aimed to compare the richness and composition of the epiphytic bryoflora between várzea and igapó forests in Caxiuanã National Forest, Brazilian Amazon. Bryophytes were collected on 502 phorophytes of Virola surinamensis. Average richness per phorophyte and composition between forests and between dry and rainy periods was tested by two-way analysis and by cluster analysis, respectively. In total, 54 species of 13 families were identified. Richness was greater in igapó forest (44 species) compared to várzea forest (38 species)...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Renee A Lopez, Karen S Renzaglia
Unlike most plant cell walls, the five consecutive walls laid down during spermatogenesis in the model fern Ceratopteris contain sparse cellulose, lack pectin and are enriched with callose and hemicelluloses. Seed-free plants like bryophytes and pteridophytes produce swimming male gametes for sexual reproduction. During spermatogenesis, unique walls are formed that are essential to the appropriate development and maturation of the motile gametes. Other than the detection of callose and general wall polysaccharides in scattered groups, little is known about the sequence of wall formation and the composition of these walls during sperm cell differentiation in plants that produce swimming sperm...
October 13, 2017: Planta
Yoshinori Asakawa, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk
Comparatively little attention has been paid to the bryophytes for use in the human diet or medicine in spite of the presence of 23 000 species globally. Several hundred new compounds have been isolated from the liverworts (Marchantiophyta), and more than 40 new carbon skeletons of terpenoids and aromatic compounds were found. Most of the liverworts studied elaborate characteristic odiferous, pungent, and bitter-tasting compounds, of which many show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergic contact dermatitis, cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-HIV, plant growth regulatory, neurotrophic, NO production and superoxide anion radical release inhibitory, muscle relaxing, antiobesity, piscicidal, and nematocidal activities...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Hirotaka Kato, Masaru Kouno, Mayuko Takeda, Hidemasa Suzuki, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Ryuichi Nishihama, Takayuki Kohchi
Cell division patterning is important to determine body shape in plants. Nuclear auxin signaling mediated by AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors affects plant growth and development through regulation of cell division, elongation and differentiation. The evolutionary origin of the ARF-mediated pathway dates back to at least the common ancestor of bryophytes and other land plants. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has three phylogenetically distinct ARFs: MpARF1, the sole 'activator' ARF; and MpARF2 and MpARF3, two 'repressor' ARFs...
July 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hirotaka Kato, Ryuichi Nishihama, Dolf Weijers, Takayuki Kohchi
Auxin plays critical roles in growth and development through the regulation of cell differentiation, cell expansion, and pattern formation. The auxin signal is mainly conveyed through a so-called nuclear auxin pathway involving the receptor TIR1/AFB, the transcriptional co-repressor AUX/IAA, and the transcription factor ARF with direct DNA-binding ability. Recent progress in sequence information and molecular genetics in basal plants has provided many insights into the evolutionary origin of the nuclear auxin pathway and its pleiotropic roles in land plant development...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mandy L Slate, Todd N Rosenstiel, Sarah M Eppley
Background and Aims: Dioecy and sexual dimorphism occur in many terrestrial plant species but are especially widespread among the bryophytes. Despite the prevalence of dioecy in non-vascular plants, surprisingly little is known about how fine-scale sex-specific cell and leaf morphological traits are correlated with sex-specific physiology and population sex ratios. Such data are critical to understanding the inter-relationship between sex-specific morphological and physiological characters and how their relationship influences population structure...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
Mirjana Ćujić, Snežana Dragović
This paper presents the environmental radiation risk assessment based on two software program approaches ERICA Tool (version 1.2) and RESRAD BIOTA (version 1.5) to estimate dose rates to terrestrial biota in the area around the largest coal fired power plant in Serbia. For dose rate assessment software's default reference animals and plants and the best estimated values of activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (234)Th, (232)Th, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (137)Cs in soil were used. Both approaches revealed the highest contribution to the internal dose rate due to (226)Ra and (210)Po, while (137)Cs contributed the most to the external dose rate...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kourtney Kroll, Cynthia K Holland, Courtney M Starks, Joseph M Jez
Plants, fungi, and bacteria synthesize the aromatic amino acids: l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine, and l-tryptophan. Chorismate mutase catalyzes the branch point reaction of phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis to generate prephenate. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are two plastid-localized chorismate mutases that are allosterically regulated (AtCM1 and AtCM3) and one cytosolic isoform (AtCM2) that is unregulated. Previous analysis of plant chorismate mutases suggested that the enzymes from early plants (i.e...
November 1, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Zhe Wang, Maaike Y Bader, Xin Liu, Zhangming Zhu, Weikai Bao
Bryophyte communities can exhibit similar structural and taxonomic diversity as vascular plant communities, just at a smaller scale. Whether the physiological diversity can be similarly diverse, and whether it can explain local abundance patterns is unknown, due to a lack of community-wide studies of physiological traits. This study re-analyzed data on photosynthesis-related traits (including the nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations, photosynthetic capacities, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies) of 27 bryophyte species in a subalpine old-growth fir forest on the eastern Tibetan Plateau...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
James Amor Smith, Maor Bar-Peled
The branched-chain sugar apiose was widely assumed to be synthesized only by plant species. In plants, apiose-containing polysaccharides are found in vascularized plant cell walls as the pectic polymers rhamnogalacturonan II and apiogalacturonan. Apiosylated secondary metabolites are also common in many plant species including ancestral avascular bryophytes and green algae. Apiosyl-residues have not been documented in bacteria. In a screen for new bacterial glycan structures, we detected small amounts of apiose in methanolic extracts of the aerobic phototroph Geminicoccus roseus and the pathogenic soil-dwelling bacteria Xanthomonas pisi...
2017: PloS One
Gonzalo Soriano, Catherine Cloix, Monika Heilmann, Encarnación Núñez-Olivera, Javier Martínez-Abaigar, Gareth I Jenkins
The ultraviolet-B (UV-B) photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) mediates photomorphogenic responses to UV-B in Arabidopsis through differential gene expression, but little is known about UVR8 in other species. Bryophyte lineages were the earliest diverging embryophytes, thus being the first plants facing the UV-B regime typical of land. We therefore examined whether liverwort and moss species have functional UVR8 proteins and whether they are regulated similarly to Arabidopsis UVR8. We examined the expression, dimer/monomer status, cellular localisation and function of Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens UVR8 in experiments with bryophyte tissue and expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-UVR8 fusions in Nicotiana leaves and transgenic Arabidopsis...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
Per-Ola Hedwall, Johan Bergh, Jörg Brunet
Plant growth in northern forest ecosystems is considered to be primarily nitrogen limited. Nitrogen deposition is predicted to change this towards co-limitation/limitation by other nutrients (e.g., phosphorus), although evidence of such stoichiometric effects is scarce. We utilized two forest fertilization experiments in southern Sweden to analyze single and combined effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity, composition, and diversity of the ground vegetation. Our results indicate that the productivity of forest ground vegetation in southern Sweden is co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus...
October 2017: Oecologia
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