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C Guillermo Bueno, Scott N Williamson, Isabel C Barrio, Ágústa Helgadóttir, David S HiK
In tundra ecosystems, bryophytes influence soil processes directly and indirectly through interactions with overstory shrub species. We experimentally manipulated moss cover and measured seasonal soil properties and processes under two species of deciduous shrubs with contrasting canopy structures, Salix planifolia pulchra and Betula glandulosa-nana complex. Soil properties (seasonal temperature, moisture and C:N ratios) and processes (seasonal litter decomposition and soil respiration) were measured over twelve months...
2016: PloS One
Sampurna Garai, Naveen Chandra Joshi, Baishnab C Tripathy
Uroporphyrinogen III methyl transferase (UPM1) and Sirohydrochlorin ferrochelatase (SIRB) are the important genes involved in the biosynthesis of siroheme, the prosthetic group of nitrite reductases (NiR) and sulfite reductases (SiR) involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Both UPM1 and SIRB could be potential candidate genes targeted for sustainable agriculture especially in N-deficient soil. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that these genes are highly conserved among algae, bryophytes and vascular plants including dicots and monocots...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Jani Heino, Janne Soininen, Janne Alahuhta, Jyrki Lappalainen, Risto Virtanen
Metacommunity patterns and underlying processes in aquatic organisms have typically been studied within a drainage basin. We examined variation in the composition of six freshwater organismal groups across various drainage basins in Finland. We first modelled spatial structures within each drainage basin using Moran eigenvector maps. Second, we partitioned variation in community structure among three groups of predictors using constrained ordination: (1) local environmental variables, (2) spatial variables, and (3) dummy variable drainage basin identity...
October 6, 2016: Oecologia
Juan Larraín
The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile (Pohlia longicollis (Hedw...
2016: PhytoKeys
Aurélie Désamoré, Jairo Patiño, Patrick Mardulyn, Stuart F Mcdaniel, Florian Zanatta, Benjamin Laenen, Alain Vanderpoorten
Paleontological evidence and current patterns of angiosperm species richness suggest that European biota experienced more severe bottlenecks than North American ones during the last glacial maximum. How well this pattern fits other plant species is less clear. Bryophytes offer a unique opportunity to contrast the impact of the last glacial maximum in North America and Europe because about 60% of the European bryoflora is shared with North America. Here, we use population genetic analyses based on approximate Bayesian computation on eight amphi-Atlantic species to test the hypothesis that North American populations were less impacted by the last glacial maximum, exhibiting higher levels of genetic diversity than European ones and ultimately serving as a refugium for the postglacial recolonization of Europe...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Michal Goga, Sebastian J Antreich, Martin Bačkor, Wolfram Weckwerth, Ingeborg Lang
Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid...
September 19, 2016: Protoplasma
Lulu Xie, Pingli Liu, Zhixin Zhu, Shifan Zhang, Shujiang Zhang, Fei Li, Hui Zhang, Guoliang Li, Yunxiao Wei, Rifei Sun
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, types I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS)-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marcela Rosato, Aleš Kovařík, Ricardo Garilleti, Josep A Rosselló
Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown...
2016: PloS One
David Haig
Haploid gametophytes of bryophytes spread by clonal growth but mate locally, within an area defined by the range of sperm movement. Rarity of establishment from spores or vegetative competition can result in unisexual populations unable to reproduce sexually. Females typically outcompete males, probably because females expend fewer resources than males on the production of gametes. Extreme sexual dimorphism-tiny males growing as epiphytes on much larger females-has evolved many times. Haploid selfing is common in bryophytes with bisexual gametophytes, and results in completely homozygous sporophytes...
October 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Ricardo Cruz de Carvalho, Myriam Catalá, Cristina Branquinho, Jorge Marques da Silva, Eva Barreno
Desiccation tolerant (DT) organisms are able to withstand an extended loss of body water and rapidly resume metabolism upon rehydration. This ability, however, is strongly dependent on a slow dehydration rate. Fast dehydration affects membrane integrity leading to intracellular solute leakage upon rehydration and thereby impairs metabolism recovery. We test the hypothesis that the increased cell membrane damage and membrane permeability observed under fast dehydration, compared with slow dehydration, is related to an increase in lipid peroxidation...
October 5, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Kimitsune Ishizaki
The invasion of the land by plants, or terrestrialization, was one of the most critical events in the history of the Earth. The evolution of land plants included significant transformations in body plans: the emergence of a multicellular diploid sporophyte, transition from gametophyte-dominant to sporophyte-dominant life histories, and development of many specialized tissues and organs, such as stomata, vascular tissues, roots, leaves, seeds, and flowers. Recent advances in molecular genetics in two model basal plants, bryophytes Physcomitrella patens and Marchantia polymorpha, have begun to provide answers to several key questions regarding land plant evolution...
September 5, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Xi Chen, Wen-Yao Liu, Liang Song, Su Li, Yi Wu, Xian-Meng Shi, Jun-Biao Huang, Chuan-Sheng Wu
Atmospheric depositions pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood, and few studies have considered the combined effects and interactions of multiple pollutants. This in situ study explored the physiological responses of two epiphytic bryophytes to combined addition of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. We investigated the electrical conductivity (EC), total chlorophyll concentration (Chl), nutrient stoichiometry and chlorophyll fluorescence signals in a subtropical montane cloud forest in south-west China...
2016: PloS One
James Smith, Yiwen Yang, Shahar Levy, Oluwatoyin Oluwayemi Adelusi, Michael G Hahn, Malcolm A O'Neill, Maor Bar-Peled
Apiose is a branched monosaccharide that is present in the cell wall pectic polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) and apiogalacturonan (ApiGalA) and in numerous plant secondary metabolites. These apiose-containing glycans are synthesized using UDP-apiose as the donor. UDP-apiose (UDP-Api) together with UDP-xylose is formed from UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) by UDP-Api synthase (UAS). It was hypothesized that the ability to form Api distinguishes vascular plants from the avascular plants and green algae...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Cristina Vives, Florence Charlot, Corinne Mhiri, Beatriz Contreras, Julien Daniel, Aline Epert, Daniel F Voytas, Marie-Angèle Grandbastien, Fabien Nogué, Josep M Casacuberta
Because of its highly efficient homologous recombination, the moss Physcomitrella patens is a model organism particularly suited for reverse genetics, but this inherent characteristic limits forward genetic approaches. Here, we show that the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) retrotransposon Tnt1 efficiently transposes in P. patens, being the first retrotransposon from a vascular plant reported to transpose in a bryophyte. Tnt1 has a remarkable preference for insertion into genic regions, which makes it particularly suited for gene mutation...
November 2016: New Phytologist
Jia Feng, Yuning Guo, Xiujuan Zhang, Guihua Wang, Junping Lv, Qi Liu, Shulian Xie
A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not...
September 15, 2016: Biology Open
Jonathan D Moore, Leslie M Kollar, D Nicholas McLetchie
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Differences in male and female reproductive function can lead to selection for sex-specific gamete dispersal and capture traits. These traits have been explored from shoot to whole plant levels in wind-pollinated species. While shoot traits have been explored in water-fertilized species, little is known about how whole plant morphology affects gamete dispersal and capture. We used the dioecious, water-fertilized plant Bryum argenteum to test for differences in clump morphology and water-holding characteristics consistent with divergent selection...
August 2016: American Journal of Botany
Yasuko Kamisugi, John W Whitaker, Andrew C Cuming
The model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens is unique among plants in supporting the generation of mutant alleles by facile homologous recombination-mediated gene targeting (GT). Reasoning that targeted transgene integration occurs through the capture of transforming DNA by the homology-dependent pathway for DNA double-strand break (DNA-DSB) repair, we analysed the genome-wide transcriptomic response to bleomycin-induced DNA damage and generated mutants in candidate DNA repair genes. Massively parallel (Illumina) cDNA sequencing identified potential participants in gene targeting...
2016: PloS One
Katarzyna M Zielińska, Marcin Kiedrzyński, Andrzej Grzyl, Agnieszka Rewicz
The long-term survival of relict populations depends on the accessibility of appropriate sites (microrefugia). In recent times, due to the mass extinction of rare species that has resulted from the loss of natural habitats, the question is - Are there any human-made sites that can act as refugial habitats? We examined forest roadside populations of the mountain plant Pulsatilla vernalis in the last large lowland refugium in Central Europe. We compared the habitat conditions and community structure of roadsides with P...
2016: Scientific Reports
Viktor Hartung, Ingo Medebach, Stefan Walheim
Peloridiidae are a family of small hemipterans who live and feed on bryophytes of temperate forests in some regions of the Southern Hemisphere. They are often submerged in water and would require adaptations for respiration to tolerate periods of inundation. Here we report water-repelling cuticular structures on the tergites of thorax and abdomen and on the ventral surface of tegmina in Peloridiidae. Our observations show that these body parts can hold an air bubble or layer which is in contact with spiracles...
August 12, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Nik Norhazrina, Alain Vanderpoorten, Lars Hedenäs, Jairo Patiño
As opposed to angiosperms, moss species richness is similar among tropical regions of the world, in line with the hypothesis that tropical bryophytes are extremely good dispersers. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the pantropical moss genus Pelekium to test the hypothesis that high migration rates erase any difference in species richness among tropical regions. In contrast with this hypothesis, several species considered to have a pantropical range were resolved as a complex of species with a strong geographic structure...
December 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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