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Michael Song, Li-Yaung Kuo, Layne Huiet, Kathleen M Pryer, Carl J Rothfels, Fay-Wei Li
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Gene space in plant plastid genomes is well characterized and annotated, yet we discovered an unrecognized open reading frame (ORF) in the fern lineage that is conserved across flagellate plants. METHODS: We initially detected a putative uncharacterized ORF by the existence of a highly conserved region between rps16 and matK in a series of matK alignments of leptosporangiate ferns. We mined available plastid genomes for this ORF, which we now refer to as ycf94, to infer evolutionary selection pressures and assist in functional prediction...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Monika Janišová, Katarína Skokanová, Tomáš Hlásny
Tephroseris longifolia agg. is a complex group of outcrossing perennials distributed throughout Central Europe. Recent morphological study revealed six morphotypes corresponding to five previously distinguished subspecies, together with Alpine and Pannonian morphotypes of T. longifolia subsp. longifolia . The delimited morphotypes differ in relative DNA content, geographical range, and rarity. We compared ecological niches of the six morphotypes in order to assess the impact of ecological differentiation on the speciation processes within the T...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yi-Feng Wu, Yu Zhao, Xin-Yan Liu, Shuai Gao, Ai-Xia Cheng, Hong-Xiang Lou
Liverworts, a section of the bryophyte plants which pioneered the colonization of terrestrial habitats, produce cyclic bisbibenzyls as a secondary metabolite. These compounds are generated via the phenylpropanoid pathway, similar with flavonoid biosynthesis for which bHLH transcription factors have been identified as one of the improtant regulators in higher plants. Here, a bHLH homolog (PabHLH) was isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum and its contribution to bisbibenzyl biosynthesis was explored...
March 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Mathieu Pottier, Dimitri Gilis, Marc Boutry
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) fixes atmospheric CO2 into organic compounds and is composed of eight copies each of a large subunit (RbcL) and a small subunit (RbcS). Recent reports have revealed unusual RbcS, which are expressed in particular tissues and confer higher catalytic rate, lesser affinity for CO2 , and a more acidic profile of the activity versus pH. The resulting Rubisco was proposed to be adapted to a high CO2 environment and recycle CO2 generated by the metabolism. These RbcS belong to a cluster named T (for trichome), phylogenetically distant from cluster M, which gathers well-characterized RbcS expressed in mesophyll or bundle-sheath tissues...
March 7, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Ayaka Ito, Chieko Sugita, Mizuho Ichinose, Yoshinobu Kato, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshiharu Shikanai, Mamoru Sugita
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are known to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation in plant organelles. However, the function of the majority of PPR proteins remains unknown. To examine their functions, Physcomitrella patens PpPPR_66 knockout (KO) mutants were generated and characterized. KO mosses exhibited a wild type-like growth phenotype but showed aberrant chlorophyll fluorescence due to defects in chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) activity. Immuno-blot analysis suggested that disruption of PpPPR_66 led to a complete loss of the chloroplast NDH complex...
March 5, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mira Park, Hyun Park, Hyoungseok Lee, Byeong-Ha Lee, Jungeun Lee
Organellar genomes of bryophytes are poorly represented with chloroplast genomes of only four mosses, four liverworts and two hornworts having been sequenced and annotated. Moreover, while Antarctic vegetation is dominated by the bryophytes, there are few reports on the plastid genomes for the Antarctic bryophytes. Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske is one of the most dominant moss species in the maritime Antarctic. It has been researched as an important marker for ecological studies and as an extremophile plant for studies on stress tolerance...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marko S Sabovljević, Marieluise Weidinger, Aneta D Sabovljević, Wolfram Adlassnig, Ingeborg Lang
Bryophytes are usually taken as good bioindicators. However, they represent a large group of terrestrial plants and they express an enormous range of peculiarities within the plant kingdom. With the aim to search for a common pattern of zinc binding, we established axenical in vitro cultures of a dozen bryophyte species that include hornworts, thallose, and leafy liverworts, as well as acrocarp and pleurocarp mosses. The species were grown free of contaminants for many years prior to the application of different treatments, i...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Jussi Jyväsjärvi, Risto Virtanen, Jari Ilmonen, Lauri Paasivirta, Timo Muotka
Surrogate approaches are widely used to estimate overall taxonomic diversity for conservation planning. Surrogate taxa are frequently selected based on rarity or charisma, while selection using statistical modeling has been rarely applied. We used boosted regression tree models (BRT) fitted to biological data from 165 springs to identify bryophyte and invertebrate surrogates for taxonomic and functional diversity of boreal springs. We focused on these two groups because they are well known and abundant in most boreal springs...
February 27, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Jennifer L Morris, Mark N Puttick, James W Clark, Dianne Edwards, Paul Kenrick, Silvia Pressel, Charles H Wellman, Ziheng Yang, Harald Schneider, Philip C J Donoghue
Establishing the timescale of early land plant evolution is essential for testing hypotheses on the coevolution of land plants and Earth's System. The sparseness of early land plant megafossils and stratigraphic controls on their distribution make the fossil record an unreliable guide, leaving only the molecular clock. However, the application of molecular clock methodology is challenged by the current impasse in attempts to resolve the evolutionary relationships among the living bryophytes and tracheophytes...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mark N Puttick, Jennifer L Morris, Tom A Williams, Cymon J Cox, Dianne Edwards, Paul Kenrick, Silvia Pressel, Charles H Wellman, Harald Schneider, Davide Pisani, Philip C J Donoghue
The evolutionary emergence of land plant body plans transformed the planet. However, our understanding of this formative episode is mired in the uncertainty associated with the phylogenetic relationships among bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, and mosses) and tracheophytes (vascular plants). Here we attempt to clarify this problem by analyzing a large transcriptomic dataset with models that allow for compositional heterogeneity between sites. Zygnematophyceae is resolved as sister to land plants, but we obtain several distinct relationships between bryophytes and tracheophytes...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Stefanie Maier, Alexandra Tamm, Dianming Wu, Jennifer Caesar, Martin Grube, Bettina Weber
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover about 12% of the Earth's land masses, thereby providing ecosystem services and affecting biogeochemical fluxes on a global scale. They comprise photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, which grow together with heterotrophic microorganisms, forming a model system to study facilitative interactions and assembly principles in natural communities. Biocrusts can be classified into cyanobacteria-, lichen-, and bryophyte-dominated types, which reflect stages of ecological succession...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
Adolfina Savoretti, Alexander C Bippus, Ruth A Stockey, Gar W Rothwell, Alexandru M F Tomescu
Background and Aims: Widespread and diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are rare in the fossil record, especially in pre-Cenozoic rocks. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known from compression fossils, which lack detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy significantly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) deposits on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora including numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized...
February 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Denis V Goruynov, Svetlana V Goryunova, Oxana I Kuznetsova, Maria D Logacheva, Irina A Milyutina, Alina V Fedorova, Michael S Ignatov, Aleksey V Troitsky
The mitochondrial genome of moss Mielichhoferia elongata has been sequenced and assembled with Spades genome assembler. It consists of 100,342 base pairs and has practically the same gene set and order as in other known bryophyte chondriomes. The genome contains 66 genes including three rRNAs, 24 tRNAs, and 40 conserved mitochondrial proteins genes. Unlike the majority of previously sequenced bryophyte mitogenomes, it lacks the functional nad7 gene. The phylogenetic reconstruction and scrutiny analysis of the primary structure of nad7 gene carried out in this study suggest its independent pseudogenization in different bryophyte lineages...
2018: PeerJ
Sam W Henderson, Stefanie Wege, Matthew Gilliham
Genomes of unicellular and multicellular green algae, mosses, grasses and dicots harbor genes encoding cation-chloride cotransporters (CCC). CCC proteins from the plant kingdom have been comparatively less well investigated than their animal counterparts, but proteins from both plants and animals have been shown to mediate ion fluxes, and are involved in regulation of osmotic processes. In this review, we show that CCC proteins from plants form two distinct phylogenetic clades (CCC1 and CCC2). Some lycophytes and bryophytes possess members from each clade, most land plants only have members of the CCC1 clade, and green algae possess only the CCC2 clade...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jessica M Nelson, Duncan A Hauser, Rosemary Hinson, A Jonathan Shaw
Fungal symbioses are ubiquitous in plants, but their effects have mostly been studied in seed plants. This study aimed to assess the diversity of fungal endophyte effects in a bryophyte and identify factors contributing to the variability of outcomes in these interactions. Fungal endophyte cultures and axenic liverwort clones were isolated from wild populations of the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. These collections were combined in a gnotobiotic system to test the effects of fungal isolates on the growth rates of hosts under laboratory conditions...
February 7, 2018: New Phytologist
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179837.].
2018: PloS One
Andrea J Britton, Ruth J Mitchell, Julia M Fisher, David J Riach, Andy F S Taylor
In alpine ecosystems, nitrogen (N) deposition has been linked to plant community composition change, including loss of bryophytes and increase of graminoids. Since bryophyte growth is stimulated by increased N availability, it has been hypothesized that loss of bryophyte cover is driven by enhanced decomposition. As bryophyte mats are a significant carbon (C) store, their loss may impact C storage in these ecosystems. We used an N deposition gradient across 15 sites in the UK to examine effects of N deposition on bryophyte litter quality, decomposition and C and N stocks in Racomitrium moss-sedge heath...
February 3, 2018: New Phytologist
Shohei Yamaoka, Ryuichi Nishihama, Yoshihiro Yoshitake, Sakiko Ishida, Keisuke Inoue, Misaki Saito, Keitaro Okahashi, Haonan Bao, Hiroyuki Nishida, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Takayuki Kohchi
Land plants differentiate germ cells in the haploid gametophyte. In flowering plants, a generative cell is specified as a precursor that subsequently divides into two sperm cells in the developing male gametophyte, pollen. Generative cell specification requires cell-cycle control and microtubule-dependent nuclear relocation (reviewed in [1-3]). However, the generative cell fate determinant and its evolutionary origin are still unknown. In bryophytes, gametophytes produce eggs and sperm in multicellular reproductive organs called archegonia and antheridia, respectively, or collectively called gametangia...
January 17, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Ruth J Mitchell, Richard L Hewison, Debbie A Fielding, Julia M Fisher, Diana J Gilbert, Sonja Hurskainen, Robin J Pakeman, Jacqueline M Potts, David Riach
The predicted long lag time between a decrease in atmospheric deposition and a measured response in vegetation has generally excluded the investigation of vegetation recovery from the impacts of atmospheric deposition. However, policy-makers require such evidence to assess whether policy decisions to reduce emissions will have a positive impact on habitats. Here we have shown that 40 years after the peak of SOx emissions, decreases in SOx are related to significant changes in species richness and cover in Scottish Calcareous, Mestrophic, Nardus and Wet grasslands...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nagore G Medina, Matthew A Bowker, Joaquín Hortal, Vicente Mazimpaka, Francisco Lara
Species richness is influenced by a nested set of environmental factors, but how do these factors interact across several scales? Our main aim is to disentangle the relative importance of environmental filters and the species pool on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes across spatial scales. To do so, we sampled epiphytic bryophytes in 43 oak forests across the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. As predictors we used climate, descriptors of forest structure and micro-environment. We applied structural equation modeling to relate these variables with richness and cover at three scales: locality (forest), stand (three stands per forest), and sample (a quadrate in a tree)...
January 18, 2018: Oecologia
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