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Bryophytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213348/the-plant-economic-spectrum-in-bryophytes-a-comparative-study-in-subalpine-forest
#1
Zhe Wang, Xin Liu, Maaike Y Bader, Defeng Feng, Weikai Bao
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tradeoffs among functional traits of vascular plants are starting to be better understood, but it is unclear whether bryophytes possess similar tradeoffs or how trait relationships, or the 'economic spectrum', differ between the two groups. METHODS: We determined functional-trait values [including shoot mass per area (SMA), light-saturated assimilation rate (Amass), dark respiration rate (Rdmass), N and P concentrations (Nmass and Pmass), and photosynthetic N and P use efficiency (PNUE and PPUE)] and their bivariate relationships for 28 bryophytes growing in a subalpine old-growth fir forest on the eastern Tibetan Plateau...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194795/diversity-of-winter-photoinhibitory-responses-a-case-study-in-co-occurring-lichens-mosses-herbs-and-woody-plants-from-subalpine-environments
#2
Fátima Míguez, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, José-María Becerril, José-Ignacio García-Plazaola
Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens; (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups; and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery...
February 14, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161902/phylogenomic-analysis-of-gene-co-expression-networks-reveals-the-evolution-of-functional-modules
#3
Colin Ruprecht, Sebastian Proost, Marcela Hernandez-Coronado, Carlos Ortiz-Ramirez, Daniel Lang, Stefan A Rensing, Jörg D Becker, Klaas Vandepoele, Marek Mutwil
Molecular evolutionary studies correlate genomic and phylogenetic information with the emergence of new traits of organisms. These traits are, however, the consequence of dynamic gene networks composed of functional modules, which might not be captured by genomic analyses. Here, we established a method, which combines large-scale genomic and phylogenetic data with gene co-expression networks, to extensively study the evolutionary make-up of modules in the moss Physcomitrella patens and in the angiosperms Arabidopsis thaliana and rice...
February 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160149/dynamic-reorganization-of-the-endomembrane-system-during-spermatogenesis-in-marchantia-polymorpha
#4
Naoki Minamino, Takehiko Kanazawa, Ryuichi Nishihama, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Akihiko Nakano, Takashi Ueda
The processes involved in sexual reproduction have been diversified during plant evolution. Whereas charales, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and some gymnosperms utilize motile sperm as male gametes, in other gymnosperms and angiosperms the immotile sperm cells are delivered to the egg cells through elongated pollen tubes. During formation of the motile sperms, cells undergo a dynamic morphological transformation including drastic changes in shape and the generation of locomotor architecture. The molecular mechanism involved in this process remains mostly unknown...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129598/arsenic-in-stream-waters-is-bioaccumulated-but-neither-biomagnified-through-food-webs-nor-biodispersed-to-land
#5
Luiz U Hepp, João A M S Pratas, Manuel A S Graça
Human activities such as mining have contributed substantially to the increase of metals in aquatic environments worldwide. These metals are bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and can be biomagnified along trophic webs. The dispersal of contaminants from water to land has been little investigated, even though most aquatic invertebrates in streams have aerial stages. We used field and laboratory approaches to investigate the effects of arsenic pollution on stream invertebrate assemblages, and its bioaccumulation, biomagnification and trophic transfer from aquatic to terrestrial environments by emergent insects...
January 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125745/radiocesium-transfer-in-forest-insect-communities-after-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#6
Yumiko Ishii, Seiji Hayashi, Noriko Takamura
To understand radiocesium transfer in the forest insect food web, we investigated the activity concentrations of radiocesium in forest insects in the Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures approximately 1.5-2.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We analyzed 34 species of insects sampled from 4 orders and 4 feeding functional groups (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and detritivore) from three sites in each prefecture. 137Cs activity concentrations were lowest in herbivorous species and were especially high in detritivorous and omnivorous species that feed on forest litter and fungi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120902/targeted-metabolomics-shows-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-signaling-lipids-and-uncovers-old-and-new-endocannabinoids-in-the-plant-kingdom
#7
María Salomé Gachet, Alexandra Schubert, Serafina Calarco, Julien Boccard, Jürg Gertsch
The remarkable absence of arachidonic acid (AA) in seed plants prompted us to systematically study the presence of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, stearic acid, oleic acid, jasmonic acid (JA), N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and endocannabinoids (ECs) in 71 plant species representative of major phylogenetic clades. Given the difficulty of extrapolating information about lipid metabolites from genetic data we employed targeted metabolomics using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS to study these signaling lipids in plant evolution...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093875/what-are-the-evolutionary-origins-of-stomatal-responses-to-abscisic-acid-aba-in-land-plants
#8
Frances C Sussmilch, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam
The evolution of active stomatal closure in response to leaf water deficit, mediated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA), has been the subject of recent debate. Two different models for the timing of the evolution of this response recur in the literature. A single-step model for stomatal control suggests that stomata evolved active, ABA-mediated control of stomatal aperture, when these structures first appeared, prior to the divergence of bryophyte and vascular plant lineages. In contrast, a gradualistic model for stomatal control proposes that the most basal vascular plant stomata responded passively to changes in leaf water status...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079939/functional-ecology-of-cryptogams-scaling-from-bryophyte-lichen-and-soil-crust-traits-to-ecosystem-processes
#9
Kirsten K Deane-Coe, Daniel Stanton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053893/bryophytes-hoard-of-remedies-an-ethno-medicinal-review
#10
REVIEW
Satish Chandra, Dinesh Chandra, Anupam Barh, Pankaj, Raj Kumar Pandey, Ishwar Prakash Sharma
Bryophytes are the second largest group of land plants after angiosperms. There is very less knowledge available about medicinal properties of these plants. Bryophytes are popular remedy among the tribal people of different parts of the world. Tribal people use these plants to cure various ailments in their daily lives. Bryophytes are used to cure hepatic disorders, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, used as antipyretic, antimicrobial, wound healing and many more other ailments by different tribal communities of Africa, America, Europe, Poland, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, Japan, Taiwan, Pakistan, China, Nepal and different parts of South, North and Eastern India...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018410/molecular-evolution-and-expression-divergence-of-the-aconitase-aco-gene-family-in-land-plants
#11
Yi-Ming Wang, Qi Yang, Yan-Jing Liu, Hai-Ling Yang
Aconitase (ACO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and glyoxylate cycles. The function of ACOs has been well studied in model plants, such as Arabidopsis. In contrast, the evolutionary patterns of the ACO family in land plants are poorly understood. In this study, we systematically examined the molecular evolution and expression divergence of the ACO gene family in 12 land plant species. Thirty-six ACO genes were identified from the 12 land plant species representing the four major land plant lineages: Bryophytes, lycophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011869/pcom-db-update-a-protein-co-migration-database-for-photosynthetic-organisms
#12
Atsushi Takabayashi, Saeka Takabayashi, Kaori Takahashi, Mai Watanabe, Hiroko Uchida, Akio Murakami, Tomomichi Fujita, Masahiko Ikeuchi, Ayumi Tanaka
The identification of protein complexes is important to understand protein structure and function, and the regulation of cellular processes. We used blue-native PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry to identify protein complexes systematically, and built a web database, the protein co-migration database (PCoM-DB, http://pcomdb.lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp/proteins/top), to provide prediction tools for protein complexes. PCoM-DB provides migration profiles for any given protein of interest, and allows users to compare them with migration profiles of other proteins, showing the oligomeric states of proteins and thus identifying potential interaction partners...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011112/the-artificial-and-natural-isotopes-distribution-in-sedge-carex-l-biomass-from-the-yenisei-river-flood-plain-adaptation-of-the-sequential-elution-technique
#13
Marya Kropacheva, Mikhail Melgunov, Irina Makarova
The study of migration pathways of artificial isotopes in the flood-plain biogeocoenoses, impacted by the nuclear fuel cycle plants, requires determination of isotope speciations in the biomass of higher terrestrial plants. The optimal method for their determination is the sequential elution technique (SET). The technique was originally developed to study atmospheric pollution by metals and has been applied to lichens, terrestrial and aquatic bryophytes. Due to morphological and physiological differences, it was necessary to adapt SET for new objects: coastal macrophytes growing on the banks of the Yenisei flood-plain islands in the near impact zone of Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC)...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007566/by-how-much-do-we-underestimate-species-diversity-of-liverworts-using-morphological-evidence-an-example-from-australasian-plagiochila-plagiochilaceae-jungermanniopsida
#14
Matt A M Renner, Margaret M Heslewood, Simon D F Patzak, Alfons Schäfer-Verwimp, Jochen Heinrichs
As a framework for revisionary study of the leafy liverwort Plagiochila in Australia, two methods for species delimitation on molecular sequence data, General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) were applied to a dataset including 265 individuals from Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. Groups returned by GMYC and ABGD were incongruent in some lineages, and ABGD tended to lump groups. This may reflect underlying heterogeneity in the history of diversification within different lineages of Plagiochila...
December 19, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992818/historical-peat-loss-explains-limited-short-term-response-of-drained-blanket-bogs-to-rewetting
#15
Jennifer Williamson, Edwin Rowe, David Reed, Lucia Ruffino, Peter Jones, Rachel Dolan, Helen Buckingham, David Norris, Shaun Astbury, Chris D Evans
This study assessed the short-term impacts of ditch blocking on water table depth and vegetation community structure in a historically drained blanket bog. A chronosequence approach was used to compare vegetation near ditches blocked 5 years, 4 years and 1 year prior to the study with vegetation near unblocked ditches. Plots adjacent to and 3 m away from 70 ditches within an area of blanket bog were assessed for floristic composition, aeration depth using steel bars, and topography using LiDAR data. No changes in aeration depth or vegetation parameters were detected as a function of ditch-blocking, time since blocking, or distance from the ditch, with the exception of non-Sphagnum bryophytes which had lower cover in quadrats adjacent to ditches that had been blocked for 5 years...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933331/characterization-of-arsenic-biotransformation-by-a-typical-bryophyte-physcomitrella-patens
#16
Xixiang Yin, Lihong Wang, Yifei Liu, Tenglong Jiang, Jianwei Gao
Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that has created catastrophic human health and environmental problems around world. Physcomitrella patens is a potential model plant for the study of environmental monitoring, which exists in all kinds of ecosystems. In this study, arsenic metabolism was investigated by this moss. When supplied with different levels of arsenate (50, 100, 200 µmol/L) for a 4-week period, the total arsenic concentrations were up to 231.4-565.4 mg/kg DW in this moss. Arsenite concentration increased with increasing external arsenate concentrations, the proportion was up to 25...
February 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923130/plant-evo-devo-how-tip-growth-evolved
#17
Stefan A Rensing
Apical elongation of polarized plant cells (tip growth) occurs in root hairs of flowering plants and in rhizoids of bryophytes. A new report shows that the formation of these cells relies on genes already present in the first land plants.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920791/extending-a-single-residue-switch-for-abbreviating-catalysis-in-plant-ent-kaurene-synthases
#18
Meirong Jia, Reuben J Peters
Production of ent-kaurene as a precursor for important signaling molecules such as the gibberellins seems to have arisen early in plant evolution, with corresponding cyclase(s) present in all land plants (i.e., embryophyta). The relevant enzymes seem to represent fusion of the class II diterpene cyclase that produces the intermediate ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP) and the subsequently acting class I diterpene synthase that produces ent-kaurene, although the bifunctionality of the ancestral gene is only retained in certain early diverging plants, with gene duplication and sub-functionalization leading to distinct ent-CPP synthases and ent-kaurene synthases (KSs) generally observed...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896464/a-hypergravity-environment-increases-chloroplast-size-photosynthesis-and-plant-growth-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#19
Kaori Takemura, Hiroyuki Kamachi, Atsushi Kume, Tomomichi Fujita, Ichirou Karahara, Yuko T Hanba
The physiological and anatomical responses of bryophytes to altered gravity conditions will provide crucial information for estimating how plant physiological traits have evolved to adapt to significant increases in the effects of gravity in land plant history. We quantified changes in plant growth and photosynthesis in the model plant of mosses, Physcomitrella patens, grown under a hypergravity environment for 25 days or 8 weeks using a custom-built centrifuge equipped with a lighting system. This is the first study to examine the response of bryophytes to hypergravity conditions...
January 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895654/a-comprehensive-phylogeny-reveals-functional-conservation-of-the-uv-b-photoreceptor-uvr8-from-green-algae-to-higher-plants
#20
María B Fernández, Vanesa Tossi, Lorenzo Lamattina, Raúl Cassia
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is present in sunlight (280-315 nm) and has diverse effects on living organisms. Low fluence rate of exposure induces a specific photomorphogenic response regulated by the UV-B response locus 8 (UVR8) receptor. UVR8 was first described in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the absence of stimuli it is located in the cytoplasm as a homodimer. However, upon UV-B irradiation, it switches to a monomer and interacts with the ubiquitin ligase E3 COP1 via the UVR8 β-propeller domain and the VP core. This induces the expression of the transcription factor HY5 leading to changes in the expression of genes associated with UV-B acclimation and stress tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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