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Bryophytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424206/extending-the-fossil-record-of-polytrichaceae-early-cretaceous-meantoinea-alophosioides-gen-et-sp-nov-permineralized-gametophytes-with-gemma-cups-from-vancouver-island
#1
Alexander C Bippus, Ruth A Stockey, Gar W Rothwell, Alexandru M F Tomescu
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421087/evolutionary-analysis-of-the-lafl-genes-involved-in-the-land-plant-seed-maturation-program
#2
Jing-Dan Han, Xia Li, Chen-Kun Jiang, Gane K-S Wong, Carl J Rothfels, Guang-Yuan Rao
Seeds are one of the most significant innovations in the land plant lineage, critical to the diversification and adaptation of plants to terrestrial environments. From perspective of seed evo-devo, the most crucial developmental stage in this innovation is seed maturation, which includes accumulation of storage reserves, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and induction of dormancy. Based on previous studies of seed development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, seed maturation is mainly controlled by the LAFL regulatory network, which includes LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) of the NF-YB gene family, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and LEC2 (LEAFY COTYLEDON2) of the B3-AFL gene family...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420490/are-herbarium-mosses-reliable-indicators-of-historical-nitrogen-deposition
#3
Tora Finderup Nielsen, Jesper Ruf Larsen, Anders Michelsen, Hans Henrik Bruun
Mosses collected decades ago and stored in herbaria are often used to assess historical nitrogen deposition. This method is effectively based on the assumption that tissue N concentration remains constant during storage. The present study raises serious doubt about the generality of that assumption. We measured tissue N and C concentrations as well as δ(15)N, δ(13)C, Pb and Mg in herbarium and present day samples of seven bryophyte species from six sites across Denmark. While an increase in nitrogen deposition during the last century is well-documented for the study site, we surprisingly found foliar N concentration to be higher in historical samples than in modern samples...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420186/using-moss-to-assess-airborne-heavy-metal-pollution-in-taizhou-china
#4
Xiaoli Zhou, Qin Chen, Chang Liu, Yanming Fang
Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum) were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404725/evolution-of-the-stomatal-regulation-of-plant-water-content
#5
Timothy John Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam
Terrestrial productivity today is regulated by stomatal movements, but this has only been the case since "stomatophytes" became dominant on the land 390 million years ago. In this review we examine evidence for the function of early stomata, found on or near the reproductive structures of bryophyte-like fossils, and consider how this function may have changed through time as vascular plants evolved and diversified. We explore the controversial insights that have come from observing natural variation, rather than genetic manipulation, as a primary tool for understanding the function of the stomatal valve system...
April 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374741/impacts-of-the-removal-of-shrubs-on-the-physiological-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-syntrichia-caninervis-mitt-in-a-temperate-desert
#6
Ben-Feng Yin, Yuan-Ming Zhang, An-Ru Lou
Moss crusts play important roles in biological soil crusts biomass and soil surface stabilization. However, because of increasingly intensive human activities, especially grazing, the growth and survival of shrubs are seriously threatened. This study aimed to test whether the presence of shrubs affects the physiological state of the bryophyte Syntrichia caninervis Mitt. in this desert ecosystem. We simulated animal-grazed shrubs at three levels in the Gurbantunggut Desert and compared these simulations to exposed areas, measuring the indicators of growth and stress tolerance exhibited by bryophytes...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360923/adaptation-mechanisms-in-the-evolution-of-moss-defenses-to-microbes
#7
REVIEW
Inés Ponce de León, Marcos Montesano
Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330560/an-event-of-alternative-splicing-affects-the-expression-of-the-ntrc-gene-encoding-nadph-thioredoxin-reductase-c-in-seed-plants
#8
Victoria A Nájera, María Cruz González, Juan Manuel Pérez-Ruiz, Francisco Javier Cejudo
The NTRC gene encodes a NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase with a joint thioredoxin domain, exclusive of photosynthetic organisms. An updated search shows that although most species harbor a single copy of the NTRC gene, two copies were identified in different species of the genus Solanum, Glycine max and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phylogenetic analysis of NTRCs from different sources produced a tree with the major groups of photosynthetic organisms: cyanobacteria, algae and land plants, indicating the evolutionary success of the NTRC gene among photosynthetic eukaryotes...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303193/biodiversity-in-agricultural-landscapes-the-effect-of-apple-cultivar-on-epiphyte-diversity
#9
C Robin Stevenson, Chantel Davies, Jennifer K Rowntree
In natural systems, extended phenotypes of trees can be important in determining the species composition and diversity of associated communities. Orchards are productive systems where trees dominate, and can be highly biodiverse, but few studies have considered the importance of tree genetic background in promoting associated biodiversity. We tested the effect of apple cultivar (plant genetic background) on the diversity and composition of the associated epiphytic bryophyte community across a total of seven cultivars in five productive East Anglian orchards where each orchard contained two cultivars...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267501/evolution-of-plant-cell-wall-arabinogalactan-proteins-from-three-moss-genera-show-structural-differences-compared-to-seed-plants
#10
Desirée Bartels, Alexander Baumann, Malte Maeder, Thomas Geske, Esther Marie Heise, Klaus von Schwartzenberg, Birgit Classen
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are important proteoglycans of plant cell walls. They seem to be present in most, if not all seed plants, but their occurrence and structure in bryophytes is widely unknown and actually the focus of AGP research. With regard to evolution of plant cell wall, we isolated AGPs from the three mosses Sphagnum sp., Physcomitrella patens and Polytrichastrum formosum. The moss AGPs show structural characteristics common for AGPs of seed plants, but also unique features, especially 3-O-methyl-rhamnose (trivial name acofriose) as terminal monosaccharide not found in arabinogalactan-proteins of angiosperms and 1,2,3-linked galactose as branching point never found in arabinogalactan-proteins before...
May 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263997/total-flavonoid-concentrations-of-bryophytes-from-tianmu-mountain-zhejiang-province-china-phylogeny-and-ecological-factors
#11
Xin Wang, Jianguo Cao, Xiling Dai, Jianbo Xiao, Yuhuan Wu, Quanxi Wang
The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244104/early-evolution-of-the-land-plant-circadian-clock
#12
Anna-Malin Linde, D Magnus Eklund, Akane Kubota, Eric R A Pederson, Karl Holm, Niclas Gyllenstrand, Ryuichi Nishihama, Nils Cronberg, Tomoaki Muranaka, Tokitaka Oyama, Takayuki Kohchi, Ulf Lagercrantz
While angiosperm clocks can be described as an intricate network of interlocked transcriptional feedback loops, clocks of green algae have been modelled as a loop of only two genes. To investigate the transition from a simple clock in algae to a complex one in angiosperms, we performed an inventory of circadian clock genes in bryophytes and charophytes. Additionally, we performed functional characterization of putative core clock genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the hornwort Anthoceros agrestis...
February 28, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236481/biomass-assessment-of-microbial-surface-communities-by-means-of-hyperspectral-remote-sensing-data
#13
Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Max Paul, Alexandra Tamm, Jennifer Caesar, Burkhard Büdel, Paula Escribano, Joachim Hill, Bettina Weber
Dryland vegetation developed morphological and physiological strategies to cope with drought. However, as aridity increases, vascular plant coverage gets sparse and microbially-dominated surface communities (MSC), comprising cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotropic bacteria, archaea and fungi, gain relevance. Nevertheless, the relevance of MSC net primary productivity has only rarely been considered in ecosystem scale studies, and detailed information on their contribution to the total photosynthetic biomass reservoir is largely missing...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213348/the-plant-economic-spectrum-in-bryophytes-a-comparative-study-in-subalpine-forest
#14
Zhe Wang, Xin Liu, Maaike Y Bader, Defeng Feng, Weikai Bao
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tradeoffs among functional traits of vascular plants are starting to be better understood, but it is unclear whether bryophytes possess similar tradeoffs or how trait relationships, or the 'economic spectrum', differ between the two groups. METHODS: We determined functional-trait values [including shoot mass per area (SMA), light-saturated assimilation rate (Amass), dark respiration rate (Rdmass), N and P concentrations (Nmass and Pmass), and photosynthetic N and P use efficiency (PNUE and PPUE)] and their bivariate relationships for 28 bryophytes growing in a subalpine old-growth fir forest on the eastern Tibetan Plateau...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194795/diversity-of-winter-photoinhibitory-responses-a-case-study-in-co-occurring-lichens-mosses-herbs-and-woody-plants-from-subalpine-environments
#15
Fátima Míguez, Beatriz Fernández-Marín, José-María Becerril, José-Ignacio García-Plazaola
Winter evergreens living in mountainous areas have to withstand a harsh combination of high light levels and low temperatures in wintertime. In response, evergreens can activate a photoprotective process that consists of the down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, referred to as winter photoinhibition (WPI). WPI has been studied mainly in woody evergreens and crops even when, in many instances, other functional groups such as lichens or bryophytes dominate in alpine and boreal habitats. Thus, we aimed to (1) assess the occurrence of WPI within overwintering evergreens comprising woody species, herbs, mosses and lichens; (2) compare the recovery kinetics among those groups; and (3) clarify the role of thylakoid proteins and pigments in both processes: WPI and recovery...
February 14, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161902/phylogenomic-analysis-of-gene-co-expression-networks-reveals-the-evolution-of-functional-modules
#16
Colin Ruprecht, Sebastian Proost, Marcela Hernandez-Coronado, Carlos Ortiz-Ramirez, Daniel Lang, Stefan A Rensing, Jörg D Becker, Klaas Vandepoele, Marek Mutwil
Molecular evolutionary studies correlate genomic and phylogenetic information with the emergence of new traits of organisms. These traits are, however, the consequence of dynamic gene networks composed of functional modules, which might not be captured by genomic analyses. Here, we established a method that combines large-scale genomic and phylogenetic data with gene co-expression networks to extensively study the evolutionary make-up of modules in the moss Physcomitrella patens, and in the angiosperms Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice)...
May 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160149/dynamic-reorganization-of-the-endomembrane-system-during-spermatogenesis-in-marchantia-polymorpha
#17
Naoki Minamino, Takehiko Kanazawa, Ryuichi Nishihama, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Akihiko Nakano, Takashi Ueda
The processes involved in sexual reproduction have been diversified during plant evolution. Whereas charales, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and some gymnosperms utilize motile sperm as male gametes, in other gymnosperms and angiosperms the immotile sperm cells are delivered to the egg cells through elongated pollen tubes. During formation of the motile sperms, cells undergo a dynamic morphological transformation including drastic changes in shape and the generation of locomotor architecture. The molecular mechanism involved in this process remains mostly unknown...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129598/arsenic-in-stream-waters-is-bioaccumulated-but-neither-biomagnified-through-food-webs-nor-biodispersed-to-land
#18
Luiz U Hepp, João A M S Pratas, Manuel A S Graça
Human activities such as mining have contributed substantially to the increase of metals in aquatic environments worldwide. These metals are bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and can be biomagnified along trophic webs. The dispersal of contaminants from water to land has been little investigated, even though most aquatic invertebrates in streams have aerial stages. We used field and laboratory approaches to investigate the effects of arsenic pollution on stream invertebrate assemblages, and its bioaccumulation, biomagnification and trophic transfer from aquatic to terrestrial environments by emergent insects...
January 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125745/radiocesium-transfer-in-forest-insect-communities-after-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#19
Yumiko Ishii, Seiji Hayashi, Noriko Takamura
To understand radiocesium transfer in the forest insect food web, we investigated the activity concentrations of radiocesium in forest insects in the Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures approximately 1.5-2.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We analyzed 34 species of insects sampled from 4 orders and 4 feeding functional groups (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and detritivore) from three sites in each prefecture. 137Cs activity concentrations were lowest in herbivorous species and were especially high in detritivorous and omnivorous species that feed on forest litter and fungi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120902/targeted-metabolomics-shows-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-signaling-lipids-and-uncovers-old-and-new-endocannabinoids-in-the-plant-kingdom
#20
María Salomé Gachet, Alexandra Schubert, Serafina Calarco, Julien Boccard, Jürg Gertsch
The remarkable absence of arachidonic acid (AA) in seed plants prompted us to systematically study the presence of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, stearic acid, oleic acid, jasmonic acid (JA), N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and endocannabinoids (ECs) in 71 plant species representative of major phylogenetic clades. Given the difficulty of extrapolating information about lipid metabolites from genetic data we employed targeted metabolomics using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS to study these signaling lipids in plant evolution...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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