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Marie-Paule Fernandez-Gerlinger, Robin Arvieu, David Lebeaux, Karama Rouis, Pierre Guigui, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Benjamin Bouyer
Background: The incidence of spinal surgical site infections (SSI) remains stable at less than 10%. Surgical reinterventions may be hampered by decubitus, treatment-related adverse events, and cost. In the context of emergence of bacterial resistance, a short duration of antimicrobial treatment is of critical importance. If the duration of treatment for SSI is currently 12 weeks, the aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of an antimicrobial treatment shortened to six weeks. Method: This prospective study was carried out from November 2014 to July 2016 in an 827-bed teaching hospital...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Geeta Ram, Hope F Ross, Richard P Novick, Ivelisse Rodriguez-Pagan, Dunrong Jiang
Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococci continue to cause life-threatening infections in both hospital and community settings. They have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics, especially β-lactams and aminoglycosides, and their infections are now, in many cases, untreatable. Here we present a non-antibiotic, non-phage method of treating staphylococcal infections by engineering of the highly mobile staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). We replaced the SaPIs' toxin genes with antibacterial cargos to generate antibacterial drones (ABDs) that target the infecting bacteria in the animal host, express their cargo, kill or disarm the bacteria and thus abrogate the infection...
September 24, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Cyrus Caroom, Dustin Moore, Nithya Mudaliar, Craig Winkler, Jefferson Murphree, Ian Ratheal, Michael Fry, Mark Jenkins, Jessica Tullar, Abdul Hamood
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of both vancomycin powder and antibiotic bead placement to irrigation and debridement alone in prevention of infection in a contaminated open fracture model in rats. METHODS: In a previously described model of contaminated open fractures, 45 rats had simulated open fractures created, stabilized, and contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. They were then treated 6 hours later with 3 interventions: irrigation and debridement alone (control group) or in combination with placement of polymethyl methacrylate beads containing vancomycin and tobramycin powders (antibiotic bead group) or placement of 10 mg of intrawound vancomycin powder (powder group)...
October 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Sania Naz, Javeed Akhtar, Muhammad Fayyaz Chaudhary, Muhammad Zia
In this work, the authors report a facile low-temperature wet-chemical route to prepare morphology-tailored hierarchical structures (HS) of copper oxide. The preparation of copper oxide collides was carried out using varying concentrations of copper acetate and a reducing agent at a constant temperature of 50°C. The prepared HS of CuO were characterised by powdered X-rays diffraction that indicates phase pure having monoclinic structures. The morphology was further confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscope...
October 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Aayushi Biswas, Chhangte Vanlalveni, Partha Pradip Adhikari, Ralte Lalfakzuala, Lalthazuala Rokhum
Green synthesis of nanoparticles is considered an efficient method when compared with chemical and physical methods because of its bulk production, eco-friendliness and low cost norms. The present study reports, for the first time, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature using Solanum viarum fruit extract. The visual appearance of brownish colour with an absorption band at 450 nm, as detected by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer analysis, confirmed the formation of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the AgNPs to be crystalline with a face-centred lattice...
October 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Oriana Motta, Iliana Zarrella, Raffaele Cucciniello, Mario Capunzo, Francesco De Caro
A possible tool to reduce nosocomial infections is to identify unknown sources of contamination and then to provide a measure for controlling the related infections. In this study, solid hospital waste was considered a potential source of contamination, and a strategy to reduce the potential risk of pathogen contamination was tested. This paper describes a novel technique for waste management in healthcare settings with a view to facilitating infection prevention and control. We explored the innovative use of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) by investigating the microbicidal activity of chlorine, which derives from the hydrolysis of NaDCC mediated by humidity, and by testing its effect on the inhibition of microorganism growth...
September 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Angelo S Pretto, Luana Pretto, Aline F D Souza, Eduardo M Chem, Pedro B Ely, Renan R Bonamigo
BACKGROUND: An allogeneic human skin graft is a temporary biologic dressing used in extensive burns that can be a providential treatment for affected patients. Skin quality depends directly on its microbial decontamination after processing in a tissue bank. Our objective was to describe the skin donor profiles in relation to the analysis of the microbial colonization of the donated skin. METHODS: This clinical study includes epidemiological and microbiological data on skin donors from 2012 to 2014...
September 23, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Amit Karmakar, Debarati Jana, Kunal Dutta, Parimal Dua, Chandradipa Ghosh
Panton-Valentine leukocidin ( luk-pv ) is a cytotoxin that causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the pv1 , mecA , and nuc genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from anterior nares and superficial infection sites of skin in a slum population of West Bengal, India. Expression level of pv1 gene was also analysed. Twenty-two S. aureus strains were isolated, and phenotype and genotype specific examinations for S. aureus isolates were carried out...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Stephen Albano, Blake Berman, Glenn Fischberg, Javed Siddiqi, Bolin Liu, Yasir Khan, Atif Zafar, Syed A Quadri, Mudassir Farooqui
Background: Nosocomial EVD-related ventriculitis is a major complication and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill neurological patients. Questions remain about best management of EVDs. The purpose of this study is to compare our incidence of ventriculitis to studies using different catheters and/or antibiotic coverage schemes and determine whether c-EVD with prolonged antibiotics given for the duration of drain placement is inferior to ac-EVD with pp-abx or ac-EVD with prolonged antibiotics for prevention of ventriculitis...
2018: Neurology Research International
N Ishitobi, T-W Wan, O E Khokhlova, L-J Teng, Y Yamamori, T Yamamoto
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) with ST8/SCC mec IV threatens human health. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. ST8 CA-MRSA (CA-MRSA/J) with SCC mec IVl, which carries the large LPXTG-motif-containing putative adhesin gene, spj, has emerged in Japan. We present the first reported case of death from CA-MRSA/J. The patient was a 64-year-old woman with iliopsoas abscesses complicated by septic pulmonary embolism and multiorgan abscesses. Vancomycin, arbekacin, daptomycin and rifampicin were ineffective...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
S Abbasian, N N Farahani, Z Mir, F Alinejad, M Haeili, M Dahmardehei, M Mirzaii, S S Khoramrooz, M J Nasiri, D Darban-Sarokhalil
Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remain a major global healthcare problem. We aimed to find the common lineages of S. aureus strains circulating in a burn hospital in Tehran. A total of 167 isolates of S. aureus obtained from patients, healthcare workers (HCWs) and environment in Shahid Motahari burn hospital were genotyped by using spa, agr and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by using the disc diffusion method...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Lesley Maurice Bilung, Ahmad Syatir Tahar, Rosdi Kira, Aina Ariffah Mohd Rozali, Kasing Apun
Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of cutaneous bacterial infection involving community. Methods: In this study, a total of 42 swab samples were collected from the surface of various fitness equipment such as back machines, exercise mats, dip stations, dumbbells, and treadmills. Identification of the bacterial isolates was conducted using biochemical tests and further analysed molecularly using the PCR method targeting nuc gene (270 bp). The nuc gene encodes for the thermonuclease enzyme, a virulent factor of S...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Swat Kim Kerk, Hui Ying Lai, Siu Kwan Sze, Kee Woei Ng, Artur Schmidtchen, Sunil S Adav
Apart from the skin surface, hair represents a significant tissue component with a capacity of bacterial interactions. New information can be obtained about hair function through the characterization of bacterial adherence, colonization, and responses to hair shafts per se. In this proof-of-principle study, we examine the growth kinetics of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli in the presence of human hair shafts. We explore the ability of these bacteria to adhere to and colonize hair shaft surfaces, as well as the resulting impact on the hair's surface morphology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Louise Bruun Oestergaard, Michelle D S Schmiegelow, Niels E Bruun, Robert Skov, Paal S Andersen, Anders R Larsen, Thomas A Gerds, Anders Dahl, Andreas Petersen, Trine K Lauridsen, Ulrikka Nygaard, Christian Torp-Pedersen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between comorbidities and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children aged 5-18 years, thus, in children with a matured immune system. Further, we aimed to identify presumably healthy children acquiring bacteremia. STUDY DESIGN: By cross-linking nationwide registries, we consecutively included all children born from 1995 onward at their 5-year birthday or date of immigration during 2000-2015. We examined incidence rate ratios (IRR) between preselected exposures and microbiologically verified S aureus bacteremia (reference = children without exposure) using Poisson regression models...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Tisungane Mvalo, Brian Eley, Colleen Bamford, Christopher Stanley, Maganizo Chagomerana, Marc Hendricks, Ann Van Eyssen, Alan Davidson
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the epidemiology of bloodstream infection (BSI) in oncology patients at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH), Cape Town with focus on the commonest causes, complications and antimicrobial susceptibilities in BSI. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the haematology-oncology unit of RCWMCH. All positive blood cultures from RCWMCH oncology patients taken in 2012 to 2014 were retrieved to identify BSI cases...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Chintan Pansara, Wei Yee Chan, Ankitkumar Parikh, Darren J Trott, Tejal Mehta, Renuka Mishra, Sanjay Garg
Antimicrobial resistance at the infected site is a serious medical issue that increases patient morbidity and mortality. Silver has antibacterial activity associated with some dose dependent toxicity. Silver nanoparticles, due to larger surface area, have antibacterial properties which make them useful in the treatment of infections. Chitosan stabilised silver nanoparticles (CH-AgNP) were formulated and evaluated for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) testing against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and 20 methicillin-resistant S...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Melisa A Quinteros, AristizabalViviana Cano, Renné Onnainty, Verónica S Mary, G Theumer Martín, Gladys E Granero, María G Paraje, Paulina L Páez
The oxidative stress generation in bacteria by the presence of antibiotics (in this case silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)) is already widely known. Previously, we demonstrated that AgNPs generate oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli mediated by the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work we are demonstrating the consequences of the oxidative stress by the presence of AgNPs; these bacterial strains increased the levels of oxidized proteins and lipids. In addition, it was possible to determine which reactive oxygen species are mainly responsible for the oxidative damage to macromolecules...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Hiromu Takemura, Toru Mochizuki
The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare established the Japanese Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (JANIS) system in July 2000 to provide nationwide epidemiological information. The data of all clinically isolated bacteria at participating hospitals were collected, treated according to a protocol, and analyzed by the JANIS office. Nationwide and individual hospital data were reported to participating hospitals monthly and yearly. In this study, we surveyed local antimicrobial resistance of clinically isolated bacteria in Kawasaki City between 2014 and 2016 using JANIS data...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Jinjuan Qiao, Xiangying Meng, Yufang Sun, Qian Li, Ronglan Zhao, Yun Zhang, Jiaqi Wang, Zhengjun Yi
Accurate and rapid identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is of important clinical significance. In this study, a novel aptamer-based fluorometric assay was developed for detection of MRSA in clinical samples by coupling with immunomagnetic separation. The S. aureus cells in clinical specimens were enriched by magnetic separation. Following lysis by staphylococcal lysin, the PBP2a proteins were released from S. aureus cells and detected by the aptamer-based fluorometric assay. Without lengthy period of bacteria cultivation in the traditional susceptibility testing, this test has an overall testing time of only 2 h with the detection limit of 2...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Jian Miao, Wenxin Wang, Wenyi Xu, Jianyu Su, Lin Li, Bing Li, Xia Zhang, Zhenbo Xu
As a typical Gram-positive microorganism, S. aureus was recognized as common foodborne pathogenic bacteria in food industry. To study their individuality and pathogenicity mechanism, thirty-three Staphylococci strains were applied to the investigation with the identification of MRSA by PCR targeting on S. aureus specific 16S rRNA and femA genes as well as methicillin-resistant mecA and orfX elements by multiplex-PCR assay. Fingerprinting mapping was then employed using three typing systems (KZ/M13, IS256 and ERIC2) to genotype 33 MRSA strains...
September 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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