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Troy A Skwor, Stephanie Klemm, Hanyu Zhang, Brianna Schardt, Stephanie Blaszczyk, Matthew A Bork
Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics threatens proper clinical treatment and jeopardizes their use in prevention. A photodynamic approach appears to be an innovative treatment option, even for multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Three components are utilized in photodynamic inactivation: a photosensitizer, light source, and oxygen. Variations in photosensitizers strongly influence microbial binding and bactericidal activity. In this study, four different cationic metalloporphyrins (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Pd(2+), Zn(2+)) were compared to the free-base ligand 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin regarding their electronic properties and generation of reactive oxygen species upon subsequent 405nm violet-blue irradiation...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Fufa Qu, Zhiming Xiang, Yang Zhang, Jun Li, Shu Xiao, Yuehuan Zhang, Fan Mao, Haitao Ma, Ziniu Yu
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are conserved serine/threonine-specific kinases that are activated by various extracellular stimuli and play crucial regulatory roles in immunity, development and homeostasis. However, the function of p38s in mollusks, the second most diverse group of animals, is still poorly understood. In this study, a novel molluscan p38 (designated Chp38) was cloned and characterized from the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. Its full-length cDNA encoded a putative protein of 353 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of approximately 40...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Angelico Mendy, Edgar R Vieira, Ahmed N Albatineh, Janvier Gasana
To examine the association of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and general population mortality, we followed 10,598 adults for 8.5 years on average. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus colonization was not associated with death. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage predicted death in a crude analysis but not after adjustment for socioeconomic status and co-morbidities.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Min Li, Yanan Wang, Yuanjun Zhu, Yingxin Dai, Xufen Hong, Qian Liu, Tianming Li, Juanxiu Qin, Xiaowei Ma, Huiying Lu, Jie Xu, Michael Otto
During 2005-2014, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections increased in Shanghai, China. Most infections were caused by sequence type 59 S. aureus that lacked Panton-Valentine leukocidin. This finding challenges the notion that Panton-Valentine leukocidin is necessary for epidemiologic success of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Erlin Zhang, Jing Ren, Shengyi Li, Lei Yang, Gaowu Qin
Ti-Cu sintered alloys have shown good antibacterial abilities. However, the sintered method (powder metallurgy) is not convenient to produce devices with a complex structure. In this paper, Ti-Cu alloys with 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 wt.% Cu were prepared in an arc melting furnace and subjected to different heat treatments: solid solution and ageing, to explore the possibility of preparing an antibacterial Ti-Cu alloy by a casting method and to examine the effect of Cu content. Phase identification was conducted on an XRD diffraction meter, and the microstructure was observed by a metallographic microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Elizabeth A Neuner, Andrea M Pallotta, Simon W Lam, David Stowe, Steven M Gordon, Gary W Procop, Sandra S Richter
OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Shakeela Yasmeen, Sajjad Hussain Sumrra, Muhammad Safwan Akram, Zahid H Chohan
A novel series of thiophene derived Schiff bases and their transition metal- [Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II)] based compounds are reported. The Schiff bases act as tridentate ligands toward metal ions via azomethine-N, deprotonated-N of ammine substituents and S-atom of thienyl moiety. The synthesized ligands along with their metal complexes were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal pathogens (Trichophytonlongifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Ummara Butt, Amr ElShaer, Lori A S Snyder, Athina Chaidemenou, Raid G Alany
Fatty acids (FAs) are used by many organisms as defence mechanism against virulent bacteria. The high safety profile and broad spectrum of activity make them potential alternatives to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of eye infections in neonates. The current study utilised a Design of Experiment approach to optimise the quantification of five fatty acids namely; lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The significance of the influence of the experimental parameters such as volume of catalyst, volume of n-hexane, incubation temperature, incubation time and the number of extraction steps on derivatisation was established by statistical screening with a factorial approach...
October 20, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (Zinforo™), a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite ceftaroline, is approved for use in adults and children (from 2 months of age) with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In several multinational trials, ceftaroline fosamil was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in adult and paediatric patients with cSSTIs or CAP. In the phase 3 CANVAS trials, ceftaroline fosamil treatment was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam in adults with cSSTIs...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
R Fussen, S Lemmen
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria present an increasing threat for intensive care patients. Whereas colonization of intensive care patients with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in German ICUs has remained at a constant level in recent years and therapeutic options have improved, colonization and infections with MDR gram-negative bacteria and vancomycin-resistant enterococci are increasing year by year. Only a few or even no therapeutic options remain for the treatment of these bacteria...
October 20, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Karolina Bierowiec, Katarzyna Płoneczka-Janeczko, Krzysztof Rypuła
Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a significant pathogen in both human medicine and veterinary medicine. The importance of pets as reservoirs of human infections is still poorly understood. This article provides detailed information of a cross-sectional study of a S. aureus colonization in clinically healthy indoor cats. The study systematically assessed a number of different anatomical locations for the S. aureus colonization and the influence of a range of potential risk factors on the value of the final S...
2016: BioMed Research International
Daniela Albanesi, Diego de Mendoza
Phospholipids and fatty acids are not only one of the major components of cell membranes but also important metabolic intermediates in bacteria. Since the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway is essential and energetically expensive, organisms have developed a diversity of homeostatic mechanisms to fine-tune the concentration of lipids at particular levels. FapR is the first global regulator of lipid synthesis discovered in bacteria and is largely conserved in Gram-positive organisms including important human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Khosro Adibkia, Golrokh Khorasani, Shahriar Payab, Farzaneh Lotfipour
Purpose: Bacterial pneumonia is a common lung infection caused by different types of bacteria. Azithromycin (AZI), an azalide antibiotic, is widely used to manage pneumococcal infections. Studies have shown that antibiotics in nanocarriers may lead to increased antibacterial activity and reduced toxicity. The aim of this work was to valuate in vitro antibacterial performance azithromycin-Eudragit RS100 nano-formulations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanoparticles were prepared via electrospinning technique and the in vitro antibacterial performance against S...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Shelby Calkins, M B Couger, Colin Jackson, Jordan Zandler, Garett C Hudgins, Radwa A Hanafy, Connie Budd, Donald P French, Wouter D Hoff, Noha Youssef
Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Richard Aschbacher, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Confalonieri, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Francesco Luzzaro, Pier Giorgio Montanera, Aurora Piazza, Laura Pagani
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHOD: Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Karolina Niska, Narcyz Knap, Anna Kędzia, Maciej Jaskiewicz, Wojciech Kamysz, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak
Objectives: In dentistry, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have drawn particular attention because of their wide antimicrobial activity spectrum. However, controversial information on AgNPs toxicity limited their use in oral infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities against a panel of oral pathogenic bacteria and bacterial biofilms together with potential cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts of 10 nm AgNPs: non-functionalized - uncapped (AgNPs-UC) as well as surface-functionalized with capping agent: lipoic acid (AgNPs-LA), polyethylene glycol (AgNPs-PEG) or tannic acid (AgNPs-TA) using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as control...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Parveen Kumari, B S Khatkar
Phenolic content, antioxidant activities and antimicrobial activities of methanolic, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of five different varieties of aonla (Emblica officinalis) fruits as well their powders were evaluated. Total polyphenolic content in fresh aonla fruit extracts varied from 70.6 to 159.4 mg GAE/g and their EC 50 (effective concentration) values for antioxidant activity ranged from 46.72 to 359.7 µg/ml. Significant varietal difference were observed in antioxidant activity of the extracts of fresh aonla fruit and powder...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mana Tsukada, Hong Sheng, Toshiaki Kamachi, Yoshimi Niwano
Wine lees, a major waste product of winemaking, is a rich source of polyphenolic compounds. LED-light irradiation at 400-nm elicited microbicidal activity of aqueous extract from wine lees (WLE) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans, in addition to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, including hydroxyl radical (·OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Although treatment for 20 min of photoirradiation alone exerted bactericidal activity with a 2- to 3-log reduction, photoirradiated WLE for 20 min achieved a 5-log or greater reduction in viable S...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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