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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640920/pathogen-specific-mortality-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-with-primary-bloodstream-infection
#1
Brar C Piening, Christine Geffers, Petra Gastmeier, Frank Schwab
OBJECTIVE: Mortality in very low birth weight infants following microbiology confirmed primary bloodstream infections varies with the type of causative pathogen. Given evidence from other studies that infections with gram negative bacteria and fungi cause a higher case fatality risk. We tried to confirm this in a nation-wide multi-center trial. METHODS: A cohort of 55,465 very low birth weight infants from 242 neonatal departments participating in the German national neonatal infection surveillance system NEO-KISS was used to investigate differences in the case fatality risk of microbiology confirmed primary bloodstream infections according to individual pathogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640901/mrsa-infections-in-norway-a-study-of-the-temporal-evolution-2006-2015
#2
Francesco Di Ruscio, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt, Truls Michael Leegaard, Aina E Fossum Moen, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio
BACKGROUND: Norway has one of the lowest prevalences of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the world. This study exploits the extensive data on MRSA infections in the Norwegian surveillance system to investigate the important factors defining the MRSA epidemiology. METHODS: We performed a quasi-Poisson regression of the monthly notification rate (NR) of MRSA infections reported from January 2006 to December 2015, comparing the time trend among people with an immigrant vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640870/dominance-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-in-a-maternity-hospital
#3
Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen causing healthcare- and community- acquired infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize MRSA isolated at the Maternity Hospital between 2006 and 2011 for their genetic relatedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRSA isolates were investigated using a combination of antibiogram, Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) and spa typing to determine their relatedness to MRSA isolated in other Kuwait hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640755/chemical-composition-and-biological-activities-of-leaf-and-fruit-essential-oils-from-eucalyptus-camaldulensis
#4
Gulden Dogan, Nazan Kara, Eyup Bagci, Seher Gur
The chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaves and fruit of Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Mersin, Turkey was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The biological activities (antibacterial and antifungal) were examined using the agar well diffusion method. The main leaf oil constituents were p-cymene (42.1%), eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) (14.1%), α-pinene (12.7%) and α-terpinol (10.7%). The main constituents of the fruit oil were eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) (34...
June 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636975/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-pig-farms-in-switzerland
#5
Julia G Kraemer, João Pires, Marianne Kueffer, Eulalia Semaani, Andrea Endimiani, Markus Hilty, Anne Oppliger
The presence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig farms has been widely reported, and the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) has been documented in several countries. However, data for Switzerland are very scarce. This study aimed to compare changes in the prevalence of MRSA in Swiss pig farms between 2008 and 2015 and make the first ever estimates of the presence of ESBL-E and carbapenemase producers in pigs and pig farm workers. Results showed that ESBL-E was present in both pigs and farm workers and that the proportion of farms with MRSA had increased fourfold in seven years (from 7% to 31%)...
June 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636788/role-of-positively-charged-residues-on-the-polar-and-non-polar-faces-of-amphipathic-%C3%AE-helical-antimicrobial-peptides-amps-on-specificity-and-selectivity-for-gram-negative-pathogens
#6
Ziqing Jiang, Colin T Mant, Michael Vasil, Robert S Hodges
We have designed de novo and synthesized eight 26-residue all D-conformation amphipathic α-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), four with "specificity determinants" which provide specificity for prokaryotic cells over eukaryotic cells and four AMPs without specificity determinants. The eight AMPs contain six positively charged Lys residues on the polar face in four different arrangements to understand the role of these residues have on antimicrobial activity against 14 Acinetobacter baumannii strains, 7 of which were resistant to polymyxin B and colistin; 6 diverse Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and 17 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 9 of which were Methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and 8 of which were Methicillin-resistant (MRSA)...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636355/semisynthetic-flavone-derived-antimicrobials-with-therapeutic-potential-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#7
Shuimu Lin, Jun-Jie Koh, Thet Tun Aung, Wan Ling Wendy Sin, Fanghui Lim, Lin Wang, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Lei Zhou, Donald T H Tan, Derong Cao, Roger W Beuerman, Li Ren, Shouping Liu
A new series of semisynthetic flavone-based small molecules mimicking antimicrobial peptides has been designed from natural icaritin to combat drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections. Compound 6 containing two arginine residues exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA, and very low toxicity to mammalian cells, resulting in a high selectivity of more than 511, comparable to that of several membrane-active antibiotics in clinical trials. Our data show for the first time that icaritin derivatives effectively kill bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635681/antimicrobial-activity-of-nitric-oxide-releasing-ti-6al-4v-metal-oxide
#8
Nina A Reger, Wilson S Meng, Ellen S Gawalt
Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635647/virulence-genes-of-s-aureus-from-dairy-cow-mastitis-and-contagiousness-risk
#9
Giada Magro, Stefano Biffani, Giulietta Minozzi, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Mario Luini, Renata Piccinini
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major agent of dairy cow intramammary infections: the different prevalences of mastitis reported might be related to a combination of S. aureus virulence factors beyond host factors. The present study considered 169 isolates from different Italian dairy herds that were classified into four groups based on the prevalence of S. aureus infection at the first testing: low prevalence (LP), medium-low (MLP), medium-high (MHP) and high (HP). We aimed to correlate the presence of virulence genes with the prevalence of intramammary infections in order to develop new strategies for the control of S...
June 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635307/synthesis-evaluation-and-modeling-of-some-triazolothienopyrimidinones-as-anti-inflammatory-and-antimicrobial-agents
#10
Adnan A Bekhit, Ahmed M Farghaly, Ragab M Shafik, Mona Ma Elsemary, Mai S El-Shoukrofy, Alaa El-Din A Bekhit, Tamer M Ibrahim
AIM: New triazolotetrahydrobenzothienopyrimidinone derivatives were synthesized. EXPERIMENTAL: Their structures were confirmed, and their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial activities and ulcerogenic potentials were evaluated. RESULTS: Compounds 7a, 10a and 11a showed minimal ulcerogenic effect and high selectivity toward human recombinant COX-2 over COX-1 enzyme with IC50 values of 1.39, 1.22 and 0.56 μM, respectively. Their docking outcome correlated with their biological activity and confirmed the high selectivity binding toward COX-2...
June 21, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#11
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#12
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634535/effectiveness-and-safety-of-daptomycin-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-undergoing-heart-valve-replacement-a-subgroup-analysis-from-real-world-data
#13
Achyut Guleri, Riccardo Utili, Pascal Dohmen, Kamal Hamed
BACKGROUND: European Cubicin(®) Outcomes Registry and Experience (EU-CORE) was a retrospective, non-interventional, multicenter registry that collected real-world clinical outcomes following daptomycin use for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. EU-CORE data from patients with infective endocarditis (IE) who underwent heart valve replacement were analysed. METHODS: Clinical outcomes were assessed as success (cured or improved), failure, or non-evaluable...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634479/whole-blood-profiling-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-trained-innate-immunity-in-infants-identifies-epidermal-growth-factor-il-6-platelet-derived-growth-factor-ab-bb-and-natural-killer-cell-activation
#14
Steven G Smith, Johanneke Kleinnijenhuis, Mihai G Netea, Hazel M Dockrell
Vaccination of infants with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) activates both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. The antimycobacterial effects of these responses most likely account for the ability of BCG to protect against childhood forms of tuberculosis (TB). There is also evidence for a heterologous protective effect of BCG vaccination against TB-unrelated mortality in low birth weight infants. A possible mechanism of action of this effect, the induction of trained innate immunity, has been demonstrated when cells from BCG-vaccinated adults are restimulated in vitro with non-related microbial stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634338/coumarin-benzimidazole-hybrids-as-a-potent-antimicrobial-agent-synthesis-and-biological-elevation
#15
L Ravithej Singh, Srinivasa Rao Avula, Sneha Raj, Akanksha Srivastava, Gopala Reddy Palnati, C K M Tripathi, Mukesh Pasupuleti, Koneni V Sashidhara
Molecular hybridization approach is an emerging tool in drug discovery for designing new pharmacophores with biological activity. A novel, new series of coumarin-benzimidazole hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Among all the synthesized molecules, compound (E)-3-(2-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-1-((4-chlorobenzyl)oxy)imino)ethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one showed the most promising broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634236/alternative-evolutionary-pathways-for-drug-resistant-small-colony-variant-mutants-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Sha Cao, Douglas L Huseby, Gerrit Brandis, Diarmaid Hughes
Staphylococcus aureus is known to generate small colony variants (SCVs) that are resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics and can cause persistent and recurrent infections. The SCV phenotype is unstable, and compensatory mutations lead to restored growth, usually with loss of resistance. However, the evolution of improved growth, by mechanisms that avoid loss of antibiotic resistance, is very poorly understood. By selection with serial passaging, we isolated and characterized different classes of extragenic suppressor mutations that compensate for the slow growth of small colony variants...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633678/variation-in-empiric-coverage-versus-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-hospitalizations-for-community-onset-pneumonia-across-128-us-veterans-affairs-medical-centers
#17
Barbara E Jones, Kevin Antoine Brown, Makoto M Jones, Benedikt D Huttner, Tom Greene, Brian C Sauer, Karl Madaras-Kelly, Michael A Rubin, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Matthew H Samore
OBJECTIVE To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010. METHODS We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633584/variation-of-alkaloid-contents-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-papaver-rhoeas-l-growing-in-turkey-and-northern-cyprus
#18
İlkcan Çoban, Gizem Gülsoy Toplan, Berna Özbek, Çağlayan Unsal Gürer, Günay Sarıyar
CONTEXT: Papaver rhoeas L. (Papaveraceae) corn poppy, widely distributed in Turkey, is used to make a cough syrup for children, as a tea for disturbed sleep, for pain relief and as a sedative in folk medicine. OBJECTIVE: Samples of P. rhoeas collected from eight different locations in Turkey and three from northern Cyprus were investigated for their alkaloid content and screened for their antimicrobial activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the aerial parts of P...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633319/immunotherapy-targeting-adenosine-synthase-a-decreases-severity-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-mouse-model
#19
Bao-Zhong Zhang, JianPiao Cai, Bin Yu, Lifeng Xiong, Qiubin Lin, Xiao-Yan Yang, Chen Xu, SongYue Zheng, Richard Yi-Tsun Kao, Konghung Sze, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Jian-Dong Huang
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a severe pathogen found in the community and in hospitals. Most notably, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is resistant to almost all antibiotics, which is a growing public health concern. The emergence of drug-resistant strains has prompted the search for alternative treatments such as immunotherapeutic approaches. Previous research showed that S. aureus exploit the immunomodulatory attributes of adenosine to escape host immunity. In this study, we investigated adenosine synthase A (AdsA), a S...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633210/value-of-surgery-for-infective-endocarditis-in-dialysis-patients
#20
Sajjad Raza, Syed T Hussain, Jeevanantham Rajeswaran, Asif Ansari, Matteo Trezzi, Amr Arafat, James Witten, Kirthi Ravichandren, Haris Riaz, Hoda Javadikasgari, Sunil Panwar, Sevag Demirjian, Nabin K Shrestha, Thomas G Fraser, José L Navia, Bruce W Lytle, Eugene H Blackstone, Gösta B Pettersson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of surgery for infective endocarditis (IE) in patients on hemodialysis by comparing the nature and invasiveness of endocarditis in hemodialysis and nonhemodialysis patients and their hospital and long-term outcomes, and identifying risk factors for time-related mortality after surgery. METHODS: From January 1997 to January 2013, 144 patients on chronic hemodialysis and 1233 nonhemodialysis patients underwent valve surgery for IE at our institution...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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