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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909601/assessment-of-the-dual-role-of-clumping-factor-a-in-s-aureus-adhesion-to-endothelium-in-absence-and-presence-of-plasma
#1
Jorien Claes, Bartosz Ditkowski, Laurens Liesenborghs, Tiago Rafael Veloso, Jose M Entenza, Philippe Moreillon, Thomas Vanassche, Peter Verhamme, Marc F Hoylaerts, Ruth Heying
Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to endothelial cells (ECs) is paramount in infective endocarditis. Bacterial proteins such as clumping factor A (ClfA) and fibronectin binding protein A (FnbpA) mediate adhesion to EC surface molecules and (sub)endothelial matrix proteins including fibrinogen (Fg), fibrin, fibronectin (Fn) and von Willebrand factor (vWF). We studied the influence of shear flow and plasma on the binding of ClfA and FnbpA (including its sub-domains A, A16+ , ABC, CD) to coverslip-coated vWF, Fg/fibrin, Fn or confluent ECs, making use of Lactococcus lactis , expressing these adhesins heterologously...
June 17, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909090/pclys-i3-an-invertebrate-lysozyme-is-involved-in-the-antibacterial-immunity-of-the-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#2
Yan Liu, Ying-Hao Zhang, Tong Li, Xiao-Tong Cao, Yang Zhou, Jun-Fa Yuan, Ze-Mao Gu, Jiang-Feng Lan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play important roles in innate immunity against pathogens and lysozymes are a particularly type of AMP. Lysozymes are hydrolytic enzymes that are characterized by their ability to cleave the beta-(1,4)-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, which is the major bacterial cell wall polymer. In this work, a lysozyme was identified from Procambarus clarkii and designated PcLys-i3. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze the tissue distribution and expression profiles of PcLys-i3...
May 31, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909047/peptidoglycan-glycosyltransferase-ligand-binding-assay-based-on-tryptophan-fluorescence-quenching
#3
Ismahene Dahmane, Caroline Montagner, André Matagne, Shrinivas Dumbre, Piet Herdewijn, Mohammed Terrak
Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (GTase) of family 51 are essential enzymes for the synthesis of the glycan chains of the bacterial cell wall. They are considered potential antibacterial target, but discovery of inhibitors was hampered so far by the lack of efficient and affordable screening assay. Here we used Staphylococcus aureus MtgA to introduce a single tryptophan reporter residue in selected positions flanking the substrates binding cavity of the protein. We selected a mutant (Y181W) that shows strong fluorescence quenching in the presence of moenomycin A and two lipid II analogs inhibitors...
June 14, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908812/short-communication-lack-of-intramammary-niche-recolonization-during-a-sanitation-program-for-the-contagious-mastitis-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-genotype-b
#4
C Sartori, V Perreten, I Ivanovic, M C Härdi-Landerer, H U Graber
In Switzerland, sanitation programs of dairy herds infected with the contagious mastitis pathogen Staphylococcus aureus genotype B (GTB) have been established for several years. In recent years, Streptococcus uberis and non-aureus staphylococci have emerged as the bacteria most frequently isolated from bovine milk samples. The latter cause subclinical mastitis, and some species are more persistent or pathogenic than others. The present study aimed to investigate the developments in the intramammary colonization spectrum of 5 dairy herds undergoing a sanitation program for Staph...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908437/studies-on-2-phenylquinoline-staphylococcus-aureus-nora-efflux-pump-inhibitors-new-insights-on-the-c-6-position
#5
Tommaso Felicetti, Rolando Cannalire, Maria Giulia Nizi, Oriana Tabarrini, Serena Massari, Maria Letizia Barreca, Giuseppe Manfroni, Bryan D Schindler, Violetta Cecchetti, Glenn W Kaatz, Stefano Sabatini
The alarming and rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria represents a high risk for global health. Targeting factors involved in resistance to restore the activity of failing antibiotics is a promising strategy to overcome this urgent medical need. Efflux pump inhibitors are able to increase antibiotic concentrations in bacteria, thus they can be considered true antimicrobial resistance breakers. In this work, continuing our studies on inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA pump, we designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated novel 2-phenylquinoline derivatives starting from our hits 1 and 2...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908309/anti-inflammatory-and-antibacterial-effects-of-thymus-sipyleus-boiss-subsp-sipyleus-boiss-var-sipyleus-l-essential-oil-against-rhinosinusitis-pathogens
#6
Fatih Demirci, Nursenem Karaca, Mehmet Tekin, Betül Demirci
Thymus sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. sipyleus L. of the Lamiaceae, locally known as thyme scented lemon, which is an endemic taxon collected from Sivas in Anatolia, was investigated in this study due to its folk medicine use against rhinosinusitis. The aromatic characteristics of the plant material gave the idea for the detailed evaluation of the volatiles and essential oil thereof. Consequently, the oil was obtained by Clevenger type hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses for phytochemical characterization...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908271/twofold-enhanced-dispersin-b-activity-by-n-terminal-fusion-to-silver-binding-peptide-for-biofilm-eradication
#7
Kuan-Jung Chen, Cheng-Kang Lee
Dispersin B (DspB) has shown a great potential for the hydrolysis of polymeric β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG) to disperse the biofilms formed by various bacteria but with no killing activity. Here we have investigated whether a silver-binding peptide (AgBP) fused to DspB can induce the in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and conjugated to the structure of DspB so that the bacteria cells released from the dispersed biofilm will be killed by the conjugated AgNP. However, the desired conjugate could be obtained because of the silver ions itself was found to precipitate DspB...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908268/chitosan-extracted-from-marine-biowaste-mitigates-staphyloxanthin-production-and-biofilms-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#8
Durairajan Rubini, Sanaulla Farisa Banu, B Narayanan Vedahari, Durai Ramyadevi, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Paramasivam Nithyanand
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of biofilm-associated and indwelling device related infections. The present study explores the anti-virulent and antibiofilm potency of chitosan extracted from the shells of the marine crab Portunus sanguinolentus against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical characterization results revealed that the extracted chitosan (EC) has structural analogy to that of a commercial chitosan (CC). The extracted chitosan was found to be effective in reducing the staphyloxanthin pigment, a characteristic virulence feature of MRSA that promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908251/management-and-outcomes-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-at-a-south-african-referral-hospital-a-prospective-observational-study
#9
Nicola Steinhaus, Mohammed Al-Talib, Prudence Ive, Tom Boyles, Colleen Bamford, Mary-Ann Davies, Marc Mendelson, Sean Wasserman
OBJECTIVES: Limited evidence exists on the management and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of South African patients with SAB, and explore the factors associated with complicated infection and death. METHOD: A prospective observational study of patients over the age of 13 years admitted to a South African referral hospital with SAB. RESULTS: One hundred SAB infection episodes occurring in 98 patients were included...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908071/total-flucloxacillin-plasma-concentrations-poorly-reflect-unbound-concentrations-in-hospitalised-patients-with-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia
#10
Paul Ken Leong Chin, Philip George Drennan, Sharon Jane Gardiner, Mei Zhang, Simon Charles Dalton, Stephen T Chambers, Evan James Begg
BACKGROUND: Flucloxacillin dosing may be guided by measurement of its total plasma concentrations. Flucloxacillin is highly protein bound with fraction unbound in plasma (fu ) of around 0.04 in healthy individuals. The utility of measuring unbound flucloxacillin concentrations for patients outside the intensive care unit (ICU) is not established. AIMS: To compare flucloxacillin fu in non-ICU hospitalised patients against healthy volunteers. To examine the performance of a published model for predicting unbound concentrations, using total flucloxacillin and plasma albumin concentrations...
June 16, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907941/the-clinical-outcome-of-postoperative-invasive-fungal-infections-complicating-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#11
Yoav Bichovsky, Leonid Koyfman, Michael Friger, Boris Kirshtein, Abraham Borer, Gilbert Sebbag, Dmitry Frank, Amit Frenkel, Jochanan G Peiser, Moti Klein, Evgeni Brotfain
PURPOSE: Peritonitis is a major complication of bariatric surgery due to direct damage to the natural barriers to infection. Most such secondary peritoneal infections are caused by Gram-negative microorganisms; however, under certain conditions, Candida species can infect the peritoneal cavity following bariatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and microbiological data of morbidly obese patients who suffered infectious complications following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) at the Soroka Medical Center between January 2010 and June 2015...
June 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907877/electroporation-mediated-delivery-of-fer-gene-enhances-innate-immune-response-and-improves-survival-in-a-murine-model-of-pneumonia
#12
Vladislav Dolgachev, Sreehari Panicker, Sanjay Balijepalli, Lane Kelly McCandless, Yue Yin, Samantha Swamy, M V Suresh, Matthew J Delano, Mark R Hemmila, Krishnan Raghavendran, David Machado-Aranda
Previously, we reported that electroporation-mediated (EP) delivery of the FER gene improved survival in a combined trauma-pneumonia model. The mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. In this paper, we performed a pneumonia model in C57/BL6 mice with 500 CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae. After inoculation, a plasmid encoding human FER was delivered by EP into the lung (PNA/pFER-EP). Survival of FER-treated vs. controls (PNA; PNA/EP-pcDNA) was recorded. In parallel cohorts, bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) and lung were harvested at 24 and 72 h with markers of infection measured...
June 15, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907536/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-and-infection-among-patients-with-diabetic-foot-ulcer
#13
Shin-Yi Lin, Nai-Yu Lin, Yu-Yao Huang, Chi-Chun Hsieh, Yhu-Chering Huang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in Taiwan, and to assess the concordance between colonizing and clinical MRSA isolates from the patients. METHOD: A total of 354 nasal specimens were collected from 112 to 242 diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer, respectively. MRSA clinical isolates from DFU wound cultures were collected for comparison. RESULTS: Nasal carriage rate of S...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907449/high-risk-staphylococcus-aureus-transmission-in-the-operating-room-a-call-for-widespread-improvements-in-perioperative-hand-hygiene-and-patient-decolonization-practices
#14
Randy W Loftus, Franklin Dexter, Alysha D M Robinson
BACKGROUND: Increased awareness of the epidemiology of transmission of pathogenic bacterial strain characteristics may help to improve compliance with intraoperative infection control measures. Our aim was to characterize the epidemiology of intraoperative transmission of high-risk Staphylococcus aureus sequence types (STs). METHODS: S aureus isolates collected from 3 academic medical centers underwent whole cell genome analysis, analytical profile indexing, and biofilm absorbance...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907368/clinical-efficacy-of-fosfomycin-combinations-against-a-variety-of-gram-positive-cocci
#15
Nieves M Coronado-Álvarez, Diego Parra, Jorge Parra-Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Over recent years we have witnessed an increase in the resistance of microorganisms to the available antimicrobials and a decrease in the number of new antimicrobials. Fosfomycin is a safe and cheap broad-spectrum antibiotic which has shown very promising results in combination therapy, mainly against gram-negative microorganisms. Little is known, however, about its clinical efficacy against gram-positive microorganisms. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with severe gram-positive infections who received fosfomycin as part of their treatment from 2011 to 2017...
June 12, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906773/in-vitro-investigation-of-anti-acne-properties-of-mangifera-indica-l-kernel-extract-and-its-mechanism-of-action-against-propionibacterium-acnes
#16
Worrapan Poomanee, Wantida Chaiyana, Monika Mueller, Helmut Viernstein, Watcharee Khunkitti, Pimporn Leelapornpisid
Propionibacterium acnes has been recognized as a main target for medical treatment of acne since this bacterium promotes acne inflammation by inducing upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines production, resulting in an accumulation of neutrophils and oxygen-free radicals produced by neutrophils within acne lesion. The aims of this study were to evaluate the biological activities of Mangifera indica kernel extracts grown in Northern Thailand (Kaew-Moragot cultivar), related to anti-acne properties including antimicrobial effect against acne-inducing bacteria together with the first elucidation of the mechanism of action against Propionibacterium acnes, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation...
May 17, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906694/photo-induced-antibacterial-activity-of-a-porphyrin-derivative-isolated-from-the-harmful-dinoflagellate-heterocapsa-circularisquama
#17
Li Wencheng, Kichul Cho, Yasuhiro Yamasaki, Satoshi Takeshita, Kiju Hwang, Daekyung Kim, Tatsuya Oda
The dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama is highly toxic to bivalves. However, significant toxicity to finfish species has not been reported. We previously found that H. circularisquama has light-dependent haemolytic agents. Purification and chemical structural analyses revealed that the haemolytic agent H2-a is a porphyrin derivative, which exhibits light-dependent cytotoxicity toward tumour cells. To clarify the biological activity of H2-a further, its antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated in this study...
June 7, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906565/resveratrol-enhances-the-efficacy-of-aminoglycosides-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Katrine Nøhr-Meldgaard, Armen Ovsepian, Hanne Ingmer, Martin Vestergaard
Development of new antibiotics is costly and time-consuming and therefore it is highly attractive if the efficacy of conventional antibiotics can be expanded. For the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, we recently demonstrated that inactivation of the ATP synthase increases the susceptibility of the pathogen 16-fold to the aminoglycoside, gentamicin. Aminoglycosides are rarely used as monotherapy against S. aureus due to the risk of resistance development and toxic effects. Here we have explored the possibility of enhancing the efficacy of aminoglycosides against S...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906535/marine-sulfated-polysaccharides-as-versatile-polyelectrolytes-for-the-development-of-drug-delivery-nanoplatforms-complexation-of-ulvan-with-lysozyme
#19
Leto-Aikaterini Tziveleka, Natassa Pippa, Panagiota Georgantea, Efstathia Ioannou, Costas Demetzos, Vassilios Roussis
Ulvan, a marine sulfated polysaccharide isolated from green algae, has been recently recognized as a natural biopolymer of biomedical interest. A series of lysozyme/ulvan complexes prepared under various charge ratios at physiological pH were studied. The resulting complexes were examined with light scattering techniques in order to characterize the size, the distribution and the ζ-potential of the nanocarriers, which were found to depend on the charge ratio employed. Increased complexation efficiency of lysozyme was observed for certain charge ratios, while ATR FTIR data suggested that the protein structure after complexation was retained...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906512/mechanisms-of-fibronectin-binding-protein-a-fnbpa-110-263-vaccine-efficacy-in-staphylococcus-aureus-sepsis-versus-skin-infection
#20
Rui Zhang, Sun Li, Xiao-Kai Zhang, Yu Wang, Liu-Yang Yang, Hao Zeng, Da-Peng Yan, Quan-Ming Zou, Qian-Fei Zuo
Increasing rates of life-threatening infections and decreasing susceptibility to antibiotics urge an effective vaccine targeting Staphylococcus aureus. Here we investigate the role of cellular immunity in FnBPA110-263 mediated protection in Staphylococcus aureus infection. This study revealed FnBPA110-263 broadly protected mice from seven FnBPA isotypes strains in the sepsis model. FnBPA110-263 immunized B-cell deficient mice were protected against lethal challenge, while T-cell deficient mice were not. Reconstituting mice with FnBPA110-263 specific CD4+ T-cells conferred antigen specific protection...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
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