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Spinal cord demyelination, cervical cord demyelination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664964/monitoring-for-myelopathic-progression-with-multiparametric-quantitative-mri
#1
Allan R Martin, Benjamin De Leener, Julien Cohen-Adad, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, David W Cadotte, Jefferson R Wilson, Lindsay Tetreault, Aria Nouri, Adrian Crawley, David J Mikulis, Howard Ginsberg, Eric M Massicotte, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Patients with mild degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) are often managed non-operatively, and surgery is recommended if neurological progression occurs. However, detection of progression is often subjective. Quantitative MRI (qMRI) directly measures spinal cord (SC) tissue changes, detecting axonal injury, demyelination, and atrophy. This longitudinal study compared multiparametric qMRI with clinical measures of progression in non-operative DCM patients. METHODS: 26 DCM patients were followed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629601/occipital-neuralgia-associates-with-high-cervical-spinal-cord-lesions-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-demyelinating-disease
#2
Narayan R Kissoon, James C Watson, Christopher J Boes, Orhun H Kantarci
Background The association of trigeminal neuralgia with pontine lesions has been well documented in multiple sclerosis, and we tested the hypothesis that occipital neuralgia in multiple sclerosis is associated with high cervical spinal cord lesions. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 29 patients diagnosed with both occipital neuralgia and demyelinating disease by a neurologist from January 2001 to December 2014. We collected data on demographics, clinical findings, presence of C2-3 demyelinating lesions, and treatment responses...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557051/axonal-damage-is-remarkable-in-patients-with-acutely-worsening-symptoms-of-compression-myelopathy-biomarkers-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples
#3
Hiroshi Takahashi, Yasuchika Aoki, Arata Nakajima, Masato Sonobe, Fumiaki Terajima, Masahiko Saito, Takuya Miyamoto, Keita Koyama, Keiichiro Yamamoto, Takeo Furuya, Masao Koda, Seiji Ohtori, Masashi Yamazaki, Koichi Nakagawa
PURPOSE: To determine levels of biomarkers reflecting damage to axon, myelin, astrocytes, and neuron in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with cervical compression myelopathy. METHODS: We collected 69 CSF samples from patients before spinal surgery for acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM, 20), chronic compression myelopathy (CM, 20), and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS 29; control). We measured levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit H (pNF-H), tau (reflecting axonal damage), myelin basic protein (MBP) (reflecting demyelination), S100b (reflecting astrocyte damage), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (reflecting neuronal damage)...
March 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501083/the-clinical-features-of-combined-central-and-peripheral-demyelination-in-chinese-patients
#4
Yan-Qin Wang, Han Chen, Wu-Ping Zhuang, Hong-Lei Li
BACKGROUND: Combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) is rare and has never been reported as a spectrum disease in Han Chinese population. OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical features of CCPD in Han Chinese patients. METHODS: Twenty-two CCPD patients were selected from 788 demyelination cases. We reviewed and compared the clinical manifestation, laboratory data, electrophysiological examination, MRI and the prognosis. RESULTS: CCPD patients presented with sensory disturbance (86...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434480/a-rare-presentation-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#5
Navneet K Singh, Alexander J Sweidan, Sarah Strube, Ignacio Carrillo-Nunez
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are a set of demyelinating disorders that primarily target the optic nerves and the spinal cord. Previously thought to be a subset of multiple sclerosis (MS), now is recognized as a distinct entity. We present a 59-year-old female patient who was admitted for acute upper and lower extremity weakness. The patient had woken up from sleep with sudden onset of weakness. Patient was initially diagnosed with a right hemispheric stroke; however, magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine later performed showed abnormal enhancement from C2-C4, representing transverse myelitis...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359174/quantitative-spinal-cord-mri-in-radiologically-isolated-syndrome
#6
Paula Alcaide-Leon, Kateryna Cybulsky, Stephanie Sankar, Courtney Casserly, General Leung, Marika Hohol, Daniel Selchen, Xavier Montalban, Aditya Bharatha, Jiwon Oh
Objectives: To assess whether quantitative spinal cord MRI (SC-MRI) measures, including atrophy, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetization transfer imaging metrics were different in radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) vs healthy controls (HCs). Methods: Twenty-four participants with RIS and 14 HCs underwent cervical SC-MRI on a 3T magnet. Manually segmented regions of interest circumscribing the spinal cord cross-sectional area (SC-CSA) between C3 and C4 were used to extract SC-CSA, fractional anisotropy, mean, perpendicular, and parallel diffusivity (MD, λ⊥ , and λ|| ) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR)...
March 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141830/post-herpes-zoster-infection-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#7
Thomas Mathew, Kurian Thomas, Sonia Shivde, Shruthi Venkatesh, Smitha Mary Rockey
Neuromyelitis optica is a severe autoimmune demyelinating disease; however, the trigger for autoimmunity in an individual patient is unclear. Here, we report the case of a 48 year old female presenting with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in the cervical region of the spinal cord two weeks post herpes zoster infection in right C6 dermatome. Though post herpetic myelitis was provisionally diagnosed, serological evaluation revealed aquaporin-4 antibody positivity, confirming the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141816/optic-neuritis-with-radiological-longitudinal-spinal-cord-involvement-and-seronegative-anti-aquaporin-antibody-evidence-from-a-case-study
#8
Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi
In recent years, not only the incidence of brain demyelinating disease has increased, but also it seems that the world is facing new forms of autoimmune diseases of the brain. Distinguishing these diseases from each other is very important, since each requires a different treatment. The new criteria that were put forward in 2015 were meant to pave the way for better diagnosis of these diseases called neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD). However, too much emphasis on the criteria based on the convergence and association of radiological findings with the clinical symptoms actually causes confusion in the diagnosis...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070750/-a-case-of-recurrent-myelitis-associated-with-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibody-that-developed-only-as-localized-short-spinal-cord-lesions
#9
Arifumi Matsumoto, Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima, Kinya Hisanaga, Isao Nagano
A 65-year-old man initially developed numbness and hypesthesia in the right shoulder and brachial regions that disappeared within several months. MRI revealed a small lesion extending to a vertebral segment in the right dorsal region of the cervical spinal cord at the vertebral height of C2/3. About 15 months later, the intermittent lancinating pain identical to the right trigeminal and occipital neuralgia with pain and hypesthesia distributed in the right C2-C4 dermatome regions appeared. MRI revealed a new oval lesion with gadolinium enhancement in the right dorsal region of the cervical spinal cord at the vertebral height of C1, which was thought to involve the posterior column and lower part of the spinal tract nucleus of the trigeminal nerve...
November 25, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951942/proton-density-fat-suppressed-mri-in-3t-increases-the-sensitivity-of-multiple-sclerosis-lesion-detection-in-the-cervical-spinal-cord
#10
Efstratios Karavasilis, George Velonakis, George Argiropoulos, Athanasios Athanasakos, Loukia S Poulou, Panagiotis Toulas, Nikolaos L Kelekis, Efstathios P Efstathopoulos
PURPOSE: Considering the number of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients referred for clinical spinal cord imaging, the optimization of imaging protocols plays a crucial role. We aimed to evaluate the use of proton density (PD) turbo spin-echo (TSE) with spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) fat suppression and compare it with the currently recommended T2-TSE-SPAIR in sagittal plane in cervical spinal cord imaging. METHODS: In this study 35 MS patients with clinically suspected or known spinal cord lesions were scanned on a 3...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932609/neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-nepalese-man
#11
Yogesh Subedi, Utsav Joshi, Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Ashbina Pokharel, Ashbita Pokharel
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica is a severely disabling inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system of autoimmune etiology that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Here, we present a case report detailing a patient with tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs who was neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G-positive. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old Nepalese man presented to the hospital with a history of tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs that developed over a period of two months...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926131/region-specific-impairment-of-the-cervical-spinal-cord-sc-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-preliminary-study-using-sc-templates-and-quantitative-mri-diffusion-tensor-imaging-inhomogeneous-magnetization-transfer
#12
Henitsoa Rasoanandrianina, Aude-Marie Grapperon, Manuel Taso, Olivier M Girard, Guillaume Duhamel, Maxime Guye, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Shahram Attarian, Annie Verschueren, Virginie Callot
In this preliminary study, our objective was to investigate the potential of high-resolution anatomical imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and conventional/inhomogeneous magnetization transfer imaging [magnetization transfer (MT)/inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT)] at 3 T, analyzed with template-extracted regions of interest, to measure the atrophy and structural changes of white (WM) and gray (GM) matter spinal cord (SC) occurring in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Ten patients with ALS and 20 age-matched healthy controls were recruited...
September 19, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844788/spatiotemporal-resolution-of-spinal-meningeal-and-parenchymal-inflammation-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#13
Bandana Shrestha, Xi Jiang, Shujun Ge, Debayon Paul, Peter Chianchiano, Joel S Pachter
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by active immunization of C57BL/6 mice with peptide from myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG35-55), is a neuroinflammatory, demyelinating disease widely recognized as an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Typically, EAE presents with an ascending course of paralysis, and inflammation that is predominantly localized to the spinal cord. Recent studies have further indicated that inflammation - in both MS and EAE - might initiate within the meninges and propagate from there to the underlying parenchyma...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725551/cervical-cord-myelin-water-imaging-shows-degenerative-changes-over-one-year-in-multiple-sclerosis-but-not-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#14
Anna J E Combes, Lucy Matthews, Jimmy S Lee, David K B Li, Robert Carruthers, Anthony L Traboulsee, Gareth J Barker, Jacqueline Palace, Shannon Kolind
Spinal cord pathology is a feature of both neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). While subclinical disease activity has been described in MS using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging measures, current evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is absent between relapses in NMOSD, although most evidence comes from brain studies. We aimed to assess cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes in myelin integrity in relapse-free MS and NMOSD subjects over one year...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716281/-black-butterfly-sign-on-t2-weighted-and-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-a-novel-finding-of-chronic-venous-congestion-of-the-brain-stem-and-spinal-cord-associated-with-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas
#15
Mikako Enokizono, Noriko Sato, Minoru Morikawa, Yukio Kimura, Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Tomoko Maekawa, Daichi Sone, Daiki Takewaki, Tomoko Okamoto, Yuji Takahashi, Nobutaka Horie, Takayuki Matsuo
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) with spinal perimedullary venous drainage can cause progressive myelopathy, and it is sometimes incorrectly diagnosed as another spinal cord disease. Here we report the cases of three individuals with a DAVF (one craniocervical junction DAVF and two tentorial DAVFs) with progressive myelopathy showing unique magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. MR T2*WI or susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated symmetrical dark signal intensity lesions predominantly in the dorsal aspect of medulla and the central gray matter of cervical spinal cord that showed the "black butterfly" silhouette...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701500/assessing-structure-and-function-of-myelin-in-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-evidence-of-demyelination
#16
Hanwen Liu, Erin L MacMillian, Catherine R Jutzeler, Emil Ljungberg, Alex L MacKay, Shannon H Kolind, Burkhard Mädler, David K B Li, Marcel F Dvorak, Armin Curt, Cornelia Laule, John L K Kramer
PURPOSE: To assess the extent of demyelination in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) using myelin water imaging (MWI) and electrophysiologic techniques. METHODS: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and MWI were acquired in 14 patients with CSM and 18 age-matched healthy controls. MWI was performed on a 3.0T whole body magnetic resonance scanner. Myelin water fraction (MWF) was extracted for the dorsal columns and whole cord. SSEPs and MWF were also compared with conventional MRI outcomes, including T2 signal intensity, compression ratio, maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC), and maximum canal compromise (MCC)...
August 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646336/nogo-a-antibodies-enhance-axonal-repair-and-remyelination-in-neuro-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-pathology
#17
Benjamin V Ineichen, Sandra Kapitza, Christiane Bleul, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Julia Kaiser, Marc P Schneider, Björn Zörner, Roland Martin, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
Two hallmarks of chronic multiple sclerosis lesions are the absence of significant spontaneous remyelination and primary as well as secondary neurodegeneration. Both characteristics may be influenced by the presence of inhibitory factors preventing myelin and neuronal repair. We investigated the potential of antibodies against Nogo-A, a well-known inhibitory protein for neuronal growth and plasticity, to enhance neuronal regeneration and remyelination in two animal models of multiple sclerosis. We induced a targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesion in the dorsal funiculus of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats resulting in a large drop of skilled forelimb motor functions...
September 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619424/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-levels-of-interleukin-8-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-its-correlation-with-q-albumin
#18
Z Matejčíková, J Mareš, V Sládková, T Svrčinová, J Vysloužilová, J Zapletalová, P Kaňovský
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Autoimmune inflammation is common in the early stages of MS and is followed by neurodegenerative processes. The result of these changes is axon and myelin breakdown. The paraclinical examination methods are an important part of the diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and the cervical spinal cord and an examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are common paraclinical examinations...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420330/anti-mog-antibody-positive-adem-following-infectious-mononucleosis-due-to-a-primary-ebv-infection-a-case-report
#19
Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Hideto Nakajima, Hiroki Tani, Takafumi Hosokawa, Shimon Ishida, Fumiharu Kimura, Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima
BACKGROUND: Anti-Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies are detected in various demyelinating diseases, such as pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), recurrent optic neuritis, and aquaporin-4 antibody-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. We present a patient who developed anti-MOG antibody-positive ADEM following infectious mononucleosis (IM) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old healthy man developed paresthesia of bilateral lower extremities and urinary retention 8 days after the onset of IM due to primary EBV infection...
April 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401686/axonal-loss-in-the-multiple-sclerosis-spinal-cord-revisited
#20
Natalia Petrova, Daniele Carassiti, Daniel R Altmann, David Baker, Klaus Schmierer
Preventing chronic disease deterioration is an unmet need in people with multiple sclerosis, where axonal loss is considered a key substrate of disability. Clinically, chronic multiple sclerosis often presents as progressive myelopathy. Spinal cord cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed using MRI predicts increasing disability and has, by inference, been proposed as an indirect index of axonal degeneration. However, the association between CSA and axonal loss, and their correlation with demyelination, have never been systematically investigated using human post mortem tissue...
April 12, 2017: Brain Pathology
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