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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535038/fabrication-of-a-biodegradable-implant-with-tunable-characteristics-for-bone-implant-applications
#1
Iman Manavitehrani, Ali Fathi, Yiwei Wang, Peter K Maitz, Farid Mirmohseni, Tegan L Cheng, Lauren Peacock, David G Little, Aaron Schindeler, Fariba Dehghani
Biodegradable polymers are appealing material for the manufacturing of surgical implants as such implants break down in vivo, negating the need for a subsequent operation for removal. Many biocompatible polymers produce acidic breakdown products that can lead to localized inflammation and osteolysis. This study assesses the feasibility of fabricating implants out of poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC)-starch that degrades into CO2 and water. The basic compression modulus of PPC-starch (1:1 w/w) is 34 MPa; however, the addition of glycerol (1% w/w) and water as plasticizers doubles this value and enhances the surface wettability...
May 23, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534733/acute-acoustic-trauma-among-soldiers-during-an-intense-combat
#2
Noam Yehudai, Nir Fink, Manor Shpriz, Tal Marom
BACKGROUND: During military actions, soldiers are constantly exposed to various forms of potentially harmful noises. Acute acoustic trauma (AAT) results from an impact, unexpected intense noise ≥140 dB, which generates a high-energy sound wave that can damage the auditory system. PURPOSE: We sought to characterize AAT injuries among military personnel during operation "Protective Edge," to analyze the effectiveness of hearing protection devices (HPDs), and to evaluate the benefit of steroid treatment in early-diagnosed AAT injury...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534161/autoantibodies-to-osteoprotegerin-are-associated-with-low-hip-bone-mineral-density-and-history-of-fractures-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#3
Barbara Hauser, Sizheng Zhao, Micaela R Visconti, Philip L Riches, William D Fraser, Isabelle Piec, Nicola J Goodson, Stuart H Ralston
Osteoporosis is a recognised complication of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and is thought to be due to functional impairment and the osteoclast-activating effects of proinflammatory cytokines. The development of autoantibodies to OPG (OPG-Ab) has been associated with severe osteoporosis and increased bone resorption in rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we screened for the presence of OPG-Ab in axSpA and reviewed their clinical significance. We studied 134 patients, recruited from two centres in the United Kingdom...
May 22, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534146/detection-of-glass-particles-on-bone-lesions-using-sem-eds
#4
Romain Montoriol, Céline Guilbeau-Frugier, Elodie Chantalat, Mathieu Roumiguié, Marie-Bernadette Delisle, Bruno Payré, Norbert Telmon, Frédéric Savall
The problem of identifying the wounding agent in forensic cases is recurrent. Moreover, when several tools are involved, distinguishing the origin of lesions can be difficult. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) equipment is increasingly available to the scientific and medical community, and some studies have reported its use in forensic anthropology. However, at our knowledge, no study has reported the use of SEM-EDS in forensic cases involving glass tools, whether in case reports or experiments...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534138/a-chemically-modified-curcumin-cmc-2-24-inhibits-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-inflammatory-bone-loss-in-murine-models-of-lps-induced-experimental-periodontitis-and-diabetes-associated-natural-periodontitis
#5
Muna S Elburki, Carlos Rossa, Morgana R Guimarães-Stabili, Hsi-Ming Lee, Fabiana A Curylofo-Zotti, Francis Johnson, Lorne M Golub
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a novel chemically modified curcumin (CMC 2.24) on NF-κB and MAPK signaling and inflammatory cytokine production in two experimental models of periodontal disease in rats. Experimental model I: Periodontitis was induced by repeated injections of LPS into the gingiva (3×/week, 3 weeks); control rats received vehicle injections. CMC 2.24, or the vehicle, was administered by daily oral gavage for 4 weeks. Experimental model II: Diabetes was induced in adult male rats by streptozotocin injection; periodontal breakdown then results as a complication of uncontrolled hyperglycemia...
May 22, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534117/a-multicenter-study-on-objective-and-subjective-benefits-with-a-transcutaneous-bone-anchored-hearing-aid-device-first-nordic-results
#6
Dan Dupont Hougaard, Soren Kjaergaard Boldsen, Anne Marie Jensen, Soren Hansen, Per Cayé Thomassen
Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were implanted. Three were lost to follow-up. Patients had single-sided deafness, conductive or mixed hearing loss. INTERVENTION: Rehabilitative. Aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated objectively using (1) pure warble tone thresholds, (2) pure-tone average (PTA4), (3) speech discrimination score (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%)...
May 22, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533736/telescopic-overdenture-a-case-report
#7
C S Shruthi, R Poojya, Swati Ram, Anupama
PATIENT: This report describes the case of a 68 year old female patient who presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing and poor aesthetics due to missing teeth. The patient was interested in saving the remaining natural teeth and desired minimal tissue coverage from the prosthesis. After consideration of all the factors involved, it was deemed advisable to resort to a palate free maxillary telescopic complete denture and a mandibular removable partial denture. DISCUSSION: Considering the age of the patient and the cost involved, implant supported prosthesis was ruled out as a treatment option for the patient...
March 2017: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533546/prostaglandin-e2-inhibits-matrix-mineralization-by-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-derived-osteoblasts-via-epac-dependent-camp-signaling
#8
Ali Mirsaidi, André N Tiaden, Peter J Richards
The osteoinductive properties of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its signaling pathways have led to suggestions that it may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for bone loss. However, the prominence of PGE2 as an inducer of bone formation is attributed primarily to findings from studies using rodent models. In the current study, we investigated the effects of PGE2 on human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) lineage commitment and determined its mode of action. We demonstrated that PGE2 treatment of hBMSCs significantly altered the expression profile of several genes associated with osteoblast differentiation (RUNX2 and ALP) and maturation (BGLAP and MGP)...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533143/drugs-in-space-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-astronauts
#9
Johannes Kast, Yichao Yu, Christoph N Seubert, Virginia E Wotring, Hartmut Derendorf
Space agencies are working intensely to push the current boundaries of human spaceflight by sending astronauts deeper into space than ever before, including missions to Mars and asteroids. Spaceflight alters human physiology due to fluid shifts, muscle and bone loss, immune system dysregulation, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic enzymes. These alterations may change the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of medications used by astronauts and subsequently might impact drug efficacy and safety...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532603/matrix-replenishing-by-bmscs-is-beneficial-for-osteoarthritic-temporomandiblar-joint-cartilage
#10
Mian Zhang, Hongxu Yang, Lei Lu, Xianghong Wan, Jing Zhang, Hongyun Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Xiaofeng Huang, Guozhi Xiao, Meiqing Wang
OBJECTIVES: The present goal was to explore whether matrix replenishment is the primary requirement for osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. METHODS: Cells isolated from the superficial and deep zone cartilage of a pig temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were exposed to fluid flow shear stress (FFSS). Differences in matrix production and cellular differentiation were detected. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was applied to C57BL/6J female mice. Green fluorescent protein-labelled exogenous bone marrow stromal cells (GFP-BMSCs) were injected weekly into TMJs, starting from 3 weeks of UAC stimulation and continuing for 4-, 8- and 12-weeks...
May 19, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532408/bone-turnover-and-periprosthetic-bone-loss-after-cementless-total-hip-arthroplasty-can-be-restored-by-zoledronic-acid-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-controlled-trial
#11
Tsan-Wen Huang, Chao-Jan Wang, Hsin-Nung Shih, Yuhan Chang, Kuo-Chin Huang, Kuo-Ti Peng, Mel S Lee
BACKGROUND: Although the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a known problem, it remains unresolved. This study prospectively examined the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) on bone turnover and BMD after cementless THA. METHODS: Between January 2010 and August 2011, 60 patients who underwent cementless THA were randomly assigned to receive either ZA infusion or placebo (0.9% normal saline only) postoperatively. ZA was administered at 2 day and 1 year postoperatively...
May 22, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532104/in-situ-synthesis-and-characterization-of-hydroxyapatite-natural-rubber-composites-for-biomedical-applications
#12
T A Dick, L A Dos Santos
In this work, a biomimetic synthesis reaction for the production of hydroxyapatite (HA)/natural rubber (NR) composites is presented. HA was synthesized in the presence of solubilized NR in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which permits that negatively charged domains in proteins and lipids in NR work as nucleation sites for hydroxyapatite. The mechanical and physicochemical properties of composites containing 10, 20 and 30wt% HA were studied. NR influenced HA crystallite morphology, shape and size and was able to disperse the HA particles in THF...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531166/-epiafzelechin-protects-against-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-in-adult-mice-and-modulate-osteoblastic-and-osteoclastic-functions-in-vitro
#13
Ka-Chun Wong, Sisi Cao, Xiaoli Dong, Man-Chun Law, Tak-Hang Chan, Man-Sau Wong
The present study was designed to characterize the bone protective effects of (-)-epiafzelechin (EAF), a flavan-3-ol, in mature ovariectomized mice model and its ability to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic activity. Mature C57BL/6 mice (three to four months old) were either ovariectomised (OVX) or sham-operated and subjected to treatment (vehicle, 17β-oestradiol (E2, 200 μg/kg/day) or EAF (500 μg/kg/day) orally for six weeks. EAF and E2 significantly reduced urinary calcium (Ca) excretion, serum osteocalcin (OCN), and urinary deoxy-pyridinoline (DPD); increased bone mineral density (BMD); and improved micro-architectural properties in OVX mice...
May 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530645/myc-dependent-oxidative-metabolism-regulates-osteoclastogenesis-via-nuclear-receptor-err%C3%AE
#14
Seyeon Bae, Min Joon Lee, Se Hwan Mun, Eugenia G Giannopoulou, Vladimir Yong-Gonzalez, Justin R Cross, Koichi Murata, Vincent Giguère, Marjolein van der Meulen, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder associated with compromised bone strength and an increased risk of fracture. Inhibition of the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts is an effective strategy for the treatment of osteoporosis. Prior work by our laboratory and others has shown that MYC promotes osteoclastogenesis in vitro, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In addition, the in vivo importance of osteoclast-expressed MYC in physiological and pathological bone loss is not known...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530641/the-many-ways-of-osteoclast-activation
#15
Joseph Lorenzo
Osteoclasts are the cells responsible for bone resorption, a process that is essential for the maintenance of healthy bones. Bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, which are characterized by high rates of bone resorption and loss of bone mass, may benefit from treatments that inhibit osteoclast formation and/or function. The RANKL/RANK pathway is critical for both osteoclast formation and function, and these effects are thought to be mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530458/-early-symptoms-of-childhood-malignant-diseases
#16
Zsuzsanna Erzsébet Papp, Izabella Kelemen, Adrienne Horváth
INTRODUCTION: Childhood malignant diseases are rare in pediatric pathology. Early symptoms are not specific, fatigue, pallor, compression signs and bone marrow failure are often mentioned. AIM: To summarize the most frequent early symptoms of childhood malignancies in order to help the physicians in the early recognition. METHOD: In our retrospective study, we processed a period of 5 years between 2012-2016, with an accent on the onset manifestations of malignancies...
May 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530318/-severe-infantile-hypophosphatasia
#17
Evgenia Gurevich, Daniel Landau
Hypophosphatasia is the inborn error of metabolism that is characterized by low serum alkaline-phosphatase activity, due to loss-of-function mutations within the gene for tissuenonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase [TNSALP]. The manifestations of hypophosphatasia range from neonatal death with almost no skeletal mineralization to dental problems in adults without any bone symptoms. There are no case reports of infantile hypophosphatasia in Israel. The existence of enzymatic replacement treatment for this disease makes it important to diagnose this problem as soon as possible...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529869/septic-arthritis-of-the-shoulder-with-proximal-humerus-osteomyelitis-treated-by-ilizarov-shoulder-arthrodesis
#18
John Kendall, Martin McNally
Septic arthritis of the shoulder can destroy the glenohumeral joint resulting in significant pain, instability and poor function. Surgical treatment is notoriously difficult with significant risk of complications. Shoulder arthrodesis has been performed using both internal and external fixation but has high complication rates in the presence of infection. We present our experience of managing a patient with significant pain and loss of function as a result of septic arthritis of the shoulder following infected proximal humeral fracture fixation with associated proximal humeral osteomyelitis...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529816/sclerostin-activity-plays-a-key-role-in-the-negative-effect-of-glucocorticoid-signaling-on-osteoblast-function-in-mice
#19
Eric E Beier, Tzong-Jen Sheu, Emily A Resseguie, Masahiko Takahata, Hani A Awad, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, J Edward Puzas
Stress during prenatal development is correlated with detrimental cognitive and behavioral outcomes in offspring. However, the long-term impact of prenatal stress (PS) and disrupted glucocorticoid signaling on bone mass and strength is not understood. In contrast, the detrimental effect of lead (Pb) on skeletal health is well documented. As stress and Pb act on common biological targets via glucocorticoid signaling pathways and co-occur in the environment, this study first sought to assess the combined effect of stress and Pb on bone quality in association with alterations in glucocorticoid signaling...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529739/long-term-supplementation-with-young-coconut-juice-does-not-prevent-bone-loss-but-rather-alleviates-body-weight-gain-in-ovariectomized-rats
#20
Hiroshi Matsushita, Akira Minami, Hiroaki Kanazawa, Takashi Suzuki, Sanan Subhadhirasakul, Kazushi Watanabe, Akihiko Wakatsuki
Young coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) juice (YCJ) has traditionally been consumed to alleviate symptoms associated with the menopause. Recently, the authors demonstrated that short-term (6-week) YCJ supplementation to ovariectomized rats resulted in increased bone mass and bone formation parameter, suggesting that YCJ consumption has a positive effect on bone metabolism and may represent an intervention to help slow the bone loss during menopause transition. The present study sought to determine how long-term (12-week) YCJ supplementation affects bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats, to investigate whether such supplementation may be helpful to in osteoporosis treatment...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
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