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Research; monitoring & evaluation

Fanny Chevillot, Mélanie Guyot, Mélanie Desrosiers, Nicole Cadoret, Éloïse Veilleux, Hubert Cabana, Jean-Philippe Bellenger
Municipal biosolids are increasingly used as a low-cost fertilizer in agricultural soil. Biosolids are contaminated by low concentrations (ng g-1 dw range) of a large variety of organic contaminants, such as triclosan (TCS). The effect of exposure to low concentrations of organic contaminants on soil biota remains largely undocumented. We evaluated the sublethal effects of TCS on the earthworm Eisenia andrei using an artificial soil amended with a nominal concentration of TCS of 50 ng g-1 dry weight soil...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Pedro Nogueira, Joana Urbano, Luís Paulo Reis, Henrique Lopes Cardoso, Daniel Castro Silva, Ana Paula Rocha, Joaquim Gonçalves, Brígida Mónica Faria
With the rise in wearable technology and "health culture", we are seeing an increasing interest and affordances in studying how to not only prolong life expectancy but also in how to improve individuals' quality of life. On the one hand, this attempts to give meaning to the increasing life expectancy, as living above a certain threshold of pain and lack of autonomy or mobility is both degrading and unfair. On the other hand, it lowers the cost of continuous care, as individuals with high quality of life indexes tend to have lower hospital readmissions or secondary complications, not to mention higher physical and mental health...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Huong Luu, Svetla Slavova, Patricia R Freeman, Michelle Lofwall, Steven Browning, Heather Bush
PURPOSE: Increased opioid analgesic prescribing (OAP) has been associated with increased risk of prescription opioid diversion, misuse, and abuse. We studied regional and rural-urban variations in OAP trends in Kentucky, from 2012 to 2015, and examined potential county-level risk and protective factors. METHODS: This study used prescription drug monitoring data. Marginal models employing generalized estimating equations were used to model repeated counts of residents with opioid analgesic prescriptions within county-quarter, 2012-2015, with offset for resident population, by rural-urban classification exposure, and adjusting for time-varying socioeconomic and relevant health status measures...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Paul L Mosquin, Jeremy Aldworth, Wenlin Chen
Aquatic exposure assessments using surface water quality monitoring data are often challenged by missing extreme concentrations if sampling frequency is less than daily. A bias factor method has been previously proposed to address this concern for peak concentrations, where a bias factor is a multiplicative quantity to upwardly adjust estimates so that the true value is exceeded 95% of the time. In other words, bias factors are statistically protective adjustments. We evaluate this method using a research dataset of 69 near-daily sampled site-years from the Atrazine Ecological Monitoring Program (AEMP), dividing the dataset into 23 reference and 46 validation site-years...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Liya Hu, Peijun Li, Chao Chang, Shan Liu, Yanqiu Song, Fumei Zhao, Ting Liu
OBJECTIVE: Mouse models of sepsis-induced myocardial injury by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was established in order to provide a reliable method for the research of pathogenesis of sepsis-induced myocardial injury. METHODS: According to the method of random number table, a total of 150 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups: NC group, sham group, and LPS 10, 12, 15 mg/kg groups, with 30 in each group. Septic myocardial injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection LPS in mice; sham group was injected with equal 0...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Tim Martineau, Joanna Raven, Moses Aikins, Alvaro Alonso-Garbayo, Sebastian Baine, Reinhard Huss, Stephen Maluka, Kaspar Wyss
Background: To achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), more health workers are needed; also critical is supporting optimal performance of existing staff. Integrated human resource management (HRM) strategies, complemented by other health systems strategies, are needed to improve health workforce performance, which is possible at district level in decentralised contexts. To strengthen the capacity of district management teams to develop and implement workplans containing integrated strategies for workforce performance improvement, we introduced an action-research-based management strengthening intervention (MSI)...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Lin Y Chen, Mina K Chung, Larry A Allen, Michael Ezekowitz, Karen L Furie, Pamela McCabe, Peter A Noseworthy, Marco V Perez, Mintu P Turakhia
Our understanding of the risk factors and complications of atrial fibrillation (AF) is based mostly on studies that have evaluated AF in a binary fashion (present or absent) and have not investigated AF burden. This scientific statement discusses the published literature and knowledge gaps related to methods of defining and measuring AF burden, the relationship of AF burden to cardiovascular and neurological outcomes, and the effect of lifestyle and risk factor modification on AF burden. Many studies examine outcomes by AF burden classified by AF type (paroxysmal versus nonparoxysmal); however, quantitatively, AF burden can be defined by longest duration, number of AF episodes during a monitoring period, and the proportion of time an individual is in AF during a monitoring period (expressed as a percentage)...
April 16, 2018: Circulation
Nicholas B Tiscione, Ilene Alford
Drug seizures containing carfentanil continue to increase in Palm Beach County, FL, USA despite international efforts to control the distribution of the drug. The analysis of drug seizures from the county in 2016 and 2017 demonstrated that carfentanil was the most commonly identified fentanyl analog and was most often detected in combination with heroin, fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and/or other fentanyl analogs. Carfentanil is an ultra-potent opioid requiring a method with adequate sensitivity for detection in blood specimens from impairment cases...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Rebecca J Jarden, Lynsey Sutton-Smith, Catherine Boulton
Timely and adequate nutrition improves health outcomes for the critically ill patient. Despite clinical guidelines recommending early oral nutrition, survivors of critical illness experience significant nutritional deficits. This cohort study evaluates the oral nutrition intake in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who have experienced recent critical illness. The oral nutrition intake of a convenience sample of ICU patients post-critical illness was observed during a 1-month period. Data pertaining to both the amount of oral nutrition intake and factors impacting optimal oral nutrition intake were collected and analysed...
April 16, 2018: Nursing in Critical Care
J David Smith, Joseph Boomer, Barbara A Church, Alexandria C Zakrzewski, Michael J Beran, Michael L Baum
The study of nonhumans' metacognitive judgments about trial difficulty has grown into an important comparative literature. However, the potential for associative-learning confounds in this area has left room for behaviorist interpretations that are strongly asserted and hotly debated. This article considers how researchers may be able to observe animals' strategic cognitive processes more clearly by creating temporally extended problems within which associative cues are not always immediately available. We asked humans and rhesus macaques to commit to completing spatially extended mazes or to decline completing them through a trial-decline response...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Mehrouz Dezfulian
Different cell models have been developed for the study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathways. The neuronal dysfunction and cell death mechanisms that are commonly found in this disease are due to the production of high levels of cytokines and the formation of amyloid plaques. In the cell model introduced in the present study, the production of these two important factors is induced by using B cells from an AD patient. The B cells of an Alzheimer's patient and a normal control were immortalized by using EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) to produce a lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL)...
April 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Tohid Jafari-Koshki, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Marjan Mansourian, Masoud Amini
AIMS: This study aimed to introduce and apply modern statistical techniques for assessing association and predictive value of risk factors in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with diabetes from repeatedly measured diabetes data. METHODS: We used data from 1319 FDR's of patients with diabetes followed for 8 years. Association and predictive performance of weight (Wt), body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences (WC and HC) and their ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR) and a body shape index (ABSI) in relation to future diabetes were evaluated by using Cox regression and joint longitudinal-survival modeling...
April 3, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Can Ekinci, Merve Karabork, Dimitrie Siriopol, Neris Dincer, Adrian Covic, Mehmet Kanbay
Volume overload is an important, may be the foremost, independent prognostic factor determining the outcome of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, it is crucial to measure fluid status of these patients and avoid volume overload. This review aims to evaluate volume overload, its effects on patients with renal diseases and current methodologies measuring volume status in the body. These techniques will be first classified as clinical evaluation and non-clinical and/or instrumental techniques, which includes biomarkers, ultrasonography, relative blood volume monitoring, bioimpedance, echocardiography, pulmonary artery catheterization, esophageal and/or suprasternal Doppler, and blood viscosity...
April 12, 2018: Blood Purification
Elizabeth E Tolley, Kate Morrow Guthrie, Seth Zissette, Joseph L Fava, Katherine Gill, Cheryl E Louw, Philip Kotze, Krishnaveni Reddy, Kathleen MacQueen
BACKGROUND: Low adherence in recent HIV prevention clinical trials highlights the need to better understand, measure, and support product use within clinical trials. Conventional self-reported adherence instruments within HIV prevention trials, often relying on single-item questions, have proven ineffective. While objective adherence measures are desirable, none currently exist that apply to both active and placebo arms. Scales are composed of multiple items in the form of questions or statements that, when combined, measure a more complex construct that may not be directly observable...
2018: PloS One
Bartosz Czernecki, Jakub Nowosad, Katarzyna Jabłońska
Changes in the timing of plant phenological phases are important proxies in contemporary climate research. However, most of the commonly used traditional phenological observations do not give any coherent spatial information. While consistent spatial data can be obtained from airborne sensors and preprocessed gridded meteorological data, not many studies robustly benefit from these data sources. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to create and evaluate different statistical models for reconstructing, predicting, and improving quality of phenological phases monitoring with the use of satellite and meteorological products...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Yeongchang Goh, Yo Han Song, Gibok Lee, Hyeongyu Bae, Manoj Kumar Mahata, Kang Taek Lee
Understanding the interaction of nanoparticles with living cells on the basis of cellular uptake efficiency is a fundamental requisite in biomedical research. Cellular internalization of nanoparticles takes place by mechanisms like ATP hydrolysis-driven endocytosis that deliver nanoparticles to the cytoplasm, organelles and nuclei. Despite its importance in nanomedicine, this uptake procedure is not understood in-depth because of the complexity of the biochemical mechanisms and the lack of available experimental methods for quantitative analysis...
April 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Luigi Vimercati, Fulvio Fucilli, Domenica Cavone, Luigi De Maria, Francesco Birtolo, Giovanni Maria Ferri, Leonardo Soleo, Piero Lovreglio
Since 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified radon among the compounds for which there is scientific evidence of carcinogenicity for humans (group 1). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a reference radon level between 100 and 300 Bq/m³ for homes. The objective of this study is to measure the radon concentrations in 401 workplaces, different from the patient rooms, in 28 different buildings of the university hospital in Bari (Apulia region, Southern Italy) to evaluate the exposure of health care workers...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
S Nuvoli, V Fiore, S Babudieri, S Galassi, P Bagella, P Solinas, A Spanu, G Madeddu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present review is an update on the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), evaluating the additional value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) to the standard modified DUKE criteria on which for a long time is based the diagnostic strategy of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We did a comprehensive research on the studies reported in the literature and regarding the employment of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the early diagnosis of PVE in patients with suspected disease...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Wei Zhang, Ruixia Wang, Wei Liu, Xin Wang, Ping Li, Wen Zhang, Hui Wang, Bo Tang
Acute strenuous exercise and emotional changes are closely related to important aspects of human health. The superoxide anion (O2 ˙- ), as one of the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS), is intimately associated with major diseases. However, there is no relevant in vivo research for directly indicating the link between O2 ˙- level and acute physical exercise or emotional changes. Hence, we constructed three fluorescent probes for the detection of O2 ˙- , including a Te-containing molecular probe and Se- and Te-containing CDs, and evaluated their properties such as selectivity, sensitivity, instantaneity and dynamic response to O2 ˙- ...
January 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Vikram Chakravarthy, Brett Kaplan, Vadim Gospodarev, Hannah Myers, Kenneth De Los Reyes, Adina Achiriloaie
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are common intracranial neoplasms of undetermined etiology. Accelerated growth during episodes of elevated serum estrogen and progesterone have been demonstrated in pregnant patients, as exhibited by an overexpression of estrogen or progesterone upon immunohistochemical analysis. This case report and literature review describes a case of complete meningioma regression in a postpartum patient. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 23-year-old female presented at 37 weeks of pregnancy with 1-month history of fluctuating severe left-sided headaches, periodic blurry vision, nausea and vomiting...
April 4, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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