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Trait evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053363/toward-a-periodic-table-of-niches-or-exploring-the-lizard-niche-hypervolume
#1
Eric R Pianka, Laurie J Vitt, Nicolás Pelegrin, Daniel B Fitzgerald, Kirk O Winemiller
Widespread niche convergence suggests that species can be organized according to functional trait combinations to create a framework analogous to a periodic table. We compiled ecological data for lizards to examine patterns of global and regional niche diversification, and we used multivariate statistical approaches to develop the beginnings for a periodic table of niches. Data (50+ variables) for five major niche dimensions (habitat, diet, life history, metabolism, defense) were compiled for 134 species of lizards representing 24 of the 38 extant families...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053361/artificial-selection-to-increase-the-phenotypic-variance-in-gmax-fails
#2
Jacqueline L Sztepanacz, Mark W Blows
Stabilizing selection is important in evolutionary theories of the maintenance of genetic variance and has been invoked as the key process determining macroevolutionary patterns of trait evolution. However, manipulative evidence for the extent of stabilizing selection, particularly on multivariate traits, is lacking. We used artificial disruptive selection in Drosophila serrata as a tool to determine the relative strength of stabilizing selection experienced by multivariate trait combinations with contrasting levels of genetic and mutational variance...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053358/bioinvasion-triggers-rapid-evolution-of-life-histories-in-freshwater-snails
#3
Elodie Chapuis, Thomas Lamy, Jean-Pierre Pointier, Nicolas Juillet, Adeline Ségard, Philippe Jarne, Patrice David
Biological invasions offer interesting situations for observing how novel interactions between closely related, formerly allopatric species may trigger phenotypic evolution in situ. Assuming that successful invaders are usually filtered to be competitively dominant, invasive and native species may follow different trajectories. Natives may evolve traits that minimize the negative impact of competition, while trait shifts in invasives should mostly reflect expansion dynamics, through selection for colonization ability and transiently enhanced mutation load at the colonization front...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053357/the-roles-of-sexual-and-viability-selection-in-the-evolution-of-incomplete-reproductive-isolation-from-allopatry-to-sympatry
#4
Olivier Cotto, Maria R Servedio
In recent years, theoretical models have introduced the concept that ongoing hybridization between "good" species can occur because incomplete reproductive isolation can be a selected optimum. They furthermore show that positive frequency-dependent sexual selection, which is naturally generated by some of the underlying processes that lead to assortative mating, plays a key role in the evolution of incomplete reproductive isolation. This occurs, however, through different mechanisms in sympatric versus allopatric scenarios...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053356/the-evolution-of-clutch-size-in-hosts-of-avian-brood-parasites
#5
Iliana Medina, Naomi E Langmore, Robert Lanfear, Hanna Kokko
Coevolution with avian brood parasites shapes a range of traits in their hosts, including morphology, behavior, and breeding systems. Here we explore whether brood parasitism is also associated with the evolution of host clutch size. Several studies have proposed that hosts of highly virulent parasites could decrease the costs of parasitism by evolving a smaller clutch size, because hosts with smaller clutches will lose fewer progeny when their clutch is parasitized. We describe a model of the evolution of clutch size, which challenges this logic and shows instead that an increase in clutch size (or no change) should evolve in hosts...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053114/-evolution-of-the-schizophrenic-deficit-concept
#6
A B Smulevich, D V Romanov, E I Voronova, A K Mukhorina, V V Chitlova, O Yu Sorokina
The relevance of this study is the high prevalence and clinical heterogeneity of deficit states in chronic schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The study aimed at analyzing negative symptoms in schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders from historical and modern perspectives. An analysis of available literature, along with own observations, has been performed. It was found that negative symptoms comprise 3 clinical types: 1) 'pseudopsychopathic' type (overlapping personality dimensions and premorbid/initial negative symptoms), 2) pseudoorganic/asthenic/pseudobradiphrenic type (pseudoorganic states), developing at different stages of schizophrenia), 3) 'new'-life pseudopsychopathic type (not associated with premorbid personality traits), developing at late stages in schizophrenia...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051595/a-virus-carries-a-gene-encoding-juvenile-hormone-acid-methyltransferase-a-key-regulatory-enzyme-in-insect-metamorphosis
#7
Jun Takatsuka, Madoka Nakai, Tetsuro Shinoda
Microbial parasitism, infection, and symbiosis in animals often modulate host endocrine systems, resulting in alterations of phenotypic traits of the host that can have profound effects on the ecology and evolution of both the microorganisms and their hosts. Information about the mechanisms and genetic bases of such modulations by animal parasites is available from studies of steroid hormones. However, reports involving other hormones are scarce. We found that an insect virus, a betaentomopoxvirus, encodes a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase that can synthesize an important insect hormone, the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051384/taxon-restricted-genes-at-the-origin-of-a-novel-trait-allowing-access-to-a-new-environment
#8
M Emília Santos, Augustin Le Bouquin, Antonin J J Crumière, Abderrahman Khila
Taxon-restricted genes make up a considerable proportion of genomes, yet their contribution to phenotypic evolution is poorly understood. We combined gene expression with functional and behavioral assays to study the origin and adaptive value of an evolutionary innovation exclusive to the water strider genus Rhagovelia: the propelling fan. We discovered that two taxon-restricted genes, which we named geisha and mother-of-geisha, specifically control fan development. geisha originated through a duplication event at the base of the Rhagovelia lineage, and both duplicates acquired a novel expression in a specific cell population prefiguring fan development...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051380/recent-natural-selection-causes-adaptive-evolution-of-an-avian-polygenic-trait
#9
Mirte Bosse, Lewis G Spurgin, Veronika N Laine, Ella F Cole, Josh A Firth, Phillip Gienapp, Andrew G Gosler, Keith McMahon, Jocelyn Poissant, Irene Verhagen, Martien A M Groenen, Kees van Oers, Ben C Sheldon, Marcel E Visser, Jon Slate
We used extensive data from a long-term study of great tits (Parus major) in the United Kingdom and Netherlands to better understand how genetic signatures of selection translate into variation in fitness and phenotypes. We found that genomic regions under differential selection contained candidate genes for bill morphology and used genetic architecture analyses to confirm that these genes, especially the collagen gene COL4A5, explained variation in bill length. COL4A5 variation was associated with reproductive success, which, combined with spatiotemporal patterns of bill length, suggested ongoing selection for longer bills in the United Kingdom...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048573/the-rate-of-evolution-of-postmating-prezygotic-reproductive-isolation-in-drosophila
#10
David A Turissini, Joseph A McGirr, Sonali S Patel, Jean R David, Daniel R Matute
Reproductive isolation is an intrinsic aspect of species formation. For that reason, the identification of the precise isolating traits, and the rates at which they evolve, is crucial to understanding how species originate and persist. Previous work has measured the rates of evolution of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to gene flow, yet no systematic analysis has studied the rates of evolution of postmating-prezygotic (PMPZ) barriers. We measured the magnitude of two barriers to gene flow that act after mating occurs but before fertilization...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046573/sex-specific-evolution-during-the-diversification-of-live-bearing-fishes
#11
Zachary W Culumber, Michael Tobler
Natural selection is often assumed to drive parallel functional diversification of the sexes. But males and females exhibit fundamental differences in their biology, and it remains largely unknown how sex differences affect macroevolutionary patterns. On microevolutionary scales, we understand how natural and sexual selection interact to give rise to sex-specific evolution during phenotypic diversification and speciation. Here we show that ignoring sex-specific patterns of functional trait evolution misrepresents the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and evolutionary rates for 112 species of live-bearing fishes (Poeciliidae)...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046549/adult-frogs-and-tadpoles-have-different-macroevolutionary-patterns-across-the-australian-continent
#12
Emma Sherratt, Marta Vidal-García, Marion Anstis, J Scott Keogh
Developmental changes through an animal's life are generally understood to contribute to the resulting adult morphology. Possible exceptions are species with complex life cycles, where individuals pass through distinct ecological and morphological life stages during their ontogeny, ending with metamorphosis to the adult form. Antagonistic selection is expected to drive low genetic correlations between life stages, theoretically permitting stages to evolve independently. Here we describe, using Australian frog radiation, the evolutionary consequences on morphological evolution when life stages are under different selective pressures...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045649/understanding-evolutionary-impacts-of-seasonality-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#13
Caroline M Williams, Gregory J Ragland, Gustavo Betini, Lauren B Buckley, Zachary A Cheviron, Kathleen Donohue, Joe Hereford, Murray M Humphries, Simeon Lisovski, Katie E Marshall, Paul S Schmidt, Kimberly S Sheldon, Øystein Varpe, Marcel E Visser
Seasonality is a critically important aspect of environmental variability, and strongly shapes all aspects of life for organisms living in highly seasonal environments. Seasonality has played a key role in generating biodiversity, and has driven the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations and behaviors such as migration and hibernation. Fluctuating selection pressures on survival and fecundity between summer and winter provide a complex selective landscape, which can be met by a combination of three outcomes of adaptive evolution: genetic polymorphism, phenotypic plasticity, and bet-hedging...
October 16, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045601/genomic-changes-associated-with-reproductive-and-migratory-ecotypes-in-sockeye-salmon-oncorhynchus-nerka
#14
Andrew J Veale, Michael A Russello
Mechanisms underlying adaptive evolution can best be explored using paired populations displaying similar phenotypic divergence, illuminating the genomic changes associated with specific life history traits. Here we used paired migratory [anadromous vs. resident (kokanee)] and reproductive [shore- vs. stream-spawning] ecotypes of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) sampled from seven lakes and two rivers spanning three catchments (Columbia, Fraser, and Skeena) in British Columbia, Canada to investigate the patterns and processes underlying their divergence...
October 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045396/indirect-effects-drive-coevolution-in-mutualistic-networks
#15
Paulo R Guimarães, Mathias M Pires, Pedro Jordano, Jordi Bascompte, John N Thompson
Ecological interactions have been acknowledged to play a key role in shaping biodiversity. Yet a major challenge for evolutionary biology is to understand the role of ecological interactions in shaping trait evolution when progressing from pairs of interacting species to multispecies interaction networks. Here we introduce an approach that integrates coevolutionary dynamics and network structure. Our results show that non-interacting species can be as important as directly interacting species in shaping coevolution within mutualistic assemblages...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044944/rapid-evolution-of-phenology-during-range-expansion-with-recent-climate-change
#16
Nicky Lustenhouwer, Rutger A Wilschut, Jennifer L Williams, Wim H van der Putten, Jonathan M Levine
Although climate warming is expected to make habitat beyond species' current cold range edge suitable for future colonization, this new habitat may present an array of biotic or abiotic conditions not experienced within the current range. Species' ability to shift their range with climate change may therefore depend on how populations evolve in response to such novel environmental conditions. However, due to the recent nature of thus far observed range expansions, the role of rapid adaptation during climate change migration is only beginning to be understood...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044885/heritability-and-social-brood-effects-on-personality-in-juvenile-and-adult-life-history-stages-in-a-wild-passerine
#17
Isabel S Winney, Julia Schroeder, Shinichi Nakagawa, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre Jp Simons, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Terry Burke
How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044796/social-traits-social-networks-and-evolutionary-biology
#18
David N Fisher, Andrew G McAdam
The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships, and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043498/sex-specific-strategies-of-resource-allocation-in-response-to-competition-for-light-in-a-dioecious-plant
#19
Jeanne Tonnabel, Patrice David, John R Pannell
The differential plasticity hypothesis suggests that sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants could evolve in response to sex-specific resource requirements for reproduction (i.e., high carbon requirements for ovules and high nitrogen demands for pollen). When resources become limiting during growth, males and females should, therefore, adjust their allocation to resource-harvesting organs differently. To investigate the potential for plants to respond to resource limitation late in life and to test the differential plasticity hypothesis, we grew male and female individuals of the annual wind-pollinated plant Mercurialis annua in a common garden...
October 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043059/thermal-plasticity-in-postembryonic-life-history-traits-of-a-widely-distributed-collembola-effects-of-macroclimate-and-microhabitat-on-genotypic-differences
#20
Sagnik Sengupta, Torbjørn Ergon, Hans Petter Leinaas
Life history traits in many ectotherms show complex patterns of variation among conspecific populations sampled along wide latitudinal or climatic gradients. However, few studies have assessed whether these patterns can be explained better by thermal reaction norms of multiple life history traits, covering major aspects of the life cycle. In this study, we compared five populations of a Holarctic, numerically dominant soil microarthropod species, Folsomia quadrioculata, sampled from a wide latitudinal gradient (56-81°N), for growth, development, fecundity, and survival across four temperatures (10, 15, 20, and 25°C) in common garden experiments...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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