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Trait evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429828/genomic-clustering-of-adaptive-loci-during-parallel-evolution-of-an-australian-wildflower
#1
Federico Roda, Greg M Walter, Rick Nipper, Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos
The buildup of the phenotypic differences that distinguish species has long intrigued biologists. These differences are often inherited as stable polymorphisms that allow the co-segregation of adaptive variation within species, and facilitate the differentiation of complex phenotypes between species. It has been suggested that the clustering of adaptive loci could facilitate this process but evidence is still scarce. Here we used QTL analysis to study the genetic basis of phenotypic differentiation between coastal populations of the Australian wildflower Senecio lautus...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428869/rapid-maximum-likelihood-ancestral-state-reconstruction-of-continuous-characters-a-rerooting-free-algorithm
#2
Eric W Goolsby
Ancestral state reconstruction is a method used to study the evolutionary trajectories of quantitative characters on phylogenies. Although efficient methods for univariate ancestral state reconstruction under a Brownian motion model have been described for at least 25 years, to date no generalization has been described to allow more complex evolutionary models, such as multivariate trait evolution, non-Brownian models, missing data, and within-species variation. Furthermore, even for simple univariate Brownian motion models, most phylogenetic comparative R packages compute ancestral states via inefficient tree rerooting and full tree traversals at each tree node, making ancestral state reconstruction extremely time-consuming for large phylogenies...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428852/stoichiometric-traits-of-stickleback-effects-of-genetic-background-rearing-environment-and-ontogeny
#3
Miguel Costa Leal, Rebecca J Best, Dan Durston, Rana W El-Sabaawi, Blake Matthews
Phenotypes can both evolve in response to, and affect, ecosystem change, but few examples of diverging ecosystem-effect traits have been investigated. Bony armor traits of fish are good candidates for this because they evolve rapidly in some freshwater fish populations, and bone is phosphorus rich and likely to affect nutrient recycling in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we explore how ontogeny, rearing environment, and bone allocation among body parts affect the stoichiometric phenotype (i.e., stoichiometric composition of bodies and excretion) of threespine stickleback...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428200/the-evolution-of-aluminum-accumulation-in-ferns-and-lycophytes
#4
Marco Schmitt, Klaus Mehltreter, Michael Sundue, Weston Testo, Toshihiro Watanabe, Steven Jansen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: This paper investigates the occurrence and evolution of aluminum (Al) accumulation within ferns and lycophytes, which is characterized by Al concentrations above 1000 mg·kg(-1) in aboveground plant tissues. We hypothesize that this feature is more common in ferns than in angiosperms, and potentially correlated with growth form and other chemical elements. METHODS: Aluminum concentrations were obtained from novel analyses and literature for a total of 354 specimens and 307 species...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427910/stochasticity-of-gene-expression-as-a-motor-of-epigenetics-in-bacteria-from-individual-to-collective-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Stéphanie Bury-Moné, Bianca Sclavi
Measuring gene expression at the single cell and single molecule level has recently made possible the quantitative measurement of stochasticity of gene expression. This enables identification of the probable sources and roles of noise. Stochastic gene expression can result in bacterial population heterogeneity, offering specific advantages for fitness and survival in various environments. This trait is therefore selected during the evolution of the species, and is consequently regulated by specific genetic network architecture...
April 18, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427330/pan-genome-and-crispr-analyses-of-the-bacterial-fish-pathogen-moritella-viscosa
#6
Christian Karlsen, Erik Hjerde, Terje Klemetsen, Nils Peder Willassen
BACKGROUND: Winter-ulcer Moritella viscosa infections continue to be a significant burden in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) farming. M. viscosa comprises two main clusters that differ in genetic variation and phenotypes including virulence. Horizontal gene transfer through acquisition and loss of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) is a major driving force of bacterial diversification. To gain insight into genomic traits that could affect sublineage evolution within this bacterium we examined the genome sequences of twelve M...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426794/impact-of-wolbachia-on-oxidative-stress-sensitivity-in-the-parasitic-wasp-asobara-japonica
#7
David Monnin, Natacha Kremer, Emmanuel Desouhant, Fabrice Vavre
The oxidative homeostasis is the balance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant molecules. In addition to be considered as a key factor underlying life-history traits evolution, the oxidative homeostasis has been shown to be involved in many host-symbiont associations. Previous studies suggest an interaction between the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia and the oxidative homeostasis of some insect hosts. This interaction is likely to exert a strong influence on the host evolution, as it has been proposed in the wasp Asobara tabida, whose dependence upon Wolbachia is due to the evolutionary loss of its ability to regulate the oxidative homeostasis in the absence of the symbiont...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426792/no-evidence-for-the-radiation-time-lag-model-after-whole-genome-duplications-in-teleostei
#8
Sacha Laurent, Nicolas Salamin, Marc Robinson-Rechavi
The short and long term effects of polyploidization on the evolutionary fate of lineages is still unclear despite much interest. First recognized in land plants, it has become clear that polyploidization is widespread in eukaryotes, notably at the origin of vertebrates and teleost fishes. Many hypotheses have been proposed to link the species richness of lineages and whole genome duplications. For instance, the radiation time lag model suggests that paleopolyploidy would favour the apparition of new phenotypic traits, although the radiation of the lineage would not occur before a later dispersion event...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426703/effects-of-over-expressing-a-native-gene-encoding-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate-synthase-epsps-on-glyphosate-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Xiao Yang, Zachery T Beres, Lin Jin, Jason T Parrish, Wanying Zhao, David Mackey, Allison A Snow
Widespread overuse of the herbicide glyphosate, the active ingredient in RoundUp®, has led to the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes, some of which persist by overproducing the herbicide's target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). EPSPS is a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, lignin, and defensive compounds, but little is known about how overproducing EPSPS affects downstream metabolites, growth, or lifetime fitness in the absence of glyphosate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426286/on-the-evolution-of-lactase-persistence-in-humans
#10
Laure Ségurel, Céline Bon
Lactase persistence-the ability of adults to digest the lactose in milk-varies widely in frequency across human populations. This trait represents an adaptation to the domestication of dairying animals and the subsequent consumption of their milk. Five variants are currently known to underlie this phenotype, which is monogenic in Eurasia but mostly polygenic in Africa. Despite being a textbook example of regulatory convergent evolution and gene-culture coevolution, the story of lactase persistence is far from clear: Why are lactase persistence frequencies low in Central Asian herders but high in some African hunter-gatherers?Whywas lactase persistence strongly selected for even though milk processing can reduce the amount of lactose? Are there other factors, outside of an advantage of caloric intake, that contributed to the selective pressure for lactase persistence? It is time to revisit what we know and still do not know about lactase persistence in humans...
April 19, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424921/evolution-of-psychological-condition-in-caregivers-of-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness-a-longitudinal-study
#11
Francesco Corallo, Lilla Bonanno, Viviana Lo Buono, Simona De Salvo, Cettina Allone, Rosanna Palmeri, Elena La Gattuta, Carmela Rifici, Antonella Alagna, Antonino Todaro, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
The aim of this study is to evaluate mood disorders and needs in caregivers of disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients during the admission to Neurorehabilitation Unit. A total of 80 caregivers was enrolled and divided in two groups (caregivers of vegetative state-VS patients and caregivers of minimally conscious state-MCS patients). Paired sample t tests were carried out to test differences between baseline observation (T0) and after 6 months (T1). Caregivers of VS patients showed an improvement between T0 and T1 especially, in vitality, mean health, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-Y), Prolonged Grief Disorder (PG 12) and Caregiver Needs Assessment (CNA)...
April 19, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424494/predictable-phenotypic-but-not-karyotypic-evolution-of-populations-with-contrasting-initial-history
#12
Pedro Simões, Inês Fragata, Sofia G Seabra, Gonçalo S Faria, Marta A Santos, Michael R Rose, Mauro Santos, Margarida Matos
The relative impact of selection, chance and history will determine the predictability of evolution. There is a lack of empirical research on this subject, particularly in sexual organisms. Here we use experimental evolution to test the predictability of evolution. We analyse the real-time evolution of Drosophila subobscura populations derived from contrasting European latitudes placed in a novel laboratory environment. Each natural population was sampled twice within a three-year interval. We study evolutionary responses at both phenotypic (life-history, morphological and physiological traits) and karyotypic levels for around 30 generations of laboratory culture...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424354/less-effective-selection-leads-to-larger-genomes
#13
Tristan Lefébure, Claire Morvan, Florian Malard, Clémentine François, Lara Konecny-Dupré, Laurent Guéguen, Michèle Weiss-Gayet, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Luca Ermini, Clio Der Sarkissian, N Pierre Charrier, David Eme, Florian Mermillod-Blondin, Laurent Duret, Cristina Vieira, Ludovic Orlando, Christophe Douady
The evolutionary origin of the striking genome size variations found in eukaryotes remains enigmatic. The effective size of populations, by controlling selection efficacy, is expected to be a key parameter underlying genome size evolution. However, this hypothesis has proved difficult to investigate using empirical datasets. Here, we tested this hypothesis using twenty-two de novo transcriptomes and low-coverage genomes of asellid isopods, which represent eleven independent habitat shifts from surface water to resource-poor groundwater...
April 19, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422318/computational-analysis-of-breast-cancer-gwas-loci-identifies-the-putative-deleterious-effect-of-stxbp4-and-znf404-gene-variants
#14
Tariq Ahmad Masoodi, Babajan Banaganapalli, Venkatesh Vaidyanathan, Venkateswar Rao Talluri, Noor Ahmad Shaik
The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled us in identifying different breast cancer susceptibility loci. However, majority of these are non-coding variants with no annotated biological function. We investigated such 78 noncoding genome wide associated SNPs of breast cancer and further expanded the list to 2162 variants with strong linkage-disequilibrium (LD, r2 ≥0.8). Using multiple publically available algorithms such as CADD, GWAVA and FATHAMM, we classified all these variants in to deleterious, damaging or benign categories...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419447/divergence-and-evolution-of-assortative-mating-in-a-polygenic-trait-model-of-speciation-with-gene-flow
#15
Himani Sachdeva, Nicholas H Barton
Assortative mating is an important driver of speciation in populations with gene flow and is predicted to evolve under certain conditions in few-locus models. However, the evolution of assortment is less understood for mating based on quantitative traits, which are often characterized by high genetic variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium between trait loci. We explore this scenario for a two-deme model with migration, by considering a single polygenic trait subject to divergent viability selection across demes, as well as assortative mating and sexual selection within demes, and investigate how trait divergence is shaped by various evolutionary forces...
April 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419340/extremely-thick-cell-walls-and-low-mesophyll-conductance-welcome-to-the-world-of-ancient-living
#16
Linda-Liisa Veromann-Jürgenson, Tiina Tosens, Lauri Laanisto, Ülo Niinemets
Mesophyll conductance is thought to be an important photosynthetic limitation in gymnosperms, but they currently constitute the most understudied plant group in regard to the extent to which photosynthesis and intrinsic water use efficiency are limited by mesophyll conductance. A comprehensive analysis of leaf gas exchange, photosynthetic limitations, mesophyll conductance (calculated by three methods previously used for across-species comparisons), and the underlying ultra-anatomical, morphological and chemical traits in 11 gymnosperm species varying in evolutionary history was performed to gain insight into the evolution of structural and physiological controls on photosynthesis at the lower return end of the leaf economics spectrum...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418033/a-genome-wide-snp-based-genetic-map-and-qtl-mapping-for-agronomic-traits-in-chinese-cabbage
#17
Li Huang, Yafei Yang, Fang Zhang, Jiashu Cao
The aim of this work was to construct a high-resolution genetic map for the dissection of complex morphological and agronomic traits in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. syn. B. campestris). Chinese cabbage, an economically important vegetable, is a good model plant for studies on the evolution of morphologic variation. Herein, two high-generation inbred Chinese cabbage lines, 'Huangxiaoza' and 'Bqq094-11', were crossed. Then restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was performed on the parents and 120 F2 individuals...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415218/biodiversity-extinctions-and-evolution-of-ecosystems-with-shared-resources
#18
Vladimir Kozlov, Sergey Vakulenko, Uno Wennergren
We investigate the formation of stable ecological networks where many species share the same resource. We show that such a stable ecosystem naturally occurs as a result of extinctions. We obtain an analytical relation for the number of coexisting species, and we find a relation describing how many species that may become extinct as a result of a sharp environmental change. We introduce a special parameter that is a combination of species traits and resource characteristics used in the model formulation. This parameter describes the pressure on the system to converge, by extinctions...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413232/the-freshwater-red-alga-batrachospermum-turfosum-florideophyceae-can-acclimate-to-a-wide-range-of-light-and-temperature-conditions
#19
Siegfried Aigner, Andreas Holzinger, Ulf Karsten, Ilse Kranner
Batrachospermum turfosum Bory is one of the generalists among the few red algae that have adapted to freshwater habitats, occurring in a variety of primarily shaded, nutrient-poor micro-habitats with lotic (running) or lentic (standing) waters. Seasonal variations in water level and canopy cover can expose this sessile alga to widely fluctuating temperatures, solar irradiation and nutrient availability. Here we report on the ecophysiology of B. turfosum collected from an ultra-oligotrophic bog pool in the Austrian Alps...
2017: Phycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411161/a-reassessment-of-the-phylogeny-and-circumscription-of-zaluzianskya-scrophulariaceae
#20
Jenny K Archibald, Jacqueline Cook, Bruce Anderson, Steven D Johnson, Mark E Mort
The genus Zaluzianskya (Scrophulariaceae s.s.) encompasses a diversity of traits, such as flowers ranging from 4 to 60 mm in length with various patterns of color and indumentum. However, this diversity, as described by the current taxonomic circumscription of Zaluzianskya, is an underestimate. The boundaries of this genus require expansion via incorporation of species from other genera and recognition of unnamed species. This study advances prior molecular phylogenies for the southern African genus through the addition of DNA regions and an up to 70% increase in population sampling, targeting specific taxa...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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