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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244567/temporal-variation-in-predation-risk-may-explain-daily-rhythms-of-foraging-behavior-in-an-orb-weaving-spider
#1
J Colton Watts, Thomas C Jones, Ashley Herrig, Madeleine Miller, Brigitte Tenhumberg
Daily rhythms occur in numerous physiological and behavioral processes across an immense diversity of taxa, but there remain few cases in which mechanistic links between rhythms of trait expression and organismal fitness have been established. We construct a dynamic optimization model to determine whether risk allocation provides an adaptive explanation for the daily foraging rhythm observed in many species using the orb-weaving spider Cyclosa turbinata as a case study. Our model predicts that female C. turbinata should generally start foraging at lower levels of energy reserves (i...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244566/the-price-equation-gradient-dynamics-and-continuous-trait-game-theory
#2
Jussi Lehtonen
A recent article convincingly nominated the Price equation as the fundamental theorem of evolution and used it as a foundation to derive several other theorems. A major section of evolutionary theory that was not addressed is that of game theory and gradient dynamics of continuous traits with frequency-dependent fitness. Deriving fundamental results in these fields under the unifying framework of the Price equation illuminates similarities and differences between approaches and allows a simple, unified view of game-theoretical and dynamic concepts...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244562/learning-to-cooperate-the-evolution-of-social-rewards-in-repeated-interactions
#3
Slimane Dridi, Erol Akçay
Understanding the behavioral and psychological mechanisms underlying social behaviors is one of the major goals of social evolutionary theory. In particular, a persistent question about animal cooperation is to what extent it is supported by other-regarding preferences-the motivation to increase the welfare of others. In many situations, animals adjust their behaviors through learning by responding to the rewards they experience as a consequence of their actions. Therefore, we may ask whether learning in social situations can be driven by evolved other-regarding rewards...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244559/thermoregulatory-behavior-simultaneously-promotes-and-forestalls-evolution-in-a-tropical-lizard
#4
Martha M Muñoz, Jonathan B Losos
The role of behavior in evolution has long been discussed, with some arguing that behavior promotes evolution by exposing organisms to selection (behavioral drive) and others proposing that it inhibits evolution by shielding organisms from environmental variation (behavioral inertia). However, this discussion has generally focused on the effects of behavior along a single axis without considering that behavior simultaneously influences selection in various niche dimensions. By examining evolutionary change along two distinct niche axes-structural and thermal-we propose that behavior simultaneously drives and impedes evolution in a group of Anolis lizards from the Caribbean island of Hispaniola...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243155/trends-in-plant-research-using-molecular-markers
#5
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Concepción Mesa-Valle, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
A deep bibliometric analysis has been carried out, obtaining valuable parameters that facilitate the understanding around the research in plant using molecular markers. The evolution of the improvement in the field of agronomy is fundamental for its adaptation to the new exigencies that the current world context raises. In addition, within these improvements, this article focuses on those related to the biotechnology sector. More specifically, the use of DNA markers that allow the researcher to know the set of genes associated with a particular quantitative trait or QTL...
December 14, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241022/evolution-as-an-ecosystem-process-insights-from-genomics
#6
Blake Matthews, Rebecca J Best, Philine G D Feulner, Anita Narwani, Romana Limberger
Evolution is a fundamental ecosystem process. The study of genomic variation of organisms can not only improve our understanding of evolutionary processes, but also of contemporary and future ecosystem dynamics. We argue that integrative research between the fields of genomics and ecosystem ecology could generate new insights. Specifically, studies of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, evolutionary rescue, and eco-evolutionary dynamics could all benefit from information about variation in genome structure and the genetic architecture of traits, whereas genomic studies could benefit from information about the ecological context of evolutionary dynamics...
December 14, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240929/the-genome-and-adult-somatic-transcriptome-of-the-mormyrid-electric-fish-paramormyrops-kingsleyae
#7
Jason R Gallant, Mauricio Losilla, Chad Tomlinson, Wesley C Warren
Several studies have begun to elucidate the genetic and developmental processes underlying major vertebrate traits. Few of these traits have evolved repeatedly in vertebrates, preventing the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying these traits comparatively. Electric organs have evolved multiple times among vertebrates, presenting a unique opportunity to understand the degree of constraint and repeatability of the evolutionary processes underlying novel vertebrate traits. As there is now a completed genome sequence representing south american electric eels, we were motivated to obtain genomic sequence from a linage that independently evolved electric organs to facilitate future comparative analyses of the evolution and development of electric organs...
December 12, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238561/precopulatory-but-not-postcopulatory-male-reproductive-traits-diverge-in-response-to-mating-system-manipulation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Kristina U Wensing, Mareike Koppik, Claudia Fricke
Competition between males creates potential for pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection and conflict. Theory predicts that males facing risk of sperm competition should evolve traits to secure their reproductive success. If those traits are costly to females, the evolution of such traits may also increase conflict between the sexes. Conversely, under the absence of sperm competition, one expectation is for selection on male competitive traits to relax thereby also relaxing sexual conflict. Experimental evolution studies are a powerful tool to test this expectation...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238527/ancestrality-and-evolution-of-trait-syndromes-in-finches-fringillidae
#9
Jean-François Ponge, Dario Zuccon, Marianne Elias, Sandrine Pavoine, Pierre-Yves Henry, Marc Théry, Éric Guilbert
Species traits have been hypothesized by one of us (Ponge, 2013) to evolve in a correlated manner as species colonize stable, undisturbed habitats, shifting from "ancestral" to "derived" strategies. We predicted that generalism, r-selection, sexual monomorphism, and migration/gregariousness are the ancestral states (collectively called strategy A) and evolved correlatively toward specialism, K-selection, sexual dimorphism, and residence/territoriality as habitat stabilized (collectively called B strategy). We analyzed the correlated evolution of four syndromes, summarizing the covariation between 53 traits, respectively, involved in ecological specialization, r-K gradient, sexual selection, and dispersal/social behaviors in 81 species representative of Fringillidae, a bird family with available natural history information and that shows variability for all these traits...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238078/the-genetic-architecture-of-ecological-adaptation-intraspecific-variation-in-host-plant-use-by-the-lepidopteran-crop-pest-chloridea-virescens
#10
Sara J Oppenheim, Fred Gould, Keith R Hopper
Intraspecific variation in ecologically important traits is a cornerstone of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. The evolution and maintenance of this variation depends on genetic architecture, which in turn determines responses to natural selection. Some models suggest that traits with complex architectures are less likely to respond to selection than those with simple architectures, yet rapid divergence has been observed in such traits. The simultaneous evolutionary lability and genetic complexity of host plant use in the Lepidopteran subfamily Heliothinae suggest that architecture may not constrain ecological adaptation in this group...
December 14, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237856/humans-as-model-organisms
#11
Kim Sterelny
Like every other species, our species is the result of descent with modification under the influence of natural selection; a tip in an increasingly large and deep series of nested clades, as we trace its ancestry back to increasingly remote antecedents. As a consequence of shared history, our species has much in common with many others; as a consequence of its production by the general mechanisms of evolution, our species carries information about the mechanisms that shaped other species as well. For reasons unconnected to biological theory, we have far more information about humans than we do about other species...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237449/high-altitude-population-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-more-plastic-and-adaptive-under-common-garden-than-controlled-condition
#12
Akanksha Singh, Sribash Roy
BACKGROUND: Population differentiation and their adaptation to a particular environment depend on their ability to respond to a new environment. This, in turn is governed to an extent, by the degree of phenotypic plasticity exhibited by the populations. The populations of same species inhabiting different climatic conditions may differ in their phenotypic plasticity. Himalayan populations of Arabidopsis thaliana originating from a steep altitude are exposed to different climatic conditions ranging from sub-tropical to temperate...
December 13, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237395/insights-into-the-evolution-biogeography-and-natural-history-of-the-acorn-ants-genus-temnothorax-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae
#13
Matthew Prebus
BACKGROUND: Temnothorax (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is a diverse genus of ants found in a broad spectrum of ecosystems across the northern hemisphere. These diminutive ants have long served as models for social insect behavior, leading to discoveries about social learning and inspiring hypotheses about the process of speciation and the evolution of social parasitism. This genus is highly morphologically and behaviorally diverse, and this has caused a great deal of taxonomic confusion in recent years...
December 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236721/survey-on-open-peer-review-attitudes-and-experience-amongst-editors-authors-and-reviewers
#14
Tony Ross-Hellauer, Arvid Deppe, Birgit Schmidt
Open peer review (OPR) is a cornerstone of the emergent Open Science agenda. Yet to date no large-scale survey of attitudes towards OPR amongst academic editors, authors, reviewers and publishers has been undertaken. This paper presents the findings of an online survey, conducted for the OpenAIRE2020 project during September and October 2016, that sought to bridge this information gap in order to aid the development of appropriate OPR approaches by providing evidence about attitudes towards and levels of experience with OPR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235104/chaos-and-the-un-predictability-of-evolution-in-a-changing-environment
#15
Artur Rego-Costa, Florence Débarre, Luis-Miguel Chevin
Among the factors that may reduce the predictability of evolution, chaos, characterized by a strong dependence on initial conditions, has received much less attention than randomness due to genetic drift or environmental stochasticity. It was recently shown that chaos in phenotypic evolution arises commonly under frequency-dependent selection caused by competitive interactions mediated by many traits. This result has been used to argue that chaos should often make evolutionary dynamics unpredictable. However, populations also evolve largely in response to external changing environments, and such environmental forcing is likely to influence the outcome of evolution in systems prone to chaos...
December 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233970/dynamical-trade-offs-arise-from-antagonistic-coevolution-and-decrease-intraspecific-diversity
#16
Weini Huang, Arne Traulsen, Benjamin Werner, Teppo Hiltunen, Lutz Becks
Trade-offs play an important role in evolution. Without trade-offs, evolution would maximize fitness of all traits leading to a "master of all traits". The shape of trade-offs has been shown to determine evolutionary trajectories and is often assumed to be static and independent of the actual evolutionary process. Here we propose that coevolution leads to a dynamical trade-off. We test this hypothesis in a microbial predator-prey system and show that the bacterial growth-defense trade-off changes from concave to convex, i...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230921/global-grass-poaceae-success-underpinned-by-traits-facilitating-colonization-persistence-and-habitat-transformation
#17
H P Linder, Caroline E R Lehmann, Sally Archibald, Colin P Osborne, David M Richardson
Poaceae (the grasses) is arguably the most successful plant family, in terms of its global occurrence in (almost) all ecosystems with angiosperms, its ecological dominance in many ecosystems, and high species richness. We suggest that the success of grasses is best understood in context of their capacity to colonize, persist, and transform environments (the "Viking syndrome"). This results from combining effective long-distance dispersal, efficacious establishment biology, ecological flexibility, resilience to disturbance and the capacity to modify environments by changing the nature of fire and mammalian herbivory...
December 12, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230510/manfred-eigen-the-realization-of-his-vision-of-biophysical-chemistry
#18
REVIEW
Herbert Jäckle, Carmen Rotte, Peter Gruss
Manfred Eigen turned 90 on May 9th, 2017. He celebrated with a small group of colleagues and friends on behalf of the many inspired by him over his lifetime-whether scientists, artists, or philosophers. A small group of friends, because many-who by their breakthroughs have changed the face of science in different research areas-have already died. But it was a special day, devoted to the many genius facets of Manfred Eigen's oeuvre, and a day to highlight the way in which he continues to exude a great, vital and unbroken passion for science as well as an insatiable curiosity beyond his own scientific interests...
December 11, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230205/bacterial-genetic-architecture-of-ecological-interactions-in-co-culture-by-gwas-taking-escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus-as-an-example
#19
Xiaoqing He, Yi Jin, Meixia Ye, Nan Chen, Jing Zhu, Jingqi Wang, Libo Jiang, Rongling Wu
How a species responds to such a biotic environment in the community, ultimately leading to its evolution, has been a topic of intense interest to ecological evolutionary biologists. Until recently, limited knowledge was available regarding the genotypic changes that underlie phenotypic changes. Our study implemented GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) to illustrate the genetic architecture of ecological interactions that take place in microbial populations. By choosing 45 such interspecific pairs of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains that were all genotyped throughout the entire genome, we employed Q-ROADTRIPS to analyze the association between single SNPs and microbial abundance measured at each time point for bacterial populations reared in monoculture and co-culture, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229932/neutral-fitness-outcomes-contradict-inferences-of-sexual-coercion-derived-from-male-s-damaging-mating-tactic-in-a-widow-spider
#20
Luciana Baruffaldi, Maydianne C B Andrade
Sexual conflict over mating frequency has driven the evolution of morphological and behavioural traits across taxa. Interactions may be termed 'coercive' and assumed to arise from conflict when male mating behaviours cause physical injury to females and females appear to resist injurious matings.However, coercion per se occurs only if the behaviour reduces female fitness; and such outcomes are rarely measured. Here we show that a damaging mating tactic, apparently adaptive for males, is not coercive for females...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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