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Trait evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471501/contemporary-ecological-interactions-improve-models-of-past-trait-evolution
#1
Matthew C Hutchinson, Marília P Gaiarsa, Daniel B Stouffer
Despite the fact that natural selection underlies both traits and interactions, evolutionary models often neglect that ecological interactions may, and in many cases do, influence the evolution of traits. Here, we explore the interdependence of ecological interactions and functional traits in the pollination associations of hawkmoths and flowering plants. Specifically, we develop an adaptation of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of trait evolution that allows us to study the influence of plant corolla depth and observed hawkmoth-plant interactions on the evolution of hawkmoth proboscis length...
February 20, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471370/competitive-ability-of-capsella-species-with-different-mating-systems-and-ploidy-levels
#2
Sandra Petrone Mendoza, Martin Lascoux, Sylvain Glémin
Background and Aims: Capsella is a model genus for studying the transition from outcrossing to selfing, with or without change in ploidy levels. The genomic consequences and changes in reproductive traits (selfing syndrome) associated with these shifts have been studied in depth. However, potential ecological divergence among species of the genus has not been determined. Among ecological traits, competitive ability could be relevant for selfing evolution, as selfing has been shown to be statistically associated with reduced competitiveness in a recent meta-analysis...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468021/aberrant-clones-birth-order-generates-life-history-diversity-in-greater-duckweed-spirodela-polyrhiza
#3
Hebah S Mejbel, Andrew M Simons
Environmental unpredictability is known to result in the evolution of bet-hedging traits. Variable dormancy enhances survival through harsh conditions, and is widely cited as a diversification bet-hedging trait. The floating aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed), provides an opportunity to study diversification because although partially reliable seasonal cues exist, its growing season is subject to an unpredictable and literally "hard" termination when the surface water freezes, and overwinter survival depends on a switch from production of normal daughter fronds to production of dense, sinking "turions" prior to freeze-over...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467793/decomposing-additive-genetic-variance-revealed-novel-insights-into-trait-evolution-in-synthetic-hexaploid-wheat
#4
Abdulqader Jighly, Reem Joukhadar, Sukhwinder Singh, Francis C Ogbonnaya
Whole genome duplication (WGD) is an evolutionary phenomenon, which causes significant changes to genomic structure and trait architecture. In recent years, a number of studies decomposed the additive genetic variance explained by different sets of variants. However, they investigated diploid populations only and none of the studies examined any polyploid organism. In this research, we extended the application of this approach to polyploids, to differentiate the additive variance explained by the three subgenomes and seven sets of homoeologous chromosomes in synthetic allohexaploid wheat (SHW) to gain a better understanding of trait evolution after WGD...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467738/worlds-apart-transcriptome-profiles-of-key-oral-microbes-in-the-periodontal-pocket-compared-to-single-laboratory-culture-reflect-synergistic-interactions
#5
Zhi-Luo Deng, Helena Sztajer, Michael Jarek, Sabin Bhuju, Irene Wagner-Döbler
Periodontitis is a worldwide prevalent oral disease which results from dysbiosis of the periodontal microbiome. Some of the most active microbial players, e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola , and Fusobacterium nucleatum , have extensively been studied in the laboratory, but it is unclear to which extend these findings can be transferred to in vivo conditions. Here we show that the transcriptional profiles of P. gingivalis, T. denticola , and F. nucleatum in the periodontal niche are distinct from those in single laboratory culture and exhibit functional similarities...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467735/genome-based-characterization-of-biological-processes-that-differentiate-closely-related-bacteria
#6
Marike Palmer, Emma T Steenkamp, Martin P A Coetzee, Jochen Blom, Stephanus N Venter
Bacteriologists have strived toward attaining a natural classification system based on evolutionary relationships for nearly 100 years. In the early twentieth century it was accepted that a phylogeny-based system would be the most appropriate, but in the absence of molecular data, this approach proved exceedingly difficult. Subsequent technical advances and the increasing availability of genome sequencing have allowed for the generation of robust phylogenies at all taxonomic levels. In this study, we explored the possibility of linking biological characters to higher-level taxonomic groups in bacteria by making use of whole genome sequence information...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467265/-apterous-a-specifies-dorsal-wing-patterns-and-sexual-traits-in-butterflies
#7
Anupama Prakash, Antónia Monteiro
Butterflies have evolved different colour patterns on their dorsal and ventral wing surfaces to serve different signalling functions, yet the developmental mechanisms controlling surface-specific patterning are still unknown. Here, we mutate both copies of the transcription factor apterous in Bicyclus anynana butterflies using CRISPR/Cas9 and show that apterous A, expressed dorsally, functions both as a repressor and modifier of ventral wing colour patterns, as well as a promoter of dorsal sexual ornaments in males...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467264/macroevolutionary-patterning-of-woodpecker-drums-reveals-how-sexual-selection-elaborates-signals-under-constraint
#8
Meredith C Miles, Eric R Schuppe, R Miller Ligon, Matthew J Fuxjager
Sexual selection drives elaboration in animal displays used for competition and courtship, but this process is opposed by morphological constraints on signal design. How do interactions between selection and constraint shape display evolution? One possibility is that sexual selection continues exaggeration under constraint by operating differentially on each signal component in complex, modular displays. This is seldom studied on a phylogenetic scale, but we address the issue herein by studying macroevolutionary patterning of woodpecker drum displays...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467260/clownfishes-evolution-below-and-above-the-species-level
#9
Jonathan Rolland, Daniele Silvestro, Glenn Litsios, Laurélène Faye, Nicolas Salamin
The difference between rapid morphological evolutionary changes observed in populations and the long periods of stasis detected in the fossil record has raised a decade-long debate about the exact role played by intraspecific mechanisms at the interspecific level. Although they represent different scales of the same evolutionary process, micro- and macroevolution are rarely studied together and few empirical studies have compared the rates of evolution and the selective pressures between both scales. Here, we analyse morphological, genetic and ecological traits in clownfishes at different evolutionary scales and demonstrate that the tempo of molecular and morphological evolution at the species level can be, to some extent, predicted from parameters estimated below the species level, such as the effective population size or the rate of evolution within populations...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466643/divergent-predation-environment-between-two-sister-species-of-livebearing-fishes-cyprinodontiformes-poeciliidae-predicts-boldness-activity-and-exploration-behavior
#10
David A Money, Spencer J Ingley, Jerald B Johnson
Predators can influence a variety of prey traits, including behavior. Traits such as boldness, activity rate, and tendency to explore can all be shaped by predation risk. Our study examines the effects of predation on these behaviors by considering a natural system in which two sister species of livebearing fishes, Brachyrhaphis roseni and B. terrabensis, experience divergent predation environments. In February of 2013, we collected fish in the Río Chiriquí Nuevo drainage, Chiriquí, Panama, and conducted behavioral assays...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466405/molecular-phylogeny-of-panicum-s-str-poaceae-panicoideae-paniceae-and-insights-into-its-biogeography-and-evolution
#11
Fernando Omar Zuloaga, Diego Leonel Salariato, Amalia Scataglini
Panicum sensu stricto is a genus of grasses (Poaceae) with nearly, according to this study, 163 species distributed worldwide. This genus is included in the subtribe Panicinae together with Louisiella, the latter with 2 species. Panicum and subtribe Panicinae are characterized by including annual or perennial taxa with open and lax panicles, and spikelets with the lower glume reduced; all taxa also share a basic chromosome number of x = 9 and a Kranz leaf blade anatomy typical of the NAD-me subtype photosynthetic pathway...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464694/the-evolution-of-floral-signals-in-relation-to-range-overlap-in-a-clade-of-california-jewelflowers-streptanthus-s-l
#12
Marjorie G Weber, N Ivalu Cacho, Martin J Q Phan, Caprice Disbrow, Santiago R Ramírez, Sharon Y Strauss
Because of their function as reproductive signals in plants, floral traits experience distinct selective pressures related to their role in speciation, reinforcement, and prolonged coexistence with close relatives. However, few studies have investigated whether population-level processes translate into detectable signatures at the macroevolutionary scale. Here, we ask whether patterns of floral trait evolution and range overlap across a clade of California Jewelflowers reflect processes hypothesized to shape floral signal differentiation at the population level...
February 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463655/-de-novo-assembly-and-phasing-of-dikaryotic-genomes-from-two-isolates-of-puccinia-coronata-f-sp-avenae-the-causal-agent-of-oat-crown-rust
#13
Marisa E Miller, Ying Zhang, Vahid Omidvar, Jana Sperschneider, Benjamin Schwessinger, Castle Raley, Jonathan M Palmer, Diana Garnica, Narayana Upadhyaya, John Rathjen, Jennifer M Taylor, Robert F Park, Peter N Dodds, Cory D Hirsch, Shahryar F Kianian, Melania Figueroa
Oat crown rust, caused by the fungus Pucinnia coronata f. sp. avenae , is a devastating disease that impacts worldwide oat production. For much of its life cycle, P. coronata f. sp. avenae is dikaryotic, with two separate haploid nuclei that may vary in virulence genotype, highlighting the importance of understanding haplotype diversity in this species. We generated highly contiguous de novo genome assemblies of two P. coronata f. sp. avenae isolates, 12SD80 and 12NC29, from long-read sequences. In total, we assembled 603 primary contigs for 12SD80, for a total assembly length of 99...
February 20, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462207/karyotype-evolution-in-phalaris-poaceae-the-role-of-reductional-dysploidy-polyploidy-and-chromosome-alteration-in-a-wide-spread-and-diverse-genus
#14
Grit Winterfeld, Hannes Becher, Stephanie Voshell, Khidir Hilu, Martin Röser
Karyotype characteristics can provide valuable information on genome evolution and speciation, in particular in taxa with varying basic chromosome numbers and ploidy levels. Due to its worldwide distribution, remarkable variability in morphological traits and the fact that ploidy change plays a key role in its evolution, the canary grass genus Phalaris (Poaceae) is an excellent study system to investigate the role of chromosomal changes in species diversification and expansion. Phalaris comprises diploid species with two basic chromosome numbers of x = 6 and 7 as well as polyploids based on x = 7...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461638/dynamic-changes-in-display-architecture-and-function-across-environments-revealed-by-a-systems-approach-to-animal-communication
#15
Malcolm F Rosenthal, Matthew R Wilkins, Daizaburo Shizuka, Eileen A Hebets
Animal communication is often structurally complex and dynamic, with signaler and receiver behavior varying in response to multiple environmental factors. To date, studies assessing signal dynamics have mostly focused on the relationships between select signaling traits and receiver responses in a single environment. We use the wolf spider Schizocosa floridana to explore the relationships between courtship display form and function across two social contexts (female presence vs. absence) and two light environments (light vs...
February 20, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459707/hologenomic-adaptations-underlying-the-evolution-of-sanguivory-in-the-common-vampire-bat
#16
M Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza, Zijun Xiong, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Anne Kathrine Runge, Julien Thézé, Daniel Streicker, Hannah K Frank, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Shengmao Liu, Oliver A Ryder, Jose Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, Aris Katzourakis, George Pacheco, Blanca Taboada, Ulrike Löber, Oliver G Pybus, Yang Li, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Kristine Bohmann, Aldo Carmona Baez, Carlos F Arias, Shiping Liu, Alex D Greenwood, Mads F Bertelsen, Nicole E White, Michael Bunce, Guojie Zhang, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, M P Thomas Gilbert
Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary adaptation. Specifically, we assembled its high-quality reference genome (scaffold N50 = 26.9 Mb, contig N50 = 36.6 kb) and gut metagenome, and compared them against those of insectivorous, frugivorous and carnivorous bats...
February 19, 2018: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459400/sperm-form-and-function-what-do-we-know-about-the-role-of-sexual-selection
#17
Stefan Lüpold, Scott Pitnick
Sperm morphological variation has attracted considerable interest and generated a wealth of (mostly descriptive) studies over the past three centuries. Yet, apart from biophysical studies linking sperm morphology to swimming velocity, surprisingly little is known about the adaptive significance of sperm form and the selective processes underlying its tremendous diversification throughout the animal kingdom. Here, we first discuss the challenges of examining sperm morphology in an evolutionary context and why our understanding of it is still so poor...
February 19, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456544/inheritance-of-mesotrione-resistance-in-an-amaranthus-tuberculatus-var-rudis-population-from-nebraska-usa
#18
Maxwel C Oliveira, Todd A Gaines, Amit J Jhala, Stevan Z Knezevic
A population of Amaranthus tuberculatus (var. rudis ) evolved resistance to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor herbicides (mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone) in Nebraska. The level of resistance was the highest to mesotrione, and the mechanism of resistance in this population is metabolism-based likely via cytochrome P450 enzymes. The increasing number of weeds resistant to herbicides warrants studies on the ecology and evolutionary factors contributing for resistance evolution, including inheritance of resistance traits...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453424/genetic-control-and-evolutionary-potential-of-a-constitutive-resistance-mechanism-against-the-spruce-budworm-choristoneura-fumiferana-in-white-spruce-picea-glauca
#19
Claudia Méndez-Espinoza, Geneviève J Parent, Patrick Lenz, André Rainville, Laurence Tremblay, Greg Adams, Andrew McCartney, Éric Bauce, John MacKay
Insect herbivory may drive evolution by selecting for trees with heritable resistance against defoliation. The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana, SBW) is a highly damaging forest insect pest that can affect population structure of white spruce (Picea glauca) in North America. Resistance against SBW was recently described in white spruce and was linked to three constitutive resistance biomarkers: the phenolic compounds piceol and pungenol, and expression of a beta-glucosidase encoding gene (Pgβglu-1)...
February 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453332/step-wise-evolution-of-complex-chemical-defenses-in-millipedes-a-phylogenomic-approach
#20
Juanita Rodriguez, Tappey H Jones, Petra Sierwald, Paul E Marek, William A Shear, Michael S Brewer, Kevin M Kocot, Jason E Bond
With fossil representatives from the Silurian capable of respiring atmospheric oxygen, millipedes are among the oldest terrestrial animals, and likely the first to acquire diverse and complex chemical defenses against predators. Exploring the origin of complex adaptive traits is critical for understanding the evolution of Earth's biological complexity, and chemical defense evolution serves as an ideal study system. The classic explanation for the evolution of complexity is by gradual increase from simple to complex, passing through intermediate "stepping stone" states...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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