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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822493/interactions-between-bee-foraging-and-floral-resource-phenology-shape-bee-populations-and-communities
#1
REVIEW
Jane E Ogilvie, Jessica Rk Forrest
Flowers are ephemeral, yet bees rely on them for food throughout their lives. Floral resource phenology - which can be altered by changes in climate and land-use - is therefore key to bee fitness and community composition. Here, we discuss the interactions between floral resource phenology, bee foraging behaviour, and traits such as diet breadth, sociality, and body size. Recent research on bumble bees has examined behavioural responses to local floral turnover and effects of landscape-scale floral resource phenology on fitness, abundance, and foraging distances...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821382/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#2
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
July 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821346/sex-linked-behavior-evolution-stability-and-variability
#3
REVIEW
Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability...
September 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820115/six-key-traits-of-fungi-their-evolutionary-origins-and-genetic-bases
#4
László G Nagy, Renáta Tóth, Enikő Kiss, Jason Slot, Attila Gácser, Gábor M Kovács
The fungal lineage is one of the three large eukaryotic lineages that dominate terrestrial ecosystems. They share a common ancestor with animals in the eukaryotic supergroup Opisthokonta and have a deeper common ancestry with plants, yet several phenotypes, such as morphological, physiological, or nutritional traits, make them unique among all living organisms. This article provides an overview of some of the most important fungal traits, how they evolve, and what major genes and gene families contribute to their development...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819805/diversity-and-evolution-of-leaf-anatomical-characters-in-taxaceae-s-l-fluorescence-microscopy-reveals-new-delimitating-characters
#5
Christoph Elpe, Patrick Knopf, Thomas Stützel, Christian Schulz
Taxaceae s.l. comprise six genera (including Cephalotaxus) and about 35 species; The present study aims to give new insights into the evolution of this family, especially into the phylogenetic position of Cephalotaxus. Moreover, only little is known about comparative leaf anatomy of this family and this study aims to expose and interpret the diversity and evolution of leaf anatomical characters and to assess their applicability to identify taxa at the generic and species level. A detailed phylogeny was reconstructed, using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, with a combined dataset of four molecular markers from the plastid and nuclear genomes...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816621/use-disuse-paradigms-are-ubiquitous-concepts-in-characterizing-the-process-of-inheritance
#6
Sophie Juliane Veigl
In recent years, a Lamarckian theme has found its way back into academic discourse on evolution and inheritance. Especially the emerging field of transgenerational small RNAs has provided at least a proof of concept for the inheritance of acquired traits. Yet it remains unclear whether the Lamarckian concept of inheritance will in fact have its rennaisance or whether it will remain the rallying cry for the outlaws, heretics and enfants terribles of molecular biology. As unclear as the future of Lamarckian theory is its content and reference...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815540/long-noncoding-rnas-in-mammalian-development-and-diseases
#7
Parna Saha, Shreekant Verma, Rashmi U Pathak, Rakesh K Mishra
Following analysis of sequenced genomes and transcriptome of many eukaryotes, it is evident that virtually all protein-coding genes have already been discovered. These advances have highlighted an intriguing paradox whereby the relative amount of protein-coding sequences remain constant but nonprotein-coding sequences increase consistently in parallel to increasing evolutionary complexity. It is established that differences between species map to nonprotein-coding regions of the genome that surprisingly is transcribed extensively...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815535/history-discovery-and-classification-of-lncrnas
#8
Julien Jarroux, Antonin Morillon, Marina Pinskaya
The RNA World Hypothesis suggests that prebiotic life revolved around RNA instead of DNA and proteins. Although modern cells have changed significantly in 4 billion years, RNA has maintained its central role in cell biology. Since the discovery of DNA at the end of the nineteenth century, RNA has been extensively studied. Many discoveries such as housekeeping RNAs (rRNA, tRNA, etc.) supported the messenger RNA model that is the pillar of the central dogma of molecular biology, which was first devised in the late 1950s...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814726/nitric-oxide-regulates-mouth-development-in-amphioxus
#9
Giovanni Annona, Filomena Caccavale, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Shigeru Kuratani, Pasquale De Luca, Anna Palumbo, Salvatore D'Aniello
The development of the mouth in animals has fascinated researchers for decades, and a recent study proposed the modern view of recurrent evolution of protostomy and deuterostomy. Here we expanded our knowledge about conserved traits of mouth formation in chordates, testing the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) is a potential regulator of this process. In the present work we show for the first time that NO is an essential cell signaling molecule for cephalochordate mouth formation, as previously shown for vertebrates, indicating its conserved ancestral role in chordates...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814652/evolution-of-plasticity-and-adaptive-responses-to-climate-change-along-climate-gradients
#10
Joel G Kingsolver, Lauren B Buckley
The relative contributions of phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution to the responses of species to recent and future climate change are poorly understood. We combine recent (1960-2010) climate and phenotypic data with microclimate, heat balance, demographic and evolutionary models to address this issue for a montane butterfly, Colias eriphyle, along an elevational gradient. Our focal phenotype, wing solar absorptivity, responds plastically to developmental (pupal) temperatures and plays a central role in thermoregulatory adaptation in adults...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814606/their-loss-is-our-gain-regressive-evolution-in-vertebrates-provides-genomic-models-for-uncovering-human-disease-loci
#11
REVIEW
Christopher A Emerling, Andrew D Widjaja, Nancy N Nguyen, Mark S Springer
Throughout Earth's history, evolution's numerous natural 'experiments' have resulted in a diverse range of phenotypes. Though de novo phenotypes receive widespread attention, degeneration of traits inherited from an ancestor is a very common, yet frequently neglected, evolutionary path. The latter phenomenon, known as regressive evolution, often results in vertebrates with phenotypes that mimic inherited disease states in humans. Regressive evolution of anatomical and/or physiological traits is typically accompanied by inactivating mutations underlying these traits, which frequently occur at loci identical to those implicated in human diseases...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812736/the-evolution-and-population-diversity-of-human-specific-segmental-duplications
#12
Megan Y Dennis, Lana Harshman, Bradley J Nelson, Osnat Penn, Stuart Cantsilieris, John Huddleston, Francesca Antonacci, Kelsi Penewit, Laura Denman, Archana Raja, Carl Baker, Kenneth Mark, Maika Malig, Nicolette Janke, Claudia Espinoza, Holly A F Stessman, Xander Nuttle, Kendra Hoekzema, Tina A Lindsay-Graves, Richard K Wilson, Evan E Eichler
Segmental duplications contribute to human evolution, adaptation and genomic instability but are often poorly characterized. We investigate the evolution, genetic variation and coding potential of human-specific segmental duplications (HSDs). We identify 218 HSDs based on analysis of 322 deeply sequenced archaic and contemporary hominid genomes. We sequence 550 human and nonhuman primate genomic clones to reconstruct the evolution of the largest, most complex regions with protein-coding potential (N = 80 genes from 33 gene families)...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812734/human-behaviour-as-a-long-term-ecological-driver-of-non-human-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Alexis P Sullivan, Douglas W Bird, George H Perry
Due to our intensive subsistence and habitat-modification strategies-including broad-spectrum harvesting and predation, widespread landscape burning, settlement construction, and translocation of other species-humans have major roles as ecological actors who influence fundamental trophic interactions. Here we review how the long-term history of human-environment interaction has shaped the evolutionary biology of diverse non-human, non-domesticated species. Clear examples of anthropogenic effects on non-human morphological evolution have been documented in modern studies of substantial changes to body size or other major traits in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in response to selective human harvesting, urbanized habitats, and human-mediated translocation...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812732/genome-of-the-pitcher-plant-cephalotus-reveals-genetic-changes-associated-with-carnivory
#14
Kenji Fukushima, Xiaodong Fang, David Alvarez-Ponce, Huimin Cai, Lorenzo Carretero-Paulet, Cui Chen, Tien-Hao Chang, Kimberly M Farr, Tomomichi Fujita, Yuji Hiwatashi, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Takamasa Imai, Masahiro Kasahara, Pablo Librado, Likai Mao, Hitoshi Mori, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Masafumi Nozawa, Gergő Pálfalvi, Stephen T Pollard, Julio Rozas, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, David Sankoff, Tomoko F Shibata, Shuji Shigenobu, Naomi Sumikawa, Taketoshi Uzawa, Meiying Xie, Chunfang Zheng, David D Pollock, Victor A Albert, Shuaicheng Li, Mitsuyasu Hasebe
Carnivorous plants exploit animals as a nutritional source and have inspired long-standing questions about the origin and evolution of carnivory-related traits. To investigate the molecular bases of carnivory, we sequenced the genome of the heterophyllous pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis, in which we succeeded in regulating the developmental switch between carnivorous and non-carnivorous leaves. Transcriptome comparison of the two leaf types and gene repertoire analysis identified genetic changes associated with prey attraction, capture, digestion and nutrient absorption...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812723/the-unconstrained-evolution-of-fast-and-efficient-antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-genomes
#15
Carlos Reding-Roman, Mark Hewlett, Sarah Duxbury, Fabio Gori, Ivana Gudelj, Robert Beardmore
Evolutionary trajectories are constrained by trade-offs when mutations that benefit one life history trait incur fitness costs in other traits. As resistance to tetracycline antibiotics by increased efflux can be associated with an increase in length of the Escherichia coli chromosome of 10% or more, we sought costs of resistance associated with doxycycline. However, it was difficult to identify any because the growth rate (r), carrying capacity (K) and drug efflux rate of E. coli increased during evolutionary experiments where the species was exposed to doxycycline...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812668/evolutionary-transitions-towards-eusociality-in-snapping-shrimps
#16
Solomon Tin Chi Chak, J Emmett Duffy, Kristin M Hultgren, Dustin R Rubenstein
Animal social organization varies from complex societies where reproduction is dominated by a single individual (eusociality) to those where reproduction is more evenly distributed among group members (communal breeding). Yet, how simple groups transition evolutionarily to more complex societies remains unclear. Competing hypotheses suggest that eusociality and communal breeding are alternative evolutionary endpoints, or that communal breeding is an intermediate stage in the transition towards eusociality. We tested these alternative hypotheses in sponge-dwelling shrimps, Synalpheus spp...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812631/contrasting-effects-of-environment-and-genetics-generate-a-continuum-of-parallel-evolution
#17
Yoel E Stuart, Thor Veen, Jesse N Weber, Dieta Hanson, Mark Ravinet, Brian K Lohman, Cole J Thompson, Tania Tasneem, Andrew Doggett, Rebecca Izen, Newaz Ahmed, Rowan D H Barrett, Andrew P Hendry, Catherine L Peichel, Daniel I Bolnick
Parallel evolution of similar traits by independent populations in similar environments is considered strong evidence for adaptation by natural selection. Often, however, replicate populations in similar environments do not all evolve in the same way, thus deviating from any single, predominant outcome of evolution. This variation might arise from non-adaptive, population-specific effects of genetic drift, gene flow or limited genetic variation. Alternatively, these deviations from parallel evolution might also reflect predictable adaptation to cryptic environmental heterogeneity within discrete habitat categories...
May 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812603/climate-change-upends-selection-on-ornamentation-in-a-wild-bird
#18
Simon R Evans, Lars Gustafsson
Secondary sexual traits have high heritabilities and are exposed to strong, environmentally sensitive selection, and so are expected to evolve rapidly in response to sustained environmental change. We examine the eco-evolutionary dynamics of ornament expression in a long-term study population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, in which forehead patch size, which positively influences male reproductive success, declined markedly over 34 years. Annual fitness selection on forehead patch size switched from positive to negative during the study, a reversal that is accounted for by rising spring temperatures at the breeding site: highly ornamented males were selectively favoured following cold breeding seasons but selected against following warm breeding seasons...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812559/evolution-alters-the-consequences-of-invasions-in-experimental-communities
#19
Cara A Faillace, Peter J Morin
Evolution has the capacity to alter the course of biological invasions, although such changes remain mostly unexplored by experiments. Integrating evolution into studies of invasions is important, because species traits can potentially evolve in ways that either moderate or exacerbate the impacts of invasions. We have assessed whether species evolved during experimental invasions by comparing the performance of founder populations and their potentially evolved descendants in communities of ciliates and rotifers...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811889/genome-size-in-arthropods-different-roles-of-phylogeny-habitat-and-life-history-in-insects-and-crustaceans
#20
Kristian Alfsnes, Hans Petter Leinaas, Dag Olav Hessen
Despite the major role of genome size for physiology, ecology, and evolution, there is still mixed evidence with regard to proximate and ultimate drivers. The main causes of large genome size are proliferation of noncoding elements and/or duplication events. The relative role and interplay between these proximate causes and the evolutionary patterns shaped by phylogeny, life history traits or environment are largely unknown for the arthropods. Genome size shows a tremendous variability in this group, and it has a major impact on a range of fitness-related parameters such as growth, metabolism, life history traits, and for many species also body size...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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