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Littman, D

Jarrod S Johnson, Sasha Y Lucas, Lynn M Amon, Stephanie Skelton, Rodolfo Nazitto, Sara Carbonetti, D Noah Sather, Dan R Littman, Alan Aderem
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) have the innate capacity to sense pathogens and orchestrate immune responses. However, DCs do not mount efficient immune responses to HIV-1, primarily due to restriction of virus reverse transcription, which prevents accumulation of viral cDNA and limits its detection through the cGAS-STING pathway. By allowing reverse transcription to proceed, we find that DCs detect HIV-1 in distinct phases, before and after virus integration. Blocking integration suppresses, but does not abolish, activation of the transcription factor IRF3, downstream interferon (IFN) responses, and DC maturation...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Daniel W Trone, Teresa M Powell, Lauren M Bauer, Amber D Seelig, Arthur V Peterson, Alyson J Littman, Emily C Williams, Charles C Maynard, Jonathan B Bricker, Edward J Boyko
INTRODUCTION: The associations between stressful military experiences and tobacco use and alcohol misuse among Service members are well documented. However, little is known about whether stressful military experiences are associated with tobacco use and alcohol misuse among military spouses. METHODS: Using 9872 Service member-spouse dyads enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Family Study, we employed logistic regression to estimate the odds of self-reported cigarette smoking, risky drinking, and problem drinking among spouses by Service member deployment status, communication regarding deployment, and stress associated with military-related experiences, while adjusting for demographic, mental health, military experiences, and Service member military characteristics...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Amber D Seelig, Anna C Rivera, Teresa M Powell, Emily C Williams, Arthur V Peterson, Alyson J Littman, Charles Maynard, Amy E Street, Jonathan B Bricker, Edward J Boyko
In the first known longitudinal study of the topic, we examined whether experiencing sexual assault or sexual harassment while in the military was associated with increased risk for subsequent unhealthy alcohol use and smoking among U.S. service members in the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2012). Adjusted complementary log-log models were fit to estimate the relative risk of (a) smoking relapse among former smokers (men: n = 4,610; women: n = 1,453); (b) initiation of unhealthy alcohol use (problem drinking and/or drinking over recommended limits) among those with no known history of unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 8,459; women: n = 4,816); and (c) relapse among those previously reporting unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 3,487; women: n = 1,318)...
October 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Danuta M Sampson, Peijun Gong, Di An, Moreno Menghini, Alex Hansen, David A Mackey, David D Sampson, Fred K Chen
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of image magnification correction on superficial retinal vessel density (SRVD) and foveal avascular zone area (FAZA) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Participants with healthy retinas were recruited for ocular biometry, refraction, and RTVue XR Avanti OCTA imaging with the 3 × 3-mm protocol. The foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA were quantified with custom software before and after correction for magnification error using the Littman and the modified Bennett formulae...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Priya D A Issuree, Charles P Ng, Dan R Littman
The adaptive immune system is dependent on functionally distinct lineages of T cell antigen receptor αβ-expressing T cells that differentiate from a common progenitor in the thymus. CD4(+)CD8(+) progenitor thymocytes undergo selection following interaction with MHC class I and class II molecules bearing peptide self-antigens, giving rise to CD8(+) cytotoxic and CD4(+) helper or regulatory T cell lineages, respectively. The strict correspondence of CD4 and CD8 expression with distinct cellular phenotypes has made their genes useful surrogates for investigating molecular mechanisms of lineage commitment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Alyson J Littman, Erin D Bouldin, Jodie K Haselkorn
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA) is essential for aging well with a disability, preventing the onset or worsening of chronic conditions, functional loss, and maintaining or improving quality of life, yet PA levels are low in those with disabilities, including those with a lower extremity amputation (LEA). OBJECTIVE: To determine methods for promoting PA in this population, our objective was to better understand the barriers and facilitators to PA that persons with LEA face...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
Robin M Masheb, Stephanie H Chan, Susan D Raffa, Ronald Ackermann, Laura J Damschroder, Paul A Estabrooks, Gina Evans-Hudnall, Neil C Evans, Trina Histon, Alyson J Littman, Tannaz Moin, Karin M Nelson, Sherry Pagoto, Nico P Pronk, Deborah F Tate, Michael G Goldstein
This article summarizes outcomes of the behavioral interventions work group for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) State of the Art Conference (SOTA) for Weight Management. Sixteen VHA and non-VHA subject matter experts, representing clinical care delivery, research, and policy arenas, participated. The work group reviewed current evidence of efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation of behavioral interventions for weight management, participated in phone- and online-based consensus processes, generated key questions to address gaps, and attended an in-person conference in March 2016...
April 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
David E Goodrich, Elizabeth A Klingaman, Lilia Verchinina, Richard W Goldberg, Alyson J Littman, Carol A Janney, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Shira Maguen, Katherine D Hoerster, Richard R Owen, Robert G Holleman, Pia Roman, Zongshan Lai, Nicholas W Bowersox
PURPOSE: Obesity disproportionately burdens individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), especially women. This observational study investigated whether there were sex differences in weight loss and program participation among veterans with SMI enrolled in the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA) MOVE! weight management program. PROCEDURES: Participants were identified from a national cohort of 148,254 veterans enrolled in MOVE! during fiscal years 2008 through 2012 who attended two or more sessions within 12 months of enrollment...
July 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Erin D Bouldin, Alyson J Littman, Edwin Wong, Chuan-Fen Liu, Leslie Taylor, Kenneth Rice, Gayle E Reiber
Veterans who use Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) have the option of enrolling in and obtaining care from other non-VA sources. Dual system use may improve care by increasing options or it may result in poorer outcomes because of fragmented care. Our objective was to assess whether dual system use of VHA and Medicare for wound care was associated with chronic wound healing. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 227 Medicare-enrolled VHA users in the Pacific Northwest who had an incident, chronic lower limb wound between October 1, 2006 and September 30, 2007 identified through VHA chart review...
June 13, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Shira Maguen, Katherine D Hoerster, Alyson J Littman, Elizabeth A Klingaman, Gina Evans-Hudnall, Rob Holleman, H Myra Kim, David E Goodrich
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans enrolled in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care are overweight or obese. The VHA MOVE!® weight management program can mitigate the risks of obesity-related morbidity. However, many Iraq and Afghanistan veterans experience barriers to VHA services, which may affect participation, especially among those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression. Little is known about MOVE! engagement among recent veterans...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Erin D Bouldin, Mary Lou Thompson, Edward J Boyko, David C Morgenroth, Alyson J Littman
OBJECTIVE: To characterize weight change after amputation by identifying typical weight trajectories in men with incident lower-limb amputation (LLA) and describing characteristics associated with each trajectory. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study and analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling. SETTING: Administrative data. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans who were men (N=759), living in the Northwest United States, and who had an incident toe, foot, or leg amputation between 1997 and 2008 and at least 18 months of amputation-free survival thereafter...
January 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
MacLean Sellars, Jun R Huh, Kenneth Day, Priya D Issuree, Carolina Galan, Stephane Gobeil, Devin Absher, Michael R Green, Dan R Littman
During development, progenitor cells with binary potential give rise to daughter cells that have distinct functions. Heritable epigenetic mechanisms then lock in gene-expression programs that define lineage identity. Regulation of the gene encoding the T cell-specific coreceptor CD4 in helper and cytotoxic T cells exemplifies this process, with enhancer- and silencer-regulated establishment of epigenetic memory for stable gene expression and repression, respectively. Using a genetic screen, we identified the DNA-methylation machinery as essential for maintaining silencing of Cd4 in the cytotoxic lineage...
July 2015: Nature Immunology
Erin D Bouldin, Leslie L Taylor, Alyson J Littman, Mahsa Karavan, Kenneth Rice, Gayle E Reiber
PURPOSE: Veterans in rural areas generally have lower health care utilization than veterans in urban areas, but the impact of this difference on health outcomes has received little study. Chronic wounds provide a model for studying access to complex chronic care since they often are related to underlying health conditions and require lengthy treatment. Our goals were to describe chronic wound care utilization among rural and urban veterans and to determine the association between rural residence and wound healing...
2015: Journal of Rural Health
Zachary D Kurtz, Christian L Müller, Emily R Miraldi, Dan R Littman, Martin J Blaser, Richard A Bonneau
16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and other environmental sequencing techniques provide snapshots of microbial communities, revealing phylogeny and the abundances of microbial populations across diverse ecosystems. While changes in microbial community structure are demonstrably associated with certain environmental conditions (from metabolic and immunological health in mammals to ecological stability in soils and oceans), identification of underlying mechanisms requires new statistical tools, as these datasets present several technical challenges...
May 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Edward J Boyko, Daniel W Trone, Arthur V Peterson, Isabel G Jacobson, Alyson J Littman, Charles Maynard, Amber D Seelig, Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Jonathan B Bricker
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether military service, including deployment and combat experience, were related to smoking initiation and relapse. METHODS: We included older (panel 1) and younger (panel 2) participants in the Millennium Cohort Study. Never smokers were followed for 3 to 6 years for smoking initiation, and former smokers were followed for relapse. Complementary log-log regression models estimated the relative risk (RR) of initiation and relapse by military exposure while adjusting for demographic, health, and lifestyle factors...
June 2015: American Journal of Public Health
A J Littman, L V McFarland, M L Thompson, E D Bouldin, D E Arterburn, B R Majerczyk, E J Boyko
BACKGROUND: Obesity is thought to be highly prevalent in persons with lower extremity amputations (LEAs) and can impair physical and social functioning. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of weight loss intention, weight loss strategies, dietary patterns, and barriers to making dietary changes, and their associations with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), amputation characteristics, health status, and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study (n = 150) using data from a self-administered questionnaire...
July 2015: Disability and Health Journal
Emily C Williams, Melissa A Frasco, Isabel G Jacobson, Charles Maynard, Alyson J Littman, Amber D Seelig, Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Anna Nagel, Edward J Boyko
BACKGROUND: Military service members may be prone to relapse to problem drinking after remission, given a culture of alcohol use as a coping mechanism for stressful or traumatic events associated with military duties or exposures. However, the prevalence and correlates of relapse are unknown. We sought to identify socio-demographic, military, behavioral, and health characteristics associated with relapse among current and former military members with remittent problem drinking. METHODS: Participants in the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study who reported problem drinking at baseline (2001-2003) and were remittent at first follow-up (2004-2006) were included (n=6909)...
March 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Alyson J Littman, Laura J Damschroder, Lilia Verchinina, Zongshan Lai, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Katherine D Hoerster, Elizabeth A Klingaman, Richard W Goldberg, Richard R Owen, David E Goodrich
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether obesity screening and weight management program participation and outcomes are equitable for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) and depressive disorder (DD) compared to those without SMI/DD in Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest integrated US health system, which requires obesity screening and offers weight management to all in need. METHODS: We used chart-reviewed, clinical and administrative VHA data from fiscal years 2010-2012 to estimate obesity screening and participation in the VHA's weight management program (MOVE!) across groups...
January 2015: General Hospital Psychiatry
Cindy Ke Zhou, Alyson J Littman, Paul H Levine, Heather J Hoffman, Sean D Cleary, Emily White, Michael B Cook
BACKGROUND: Male pattern baldness and prostate cancer may share common pathophysiological mechanisms in terms of advancing age, heritability, and endogenous hormones. Results from previous epidemiologic studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the association of prostate cancer risks with male pattern baldness at age 30 years, age 45 years, and baseline (median age = 60.5 years) in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort study. METHODS: We included 32,583 men who were aged 50-76 years and without prior cancer diagnosis (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) at the start of follow-up...
March 1, 2015: Prostate
Adam B Schwartz, Gina Siddiqui, John S Barbieri, Amana L Akhtar, Woojin Kim, Ryan Littman-Quinn, Emily F Conant, Narainder K Gupta, Bryan A Pukenas, Parvati Ramchandani, Anna S Lev-Toaff, Jennifer D Tobey, Drew A Torigian, Amy H Praestgaard, Carrie L Kovarik
We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of digital photographs of plain film chest X-rays (CXRs) obtained using a mobile phone. The study was a randomized, non-inferiority trial, in which physical plain film CXRs viewed on a light box were compared with digital photographs of plain film CXRs. CXRs were selected from a database of radiology studies to show common pathologies found in Botswana associated with pneumonia, lung carcinoma, tuberculosis, pneumothorax and interstitial disease, as well as normal findings...
December 2014: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
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