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transfer of accountability

Janya McCalman, Roxanne Bainbridge, Catherine Brown, Komla Tsey, Adele Clarke
Introduction: Spreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program-the Family Wellbeing (FWB) program-to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Lynn A Barnett
This longitudinal study identified degrees of playfulness in 278 kindergarten-aged children, and followed them through their next three school years to determine how playfulness was viewed by the children themselves, their classmates, and teachers. Perceptions of the social competence, disruptiveness, and labeling as the class clown, were assessed from all perspectives in each of first through third grades. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to account for the nesting of the data (children within classrooms within schools) and for the lack of independence between the measures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Veronika Sele, Robin Ørnsrud, Jens J Sloth, Marc H G Berntssen, Heidi Amlund
Selenium (Se) is an essential element for animals, including fish. Due to changes in feed composition for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), it may be necessary to supplement feeds with Se. In the present work, the transfer of Se and Se species from feed to muscle of Atlantic salmon fed Se supplemented diets was studied. Salmon were fed basal fish feed (0.35 mg Se/kg and 0.89 mg Se/kg feed), or feed supplemented either with selenised yeast or sodium selenite, at low (1-2 mg Se/kg feed) and high (15 mg Se/kg feed) levels, for 12 weeks...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Niels Vandenberk, Anders Barth, Doortje Borrenberghs, Johan Hofkens, Jelle Hendrix
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool to probe molecular interactions, activity, analytes, forces and structure. Single-molecule (sm) FRET additionally allows real-time quantifications of conformation and conformational dynamics. SmFRET robustness critically depends on the employed dyes, yet a systematic comparison of different dye pairs is lacking. Here, we evaluated blue (Atto488 and Alexa488) and far-red (Atto647N, Alexa647, StarRed and Atto655) dyes using confocal smFRET spectroscopy on freely diffusing dsDNA molecules...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Cristina Rodríguez-Seco, Lydia Cabau, Anton Vidal-Ferran, Emilio Palomares
Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N2 , N2 , N2' , N2' , N7 , N7 , N7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly...
March 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
H S Thakkar, I Yardley, D Kufeji
Introduction In 2015, the Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCS) commissioned the East Midlands Clinical Network to develop a set of guidelines for the management of paediatric torsion. Two quality measures identified were the provision of surgery locally where possible and 100% of explorations within three hours. We sought to assess the adherence to these quality measures within our referral network. Materials and methods Retrospective data were collected for all paediatric scrotal explorations performed within our centre between January 2014 and July 2016...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Elizabeth S Ryland, Ming-Fu Lin, Max A Verkamp, Kaili Zhang, Kristin Benke, Michaela Carlson, Josh Vura-Weis
Iron porphyrins are the active sites of many natural and artificial catalysts, and their photoinduced dynamics have been described as either relaxation into a vibrationally hot ground state or as a cascade through metal-centered states. In this work, we directly probe the metal center of iron(III) tetraphenyl porphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) using femtosecond M2,3 -edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Photoexcitation at 400 nm produces a (π, π*) state that evolves in 70 fs to an iron(II) ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) state...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Juan García de la Concepción, Martín Ávalos, Pedro Cintas, José Luis Jiménez
Computational strategies have gained increasing impact in the de novo design of large molecular sets targeted to a desired application. Here, we show that DFT-assisted theoretical analyses of cycloadditions involving mesoionic dipoles and strained cycloalkynes unveil a series of unexplored mesomeric betaines as vastly superior candidates for orthogonal applications. Thus, isosydnones, thiosydnones, and a six-membered homolog in particular, 6-oxo-1,3-oxazinium-4-olate, do exhibit enhanced reactivity with respect to sydnones, the archetypal mesoionic ring employed so far in orthogonal chemistry...
March 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sheree L Boulet, Jennifer F Kawwass, Sara Crawford, Michael J Davies, Dmitry M Kissin
We used 2006-2015 US National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System data to compare preterm birth and fetal growth for livebo n singletons (24-42 week gestation) following donor versus autologous oocyte in vitro fertilization (IVF). Using binary and multinomial logistic regressi n, we computed adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between use of donor oocytes and preterm delivery, small-f r-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational age (LGA), stratified by fresh and thawed embryo status and accounting for maternal characteristics and year of birth...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Christien P Laber, Jonathan E Hunter, Filipa Carvalho, James R Collins, Elias J Hunter, Brittany M Schieler, Emmanuel Boss, Kuldeep More, Miguel Frada, Kimberlee Thamatrakoln, Christopher M Brown, Liti Haramaty, Justin Ossolinski, Helen Fredricks, Jozef I Nissimov, Rebecca Vandzura, Uri Sheyn, Yoav Lehahn, Robert J Chant, Ana M Martins, Marco J L Coolen, Assaf Vardi, Giacomo R DiTullio, Benjamin A S Van Mooy, Kay D Bidle
Marine phytoplankton account for approximately half of global primary productivity1 , making their fate an important driver of the marine carbon cycle. Viruses are thought to recycle more than one-quarter of oceanic photosynthetically fixed organic carbon2 , which can stimulate nutrient regeneration, primary production and upper ocean respiration2 via lytic infection and the 'virus shunt'. Ultimately, this limits the trophic transfer of carbon and energy to both higher food webs and the deep ocean2 . Using imagery taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite, along with a suite of diagnostic lipid- and gene-based molecular biomarkers, in situ optical sensors and sediment traps, we show that Coccolithovirus infections of mesoscale (~100 km) Emiliania huxleyi blooms in the North Atlantic are coupled with particle aggregation, high zooplankton grazing and greater downward vertical fluxes of both particulate organic and particulate inorganic carbon from the upper mixed layer...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Jocelyn Sietsma Penington, Megan A S Penno, Katrina M Ngui, Nadim J Ajami, Alexandra J Roth-Schulze, Stephen A Wilcox, Esther Bandala-Sanchez, John M Wentworth, Simon C Barry, Cheryl Y Brown, Jennifer J Couper, Joseph F Petrosino, Anthony T Papenfuss, Leonard C Harrison
To optimise fecal sampling for reproducible analysis of the gut microbiome, we compared different methods of sample collection and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes at two centers. Samples collected from six individuals on three consecutive days were placed in commercial collection tubes (OMNIgeneGut OMR-200) or in sterile screw-top tubes in a home fridge or home freezer for 6-24 h, before transfer and storage at -80 °C. Replicate samples were shipped to centers in Australia and the USA for DNA extraction and sequencing by their respective PCR protocols, and analysed with the same bioinformatic pipeline...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xue Han, Ji Yang, Yitong Zhang, Yalin Zhang, Hongtao Cao, Yaming Cao, Zanmei Qi
IL-10-producing regulatory B (Breg) cells were found to be induced in a variety of infectious diseases. However, its importance in the regulation of immune response to malaria is still unclear. Here, we investigated the dynamic, phenotype and function of Breg cells using the Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS ( P.c. chabaudi AS) infected C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection and had a stronger IL-10 response in spleen compared with C57BL/6 mice. Analysis of the surface markers of IL-10-producing cells with flow cytometry showed that CD19+ B cells were one of the primary IL-10-producing populations in P...
March 12, 2018: Infection and Immunity
G Mercier, N Costa, C Dutot, V-P Riche
The hospital costing process implies access to various sources of data. Whether a micro-costing or a gross-costing approach is used, the choice of the methodology is based on a compromise between the cost of data collection, data accuracy, and data transferability. This work describes the data sources available in France and the access modalities that are used, as well as the main advantages and shortcomings of: (1) the local unit costs, (2) the hospital analytical accounting, (3) the Angers database, (4) the National Health Cost Studies, (5) the INTER CHR/U databases, (6) the Program for Medicalizing Information Systems, and (7) the public health insurance databases...
March 9, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Inés Bado, Romina Papa Ezdra, Nicolás Cordeiro, Matilde Outeda, Leticia Caiata, Virginia García-Fulgueiras, Verónica Seija, Rafael Vignoli
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to characterise the mechanisms underlying quinolone and oxyimino-cephalosporin resistance in a Citrobacter freundii clinical isolate obtained from the ICU in Uruguay's University Hospital. METHODS: Citrobacter freundii strain CF638 was isolated from a urine culture. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the VITEK® 2 system, and MIC determination and disc diffusion assay, respectively. Resistance genes and mobile genetic elements were identified, by PCR and sequencing...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Jesse Tanguay, Ian A Cunningham
PURPOSE: Single-photon-counting (SPC) and spectroscopic x-ray detectors are under development in academic and industry laboratories for medical imaging applications. The spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors is an important design criterion. The purpose of this article is to extend the cascaded systems approach to include a description of the spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray imaging detectors. METHODS: A cascaded systems approach was used to model reabsorption of characteristic x rays Coulomb repulsion, and diffusion in SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors...
March 11, 2018: Medical Physics
Kathrin Boerner, Jason Rodriquez, Emma Quach, Meghan Hendricksen
This study examined how the Medical Order for Life-sustaining Treatment (MOLST) is implemented in two nursing homes in Massachusetts; one had primarily long-term care residents and high hospice utilization, the other had low hospice utilization and a high proportion of post-acute care residents. Qualitative in-person interviews with 21 staff members who had a role implementing the MOLST explored their experiences using the form in their daily work routines. Staff at both nursing homes described benefits of the MOLST such as providing guidance for staff and family...
March 6, 2018: Geriatric Nursing
Paula Garber-Epstein, David Roe
In recent decades, new models of recovery have been developed in the feld of mental health, based on the transfer of hospital treatment to the community. Community mental health became the standard of care and treatment, and people with mental illness were able to freely congregate and support each other. The new recovery model includes broad aspects of the person and recovery became the "guiding vision" of mental health services. New defnitions of recovery were developed that focus on the difference between recovering from an illness and being in recovering, or in other words, "clinical recovery" versus "personal recovery...
September 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Donald G Harris, Sarah B Olson, Claire B Rosen, Richa Kalsi, Bradley S Taylor, Jose J Diaz, Tanya R Flohr, Robert S Crawford
INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute vascular disease frequently need specialized management that may require transfer to a vascular referral center. While transfer may be medically necessary, it can delay definitive care and is an indicator of incorrect triage to the initial hospital. Regionalization of acute vascular care could improve patient triage and subsequent outcomes. To evaluate the potential benefit from regionalization, we analyzed outcomes of patients treated for acute vascular disease at vascular referral centers...
March 5, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Paulina S Rubilar, Gisselle N Barra, Jean-Marc Gabastou, Pedro Alarcón, Pamela Araya, Juan C Hormazábal, Jorge Fernandez
Neisseria meningitidis is a human exclusive pathogen that can lead to invasive meningococcal disease or may be carried in the upper respiratory tract without symptoms. The relationship between carriage and disease remains poorly understood but it is widely accepted that decreasing carriage by immunization should lead to a reduction of invasive cases. Latin America has experienced an increased incidence of serogroup W invasive cases of Neisseria meningitidis in the last decade. Specifically in Chile, despite low total incidence of invasive cases, serogroup W has become predominant since 2011 and has been associated with elevated mortality...
2018: PloS One
Melisa Del Barrio, Matteo Sensi, Christophe Orain, Carole Baffert, Sébastien Dementin, Vincent Fourmond, Christophe Léger
Many enzymes that produce or transform small molecules such as O2 , H2 , and CO2 embed inorganic cofactors based on transition metals. Their active site, where the chemical reaction occurs, is buried in and protected by the protein matrix, and connected to the solvent in several ways: chains of redox cofactors mediate long-range electron transfer; static or dynamic tunnels guide the substrate, product and inhibitors; amino acids and water molecules transfer protons. The catalytic mechanism of these enzymes is therefore delocalized over the protein and involves many different steps, some of which determine the response of the enzyme under conditions of stress (extreme redox conditions, presence of inhibitors, light), the catalytic rates in the two directions of the reaction and their ratio (the "catalytic bias")...
March 8, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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