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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331896/environmentally-available-hexavalent-chromium-in-soils-and-sediments-impacted-by-dispersed-fly-ash-in-sarigkiol-basin-northern-greece
#1
Nerantzis Kazakis, Nikolaos Kantiranis, Kyriaki Kalaitzidou, Efthimia Kaprara, Manassis Mitrakas, Robert Frei, George Vargemezis, Dimitrios Vogiatzis, Anastasios Zouboulis, Anestis Filippidis
Hexavalent chromium is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic species known and can be released into the environment from several sources. In Sarigkiol basin (N Greece) the presence of Cr(VI) in soil, sediments and groundwater may originate from both natural (ophiolitic rocks and their weathering products) and anthropogenic (dispersed fly ash produced from lignite power plants) sources. In this study, the distribution of contents and origin of environmentally available Cr(VI) in soils, sediments, regoliths and fly ash of Sarigkiol basin is presented...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331131/combining-the-ensemble-and-franck-condon-approaches-for-calculating-spectral-shapes-of-molecules-in-solution
#2
T J Zuehlsdorff, C M Isborn
The correct treatment of vibronic effects is vital for the modeling of absorption spectra of many solvated dyes. Vibronic spectra for small dyes in solution can be easily computed within the Franck-Condon approximation using an implicit solvent model. However, implicit solvent models neglect specific solute-solvent interactions on the electronic excited state. On the other hand, a straightforward way to account for solute-solvent interactions and temperature-dependent broadening is by computing vertical excitation energies obtained from an ensemble of solute-solvent conformations...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330699/accounting-of-ghg-emissions-and-removals-from-forest-management-a-long-road-from-kyoto-to-paris
#3
REVIEW
Joachim H A Krug
BACKGROUND: Forests have always played an important role in agreeing on accounting rules during the past two decades of international climate policy development. Starting from activity-based gross-net accounting of selected forestry activities to mandatory accounting against a baseline-rules have changed quite rapidly and with significant consequences for accounted credits and debits. Such changes have direct consequences on incentives for climate-investments in forestry. There have also been strong arguments not to include forests into the accounting system by considering large uncertainties, procedural challenges and a fear of unearned credits corrupting the overall accounting system, among others...
January 3, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327579/can-multielectron-intercalation-reactions-be-the-basis-of-next-generation-batteries
#4
M Stanley Whittingham, Carrie Siu, Jia Ding
Intercalation compounds form the basis of essentially all lithium rechargeable batteries. They exhibit a wide range of electronic and crystallographic structures. The former varies from metallic conductors to excellent insulators. The latter often have layer structures or have open tunnel structures that can act as the hosts for the intercalation of a wide range of metal cation and other guest species. They are fascinating materials with almost infinitely variable properties, with the crystal structure controlling the identity and the amount of the guest species that may be intercalated and subsequently removed...
January 12, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325441/five-year-experience-of-an-inpatient-palliative-care-unit-at-an-academic-referral-center
#5
Myrick C Shinall, Sara F Martin, Jill Nelson, Richard S Miller, Matthew W Semler, Eli E Zimmerman, Christy C Noblit, E Wesley Ely, Mohana Karlekar
BACKGROUND: Palliative care units (PCUs) staffed by specialty-trained physicians and nurses have been established in a number of medical centers. The purpose of this study is to review the 5-year experience of a PCU at a large, urban academic referral center. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected database of all admissions to the PCU at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the first 5 years of its existence, from 2012 through 2017. RESULTS: Over these 5 years, there were 3321 admissions to the PCU...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324270/agcl-ag3po4-a-stable-ag-based-nanocomposite-photocatalyst-with-enhanced-photocatalytic-activity-for-the-degradation-of-parabens
#6
Jianhao Guo, Huixian Shi, Xiaobo Huang, Huifang Shi, Zhongfu An
An AgCl/Ag3PO4 composite has been successfully fabricated by a simple desorption-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis), and photoluminescence (PL) have been used to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the AgCl/Ag3PO4 composite. The photocatalytic activity of the AgCl/Ag3PO4 composite has been tested by the degradation of parabens under visible-light irradiation...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324265/bayesian-spatiotemporal-crash-frequency-models-with-mixture-components-for-space-time-interactions
#7
Wen Cheng, Gurdiljot Singh Gill, Yongping Zhang, Zhong Cao
The traffic safety research has developed spatiotemporal models to explore the variations in the spatial pattern of crash risk over time. Many studies observed notable benefits associated with the inclusion of spatial and temporal correlation and their interactions. However, the safety literature lacks sufficient research for the comparison of different temporal treatments and their interaction with spatial component. This study developed four spatiotemporal models with varying complexity due to the different temporal treatments such as (I) linear time trend; (II) quadratic time trend; (III) Autoregressive-1 (AR-1); and (IV) time adjacency...
January 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323456/tuning-the-carrier-confinement-in-ges-phosphorene-van-der-waals-heterostructures
#8
Chan Wang, Lei Peng, Qi Qian, Jinyan Du, Sufan Wang, Yucheng Huang
Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, which have the advantage of integrating excellent properties of the stacked 2D materials by vdW interactions, have gained increasing attention recently. In this work, within the framework of density functional theory calculations, the electronic properties of vdW heterostructure composed of phosphorene (BP) in black phosphorus phase and GeS monolayer are systematically explored. The results show that the carriers are not separated for both lattice-match and lattice-mismatch heterostructures...
January 11, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321210/the-immune-checkpoint-modulator-ox40-and-its-ligand-ox40l-in-nk-cell-immunosurveillance-and-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Tina Nuebling, Carla Emilia Schumacher, Martin Hofmann, Ilona Hagelstein, Benjamin Joachim Schmiedel, Stefanie Maurer, Birgit Federmann, Kathrin Rothfelder, Malte Roerden, Daniela Dorfel, Pascal Schneider, Gundram Jung, Helmut Rainer Salih
The TNF receptor family member OX40 promotes activation and proliferation of T cells, which fuels efforts to modulate this immune checkpoint to reinforce antitumor immunity. Besides T cells, NK cells are a second cytotoxic lymphocyte subset that contributes to antitumor immunity, particularly in leukemia. Accordingly, these cells are being clinically evaluated for cancer treatment through multiple approaches, such as adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded polyclonal NK cells (pNKC). Here we analyzed whether and how OX40 and its ligand (OX40L) influence NK-cell function and anti-leukemia reactivity...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321174/addressing-complexity-in-population-health-intervention-research-the-context-intervention-interface
#10
Laetitia Minary, François Alla, Linda Cambon, Joelle Kivits, Louise Potvin
BACKGROUND: Public health interventions are increasingly being recognised as complex and context dependent. Related to this is the need for a systemic and dynamic conception of interventions that raises the question of delineating the scope and contours of interventions in complex systems. This means identifying which elements belong to the intervention (and therefore participate in its effects and can be transferred), which ones belong to the context and interact with the former to influence results (and therefore must be taken into account when transferring the intervention) and which contextual elements are irrelevant to the intervention...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319294/advances-in-one-pot-synthesis-through-borrowing-hydrogen-catalysis
#11
Avelino Corma, Javier Navas, Maria J Sabater
The borrowing hydrogen (BH) principle, also called hydrogen auto-transfer, is a powerful approach which combines transfer hydrogenation (avoiding the direct use of molecular hydrogen) with one or more intermediate reactions to synthesize more complex molecules without the need for tedious separation or isolation processes. The strategy which usually relies on three steps, (i) dehydrogenation, (ii) intermediate reaction, and (iii) hydrogenation, is an excellent and well-recognized process from the synthetic, economic, and environmental point of view...
January 10, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318251/environmental-fate-and-exposure-models-advances-and-challenges-in-21st-century-chemical-risk-assessment
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Di Guardo, Todd Gouin, Matthew MacLeod, Martin Scheringer
Environmental fate and exposure models are a powerful means to integrate information on chemicals, their partitioning and degradation behaviour, the environmental scenario and the emissions in order to compile a picture of chemical distribution and fluxes in the multimedia environment. A 1995 pioneering book, resulting from a series of workshops among model developers and users, reported the main advantages and identified needs for research in the field of multimedia fate models. Considerable efforts were devoted to their improvement in the past 25 years and many aspects were refined; notably the inclusion of nanomaterials among the modelled substances, the development of models at different spatial and temporal scales, the estimation of chemical properties and emission data, the incorporation of additional environmental media and processes, the integration of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in the simulations...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317499/the-oligomerization-state-of-bacterial-enzyme-i-ei-determines-ei-s-allosteric-stimulation-or-competitive-inhibition-by-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate
#13
Trang Truc Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Vincenzo Venditti
The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a signal transduction pathway that couples phosphoryl transfer to active sugar transport across the cell membrane. The PTS is initiated by phosphorylation of enzyme I (EI) by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The EI phosphorylation state determines the phosphorylation states of all other PTS components and is thought to play a central role in the regulation of several metabolic pathways and to control the biology of bacterial cells at multiple levels, for example, affecting virulence and biofilm formation...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315607/the-solar-ultraviolet-environment-at-the-ocean
#14
Curtis D Mobley, Brian L Diffey
Atmospheric and oceanic radiative transfer models were used to compute spectral radiances between 285 and 400 nm onto horizontal and vertical plane surfaces over water. The calculations kept track of the contributions by the sun's direct beam, by diffuse sky radiance, by radiance reflected from the sea surface, and by water-leaving radiance. Clear, hazy, and cloudy sky conditions were simulated for a range of sun zenith angles, wind speeds, and atmospheric ozone concentrations. The radiances were used to estimate erythemal exposures due to the sun and sky, as well as from radiation reflected by the sea surface and backscattered from the water column...
January 8, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315081/mechanisms-of-optical-orientation-of-an-individual-mn2-ion-spin-in-a-ii-vi-quantum-dot
#15
T Smoleński, Ł Cywiński, P Kossacki
We provide a theoretical description of the optical orientation of a single Mn2+ ion spin under quasi-resonant excitation demonstrated experimentally by Goryca et al (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 087401). We build and analyze a hierarchy of models by starting with the simplest assumptions (transfer of perfectly spin-polarized excitons from Mn-free dot to the other dot containing a single Mn2+ spin, followed by radiative recombination) and subsequently adding more features, such as spin relaxation of electrons and holes...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313985/cart-peptide-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-inhibits-cocaine-induced-locomotor-sensitization-to-transient-overexpression-of-%C3%AE-ca2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii
#16
Lixia Xiong, Qing Meng, Xi Sun, Xiangtong Lu, Qiang Fu, Qinghua Peng, Jianhua Yang, Ki-Wan Oh, Zhen Zhen Hu
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a widely distributed neurotransmitter that attenuates cocaine-induced locomotor activity when injected into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Our previous work first confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of the CART peptide on cocaine-induced locomotor activity is related to a reduction in cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIα (pCaMKIIα) and the enhancement of cocaine-induced D3R function. The present study investigated whether CART peptide inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor activity via inhibition of interactions between pCaMKIIα and the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311554/oxidation-of-atg3-and-atg7-mediates-inhibition-of-autophagy
#17
Karen Frudd, Thomas Burgoyne, Joseph Robert Burgoyne
Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a crucial cellular stress response for degrading defective macromolecules and organelles, as well as providing bioenergetic intermediates during hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Here we report a thiol-dependent process that may account for impaired autophagy during aging. This is through direct oxidation of key autophagy-related (Atg) proteins Atg3 and Atg7. When inactive Atg3 and Atg7 are protected from oxidation due to stable covalent interaction with their substrate LC3. This interaction becomes transient upon activation of Atg3 and Atg7 due to transfer of LC3 to phosphatidylethanolamine (lipidation), a process crucial for functional autophagy...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310628/a-decade-of-road-traffic-fatalities-among-the-elderly-in-north-west-iran
#18
Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Bahram Samadirad, Farnaz Moslemi
BACKGROUND: Iran has a uniquely catastrophic status for road traffic injury incidence and fatality. The elderly account for a substantial number of the hospitalizations and fatalities due to traffic injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the crash mechanisms and medical outcomes of traffic fatalities among the elderly in East Azerbaijan province of Iran during the period 2006-2016. METHODS: A total of 9435 fatalities registered in East Azerbaijan forensic medicine database, Iran, during 2006-2016, were investigated...
January 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310433/occurrence-and-tissue-distribution-of-novel-perfluoroether-carboxylic-and-sulfonic-acids-and-legacy-per-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-black-spotted-frog-pelophylax-nigromaculatus
#19
Qianqian Cui, Yitao Pan, Hongxia Zhang, Nan Sheng, Jianshe Wang, Yong Guo, Jiayin Dai
Research on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) continues to grow. However, very little is known about these substances in amphibians. Here we report for the first time on the occurrence, tissue distribution, and bioaccumulation of two novel PFASs, chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA), in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) from China. Frogs from cities with large-scale fluorochemical industries had significantly greater liver ΣPFAS levels (mean 54...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309351/unit-advancement-flap-for-lower-lip-reconstruction
#20
Akihiro Ogino, Kiyoshi Onishi, Emi Okada, Miho Nakamichi
BACKGROUND: Lower lip reconstruction requires consideration of esthetic and functional outcome in selecting a surgical procedure, and reconstruction with local tissue is useful. The authors reconstructed full-thickness defects with a unit advancement flap. METHODS: Reconstruction was performed using this method in 4 patients with lower lip squamous cell carcinoma in whom tumor resection with preservation of the mouth angle was possible. The lower lip resection width was 30 to 45 mm, accounting for 50% to 68% of the entire width of the lower lip...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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