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Glucose critically

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911357/characterization-of-metabolic-status-in-nonhuman-primates-with-the-intravenous-glucose-tolerance-test
#1
Michael Staup, George Aoyagi, TeQuana Bayless, Yixin Wang, Keefe Chng
The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) plays a key role in the characterization of glucose homeostasis. When taken together with serum biochemical profiles, inclusive of blood glucose levels in both the fed and fasted state, HbA1c, insulin levels, clinical history of diet, body composition, and body weight status, an assessment of normal and abnormal glycemic control can be made. Interpretation of an IVGTT is done through measurement of changes in glucose and insulin levels over time in relation to the dextrose challenge...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910541/research-on-the-best-measurement-situation-between-optical-probe-and-tissue-surfaces-in-non-invasive-detection
#2
Xuyao Yu, Rong Liu, Hui Yu, Jiao Wang, Jun Wang, Kexin Xu
Near-infrared spectroscopy is often used for the non-invasive detection of composition in the human body, such as that of blood glucose and haemoglobin, due to its high penetration depth into tissues. Although it is feasible to position the optical probe precisely, contact situation between probe and human tissues is a difficult problem to determine because of physiological tremor and mechanical performance of bio-soft tissue. Here, we proposed a novel estimation method for the situation between the optical probe and tissue surfaces based on the dynamic auto-correlation matrix of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and radar chart...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908730/mtor-activation-is-critical-for-betulin-treatment-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells
#3
Wenlong Cheng, Shiqi Ji, Haijian Zhang, Zhixing Han, Qingjun Liu, Jianwen Wang, Hao Ping
Betulin, a natural product isolated from the bark of the birch trees, exhibits multiple anticancer effects. Activation of mTOR signaling pathway has been found in numerous cancers, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, we attempted to study whether mTOR signaling was essential for betulin to treat RCC. Based on cell survival and colony formation assays, we found that mTOR hyperactive RCC cell line 786-O cells were more sensitive to betulin treatment compared with mTOR-inactive Caki-2 cells. Knockdown of TSC2 in Caki-2 cells had similar results to 786-O cells, and mTOR silencing in 786-O cells rescued the inhibitory effect of betulin, indicating that betulin inhibited RCC cell proliferation in an mTOR-dependent manner...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908617/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cellular-environment-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-thermal-doppler-flowmetry-and-microdialysis-study
#4
D Papadopoulos, A Filippidis, G Krommidas, G Vretzakis, K Paterakis, A Komnos, K N Fountas
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microdialysis enables assessment of regional metabolic physiology and provides biomarkers for clinical correlation in critical conditions, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of our current study was to investigate the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and microdialysis parameters (glucose, lactate, glycerol, pyruvate concentrations, and lactate/pyruvate metabolic ratio) in patients with SAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with SAH were enrolled in our retrospective study...
November 18, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904781/microrna-497-regulates-cisplatin-chemosensitivity-of-cervical-cancer-by-targeting-transketolase
#5
Hui Yang, Xiao-Li Wu, Kai-Hua Wu, Rong Zhang, Li-Li Ju, Ying Ji, Yan-Wei Zhang, Song-Lin Xue, Ye-Xin Zhang, Yong-Feng Yang, Min-Min Yu
Cervical cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies amongst women, partially because it is unresponsive to many chemotherapeutic drugs. The mechanism underlying cisplatin (DDP) resistance in cervical cancer remains largely elusive. In this study, by detecting the 12 most reported down-regulated miRNAs in chemotherapy-sensitive and -resistant cervical cancer cells, we found that miR-497 was significantly reduced in chemotherapy-resistant HeLa/DDP cells and contributed to DDP chemosensitivity. Transketolase (TKT), a thiamine-dependent enzyme that plays a role in the channeling of excess glucose phosphates to glycolysis in the pentose phosphate pathway, was identified as a direct target of miR-497...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901298/biomimicry-promotes-the-efficiency-of-a-10-step-sequential-enzymatic-reaction-on-nanoparticles-converting-glucose-to-lactate
#6
Chinatsu Mukai, Lizeng Gao, Jacquelyn L Nelson, James P Lata, Roy Cohen, Lauren Wu, Meleana M Hinchman, Magnus Bergkvist, Robert W Sherwood, Sheng Zhang, Alexander J Travis
For nanobiotechnology to achieve its potential, complex organic-inorganic systems must grow to utilize the sequential functions of multiple biological components. Critical challenges exist: immobilizing enzymes can block substrate-binding sites or prohibit conformational changes, substrate composition can interfere with activity, and multistep reactions risk diffusion of intermediates. As a result, the most complex tethered reaction reported involves only 3 enzymes. Inspired by the oriented immobilization of glycolytic enzymes on the fibrous sheath of mammalian sperm, here we show a complex reaction of 10 enzymes tethered to nanoparticles...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899484/lack-of-cul4b-in-adipocytes-promotes-ppar%C3%AE-mediated-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-insulin-sensitivity
#7
Peishan Li, Yu Song, Wenying Zan, Liping Qin, Shuang Han, Baichun Jiang, Hao Dou, Changshun Shao, Yaoqin Gong
Obesity and obesity-associated diseases are linked to dysregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) signaling pathway. Identification of the factors that regulate PPARγ expression and activity is crucial for combating obesity. However, the ubiquitin E3 ligases that target PPARγ for proteasomal degradation have been rarely identified and their functions in vivo have not been characterized. Here we report that CUL4B-RING E3 ligase (CRL4B) negatively regulates PPARγ by promoting its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898346/amp-kinase-promotes-bcl6-expression-in-both-mouse-and-human-t-cells
#8
Markus M Xie, Tohti Amet, Hong Liu, Qigui Yu, Alexander L Dent
The transcription factor Bcl6 is a master regulator of follicular helper T (TFH) cells, and understanding the signaling pathway that induces Bcl6 and TFH cell differentiation is therefore critical. IL-2 produced during T cell activation inhibits Bcl6 expression but how TFH cells evade IL-2 inhibition is not completely understood. Here we show that Bcl6 is highly up-regulated in activated CD4 T cells following glucose deprivation (GD), and this pathway is insensitive to inhibition by IL-2. Similar to GD, the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) inhibits glycolysis, and 2DG induced Bcl6 expression in activated CD4 T cells...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896024/salinity-modulates-thermotolerance-energy-metabolism-and-stress-response-in-amphipods-gammarus-lacustris
#9
Kseniya P Vereshchagina, Yulia A Lubyaga, Zhanna Shatilina, Daria Bedulina, Anton Gurkov, Denis V Axenov-Gribanov, Boris Baduev, Elizaveta S Kondrateva, Mikhail Gubanov, Egor Zadereev, Inna Sokolova, Maxim Timofeyev
Temperature and salinity are important abiotic factors for aquatic invertebrates. We investigated the influence of different salinity regimes on thermotolerance, energy metabolism and cellular stress defense mechanisms in amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars from two populations. We exposed amphipods to different thermal scenarios and determined their survival as well as activity of major antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase) and parameters of energy metabolism (content of glucose, glycogen, ATP, ADP, AMP and lactate)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895996/label-free-fast-3d-coherent-imaging-reveals-pancreatic-islet-micro-vascularization-and-dynamic-blood-flow
#10
Corinne Berclaz, Daniel Szlag, David Nguyen, Jérôme Extermann, Arno Bouwens, Paul J Marchand, Julia Nilsson, Anja Schmidt-Christensen, Dan Holmberg, Anne Grapin-Botton, Theo Lasser
In diabetes, pancreatic β-cells play a key role. These cells are clustered within structures called islets of Langerhans inside the pancreas and produce insulin, which is directly secreted into the blood stream. The dense vascularization of islets of Langerhans is critical for maintaining a proper regulation of blood glucose homeostasis and is known to be affected from the early stage of diabetes. The deep localization of these islets inside the pancreas in the abdominal cavity renders their in vivo visualization a challenging task...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#12
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895554/systemic-radical-scavenger-treatment-of-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome-merits-and-limitations-of-the-vitamin-e-derivative-trolox
#13
Oliwia A Janc, Marc A Hüser, Katharina Dietrich, Belinda Kempkes, Christiane Menzfeld, Swen Hülsmann, Michael Müller
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically arising from spontaneous mutations in the X-chromosomal methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The almost exclusively female Rett patients show an apparently normal development during their first 6-18 months of life. Subsequently, cognitive- and motor-impairment, hand stereotypies, loss of learned skills, epilepsy and irregular breathing manifest. Early mitochondrial impairment and oxidative challenge are considered to facilitate disease progression...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895093/stroke-paradox-with-sglt-2-inhibitors-a-play-of-chance-or-a-viscosity-mediated-reality
#14
REVIEW
Konstantinos P Imprialos, Chrysoula Boutari, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Michael Doumas, Asterios I Karagiannis
Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic strategies have not provided constant beneficial cardiovascular-related results. Sodium-glucose co-transporters 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have emerged as a novel antidiabetic class of drugs that exert favourable results in a variety of other cardiovascular risk factors too, such as increased blood pressure and body weight. The Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) study was the first trial that evaluated cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes with the use of empagliflozin, a member of this new class of drugs...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892481/autophagy-is-required-for-pdac-glutamine-metabolism
#15
Ju-Won Seo, Jungwon Choi, So-Yeon Lee, Suhyun Sung, Hyun Ju Yoo, Min-Ji Kang, Heesun Cheong, Jaekyoung Son
Macroautophagy (autophagy) is believed to maintain energy homeostasis by degrading unnecessary cellular components and molecules. Its implication in regulating cancer metabolism recently started to be uncovered. However, the precise roles of autophagy in cancer metabolism are still unclear. Here, we show that autophagy plays a critical role in glutamine metabolism, which is required for tumor survival. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells require both autophagy and typical glutamine transporters to maintain intracellular glutamine levels...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889764/high-uric-acid-activates-the-ros-ampk-pathway-impairs-cd68-expression-and-inhibits-oxldl-induced-foam-cell-formation-in-a-human-monocytic-cell-line-thp-1
#16
Chaohuan Luo, Xueke Lian, Liangli Hong, Jingfang Zou, Zhi Li, Yuzhang Zhu, Tianliang Huang, Yongneng Zhang, Yaqiu Hu, Huier Yuan, Tengfei Wen, Wanling Zhuang, Bozhi Cai, Xin Zhang, Ichiro Hisatome, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Jiexiong Huang, Jidong Cheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperuricemia is part of the metabolic-syndrome cluster of abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Monocytes/macrophages are critical in the development of metabolic syndrome, including gout, obesity and atherosclerosis. However, how high uric acid (HUA) exposure affects monocyte/macrophage function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of HUA exposure in monocytes/macrophages and its impact on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced foam-cell formation in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886122/remote-blood-glucose-monitoring-in-mhealth-scenarios-a-review
#17
Giordano Lanzola, Eleonora Losiouk, Simone Del Favero, Andrea Facchinetti, Alfonso Galderisi, Silvana Quaglini, Lalo Magni, Claudio Cobelli
Glucose concentration in the blood stream is a critical vital parameter and an effective monitoring of this quantity is crucial for diabetes treatment and intensive care management. Effective bio-sensing technology and advanced signal processing are therefore of unquestioned importance for blood glucose monitoring. Nevertheless, collecting measurements only represents part of the process as another critical task involves delivering the collected measures to the treating specialists and caregivers. These include the clinical staff, the patient's significant other, his/her family members, and many other actors helping with the patient treatment that may be located far away from him/her...
November 24, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883936/relationship-between-fgf21-and-ucp1-levels-under-time-restricted-feeding-and-high-fat-diet
#18
Nava Chapnik, Yoni Genzer, Oren Froy
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) exhibits a circadian oscillation, and its induction is critical during fasting. When secreted by liver and skeletal muscle, FGF21 enhances thermogenic activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by utilizing uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) to dissipate energy as heat. Recently, it has been reported that UCP1 is not required for FGF21-mediated reduction in body weight or improvements in glucose homeostasis. As the relationship between FGF21 and UCP1 induction in tissues other than BAT is less clear, we tested the effect of restricted feeding (RF) and high dietary fat on FGF21 circadian expression and its correlation with UCP1 expression in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881773/novel-roles-for-the-insulin-regulated-glucose-transporter-4-in-hippocampally-dependent-memory
#19
Jiah Pearson-Leary, Ewan C McNay
: The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be involved in memory processes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879277/eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-5a2-promotes-metabolic-reprogramming-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#20
Ting-Ting Cao, Shu-Hai Lin, Li Fu, Zhi Tang, Chi-Ming Che, Li-Yi Zhang, Xiao-Yan Ming, Teng-Fei Liu, Xu-Ming Tang, Bin-Bin Tan, Di Xiang, Feng Li, On-Yee Chan, Dan Xie, Zongwei Cai, Xin-Yuan Guan
Reprogramming of intracellular metabolism is common in liver cancer cells. Understanding the mechanisms of cell metabolic reprogramming may present a new basis for liver cancer treatment. In our previous study we reported that a novel oncogene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) promotes tumorigenesis under hypoxic condition. Here, we aim to investigate the role of EIF5A2 in cell metabolic reprogramming during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. In this study, we reported that the mRNA level of EIF5A2 was up-regulated in 59/105 (56...
November 22, 2016: Carcinogenesis
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