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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034303/validation-of-capillary-blood-analysis-and-capillary-testing-mode-on-the-epoc-point-of-care-system
#1
Jing Cao, Rachel Edwards, Janette Chairez, Sridevi Devaraj
BACKGROUND: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). METHODS: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine...
December 2017: Pract Lab Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033968/dancing-with-hormones-a-current-perspective-of-nitrate-signaling-and-regulation-in-arabidopsis
#2
REVIEW
Peizhu Guan
In nature and agriculture, nitrate availability is a main environmental cue for plant growth, development and stress responses. Nitrate signaling and regulation are hence at the center of communications between plant intrinsic programs and the environment. It is also well known that endogenous phytohormones play numerous critical roles in integrating extrinsic cues and intrinsic responses, regulating and refining almost all aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Therefore, interaction between nitrate and phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, is prevalent...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032696/impact-of-improving-postprandial-glycemic-control-with-intensifying-insulin-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes
#3
Tamer Yacoub
Worldwide, many people with type 2 diabetes are not at recommended glycemic targets and remain at increased risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Reaching recommended glycemic targets requires normalizing both fasting and postprandial glucose (PPG). For some patients, this will require addition of a prandial insulin delivered by injection to control PPG excursions. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests an association between postprandial hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease, and thus, expert guidelines recommend that treatment for elevated PPG not be delayed...
October 14, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032506/differential-effects-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-isolated-rat-atria-subjected-to-simulated-ischemia-reperfusion-depending-on-the-energetic-substrates-available
#4
Romina Hermann, Victoria Evangelina Mestre Cordero, María de Las Mercedes Fernández Pazos, Federico Joaquín Reznik, Débora Elisabet Vélez, Enrique Alberto Savino, María Gabriela Marina Prendes, Alicia Varela
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine-threonine kinase that functions primarily as a metabolic sensor to coordinate anabolic and catabolic processes in the cell, via phosphorylation of multiple proteins involved in metabolic pathways, aimed to re-establish energy homeostasis at a cell-autonomous level. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion represents a metabolic stress situation for myocytes. Whether AMPK plays a critical role in the metabolic and functional responses involved in these conditions remains uncertain...
October 14, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032153/metformin-overcomes-high-glucose-induced-insulin-resistance-of-podocytes-by-pleiotropic-effects-on-sirt1-and-ampk
#5
Dorota Rogacka, Irena Audzeyenka, Michał Rychłowski, Patrycja Rachubik, Maria Szrejder, Stefan Angielski, Agnieszka Piwkowska
Podocyte insulin sensitivity is critical for glomerular function, and the loss of appropriate insulin signaling leads to alterations and disorders featuring diabetic nephropathy. Energy-sensing pathways, such as AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) and protein deacetylase SIRT1, have been shown to play an important role in insulin resistance. The absence of a stimulating effect of insulin on glucose uptake into podocytes after exposure to hyperglycemic conditions has been demonstrated to be related to a decreased level and activity of SIRT1 protein, leading to reduced AMPK phosphorylation...
October 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031902/chrysophanol-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-mice
#6
Yongmei Zhao, Yalan Fang, Haiping Zhao, Jincheng Li, Yunxia Duan, Wenjuan Shi, Yuyou Huang, Li Gao, Yumin Luo
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in mediating ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage in the brain. Our previous study showed that Chrysophanol (CHR) alleviated cerebral ischemic injury in mice and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) involved in its neuroprotective effect, but the precise mechanism remains not fully understood. The present study investigated the effect of CHR treatment on I/R-induced ER stress. Mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 45min and received either vehicle or CHR (0...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031716/adipocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-is-important-in-lipolysis-and-insulin-resistance-due-to-exogenous-steroids-but-not-insulin-resistance-caused-by-high-fat-feeding
#7
Yachen Shen, Hyun Cheol Roh, Manju Kumari, Evan D Rosen
OBJECTIVE: The critical role of adipose tissue in energy and nutrient homeostasis is influenced by many external factors, including overnutrition, inflammation, and exogenous hormones. Prior studies have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) in particular are major drivers of physiological and pathophysiological changes in adipocytes. In order to determine whether these effects directly require the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within adipocytes, we generated adipocyte-specific GR knockout (AGRKO) mice...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031207/microrna-25-inhibits-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-via-pten-akt-pathway
#8
Huicong Li, Xiaoguang Zhu, Junwei Zhang, Jun Shi
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It has been demonstrated that apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by hyperglycemia contributes to the pathogenesis of DN. Recent researches have corroborated the critical roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the apoptosis of various types of cells including renal tubular epithelial cells. However, the eff ; ;ect of miRNAs on the hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells remains unclear...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030115/store-operated-ca-2-entry-controls-clonal-expansion-of-t-cells-through-metabolic-reprogramming
#9
Martin Vaeth, Mate Maus, Stefan Klein-Hessling, Elizaveta Freinkman, Jun Yang, Miriam Eckstein, Scott Cameron, Stuart E Turvey, Edgar Serfling, Friederike Berberich-Siebelt, Richard Possemato, Stefan Feske
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is the main Ca(2+) influx pathway in lymphocytes and is essential for T cell function and adaptive immunity. SOCE is mediated by Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels that are activated by stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 and STIM2. SOCE regulates many Ca(2+)-dependent signaling molecules, including calcineurin, and inhibition of SOCE or calcineurin impairs antigen-dependent T cell proliferation. We here report that SOCE and calcineurin regulate cell cycle entry of quiescent T cells by controlling glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation...
October 10, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029859/intensive-insulin-therapy-insulin-sensitisers-and-insulin-secretagogues-for-burns-a-systematic-review-of-effectiveness-and-safety
#10
REVIEW
Jared M Campbell, Natalia Adanichkin, Rochelle Kurmis, Zachary Munn
This systematic review investigated the effectiveness and safety of intensive insulin therapy (IIT), insulin secretagogues and sensitisers in burn patients. PubMed, Embase, clinicaltrials.gov and Cochrane central were searched from 1990 to 2016. Title/abstract screening, full-text review, critical appraisal and data extraction were carried out by two independent reviewers. Inclusion criteria were hospitalised burn patients, IIT, insulin sensitisers or secretagogues and the outcomes mortality, length of stay, resting energy expenditure, blood glucose, catabolism, or complications...
October 10, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029784/regulation-of-insulin-exocytosis-by-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-c-in-beta-cells
#11
REVIEW
Adam J Trexler, Justin W Taraska
The control of insulin release from pancreatic beta cells helps ensure proper blood glucose level, which is critical for human health. Protein kinase C has been shown to be one key control mechanism for this process. After glucose stimulation, calcium influx into beta cells triggers exocytosis of insulin-containing dense-core granules and activates protein kinase C via calcium-dependent phospholipase C-mediated generation of diacylglycerol. Activated protein kinase C potentiates insulin release by enhancing the calcium sensitivity of exocytosis, likely by affecting two main pathways that could be linked: (1) the reorganization of the cortical actin network, and (2) the direct phosphorylation of critical exocytotic proteins such as munc18, SNAP25, and synaptotagmin...
November 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029225/glucocorticoid-signaling-in-health-and-disease-insights-from-tissue-specific-gr-knockout-mice
#12
Shannon Whirledge, Donald B DeFranco
Glucocorticoids are adrenally produced hormones critically involved in development, general physiology, and control of inflammation. Since their discovery, glucocorticoids have been widely utilized to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. However, high doses or prolonged use leads to a number of side-effects throughout the body, which preclude their clinical utility. The primary actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a transcription factor that regulates many complex signaling pathways...
October 5, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028603/a-surface-confined-dna-assembly-amplification-strategy-on-dna-nanostructural-scaffold-for-electrochemiluminescence-biosensing
#13
Qiu-Mei Feng, Yue-Hua Guo, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
A critical challenge in surface-based DNA assembly amplification is the reduced accessibility of DNA strands arranged on a heterogeneous surface compared to that in homogeneous solution. Here, a novel in situ surface-confined DNA assembly amplification electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on DNA nanostructural scaffold was presented. In this design, a stem-loop structural DNA segment (Hairpin 1) was constructed on the vertex of DNA nanostructural scaffold as recognition probe. In the present of target DNA, the hairpin structure changed to rod-like through complementary hybridization with target DNA, resulting in the formation of Hairpin 1:target DNA...
September 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027434/-protective-effect-of-notoginsenoside-r1-on-neuron-injury-induced-by-ogd-r-through-atf6-akt-signaling-pathway
#14
Qian-Ling Hou, Yan Wang, Ying-Bo Li, Xue-Lian Hu, Sha-Li Wang
Notoginsenoside R1(NGR1),a critical compound in traditional herb Panax notoginseng, is a kind of estrogen receptor agonist.It is reported to exhibit anti-apoptotic,anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties activity, so it is widely used for treatment of various diseases.In order to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of NGR1 in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage(HIBD), primary cortical neurons were used in this study to establish oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation(OGD/R) injury models. They were treated with NGR1 and estrogen receptor inhibitor ICI-182780 respectively, then the neuronal survival, cell membrane integrity and apoptosis were assessed by MTT assay,lactate dehydrogenase test(LDH) and Hoechst 33342 stain respectively, while the protein expression levels of ATF6α,p-Akt,Akt,Bax and Cleaved Caspase-3 were measured by Western blotting...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025974/lipid-based-dna-sirna-transfection-agents-disrupt-neuronal-bioenergetics-and-mitophagy
#15
Eleonora Napoli, Siming Liu, Ilaria Marsilio, Konstantinos Zarbalis, Cecilia Giulivi
A multitude of natural and artificial compounds have been recognized to modulate autophagy, providing direct or, through associated pathways, indirect entry points to activation and inhibition. While these pharmacological tools are extremely useful in the study of autophagy, their abundance also suggests the potential presence of unidentified autophagic modulators that may interfere with experimental designs if applied unknowingly. Here, we report unanticipated effects on autophagy and bioenergetics in neuronal progenitor cells (NPC) incubated with widely used lipid-based-transfection reagent lipofectamine (LF), which induced mitochondria depolarization followed by disruption of electron transport...
October 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025961/phosphate-replacement-in-the-critically-ill-potential-implications-for-military-patients
#16
A E Coulden, L J Rickard, N Crooks, N Arora
BACKGROUND: Severe hypophosphataemia in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting has been widely associated with adverse clinical outcomes across multiple organ systems, as well as increased mortality. However, the clinical significance of mild or moderate hypophosphataemia remains uncertain. This can lead to heterogeneous phosphate replacement protocols across different institutions. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of mild and moderate hypophosphataemia on clinical outcomes across several organ systems...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022695/high-activity-and-convenient-ratio-control-dna-directed-coimmobilization-of-multiple-enzymes-on-multifunctionalized-magnetic-nanoparticles
#17
Ye Yang, Ruiqi Zhang, Bingnan Zhou, Jiayi Song, Ping Su, Yi Yang
The development of new methods for fabricating artificial multienzyme systems has attracted much interest because of the potential applications and the urgent need for multienzyme catalysts. Controlling the enzyme ratio is critical for improving the cooperative enzymatic activity in multienzyme systems. Herein, we introduce a versatile strategy for fabricating a multienzyme system by coimmobilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) on magnetic nanoparticles multifunctionalized with dopamine derivatives through DNA-directed immobilization...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021167/high-density-lipoprotein-delivered-after-myocardial-infarction-increases-cardiac-glucose-uptake-and-function-in-mice
#18
Sarah E Heywood, Adele L Richart, Darren C Henstridge, Karen Alt, Helen Kiriazis, Claire Zammit, Andrew L Carey, Helene L Kammoun, Lea M Delbridge, Medini Reddy, Yi-Ching Chen, Xiao-Jun Du, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Mark A Febbraio, Andrew L Siebel, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Protecting the heart after an acute coronary syndrome is a key therapeutic goal to support cardiac recovery and prevent progression to heart failure. A potential strategy is to target cardiac glucose metabolism at the early stages after ischemia when glycolysis is critical for myocyte survival. Building on our discovery that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) modulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, we now demonstrate that a single dose of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) delivered after myocardial ischemia increases cardiac glucose uptake, reduces infarct size, and improves cardiac remodeling in association with enhanced functional recovery in mice...
October 11, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016806/differential-patterns-of-subcortical-activity-evoked-by-glial-glt-1-blockade-in-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortex-relationship-to-antidepressant-like-effects-in-rats
#19
Júlia Gasull-Camós, Maria Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Marta Casquero-Veiga, Manuel Desco, Francesc Artigas, Anna Castañé
Background: Glutamatergic neurotransmission has emerged as a novel target in antidepressant drug development, with a critical role of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. We recently reported that blockade of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid in infralimbic cortex (rodent equivalent of ventral anterior cingulate cortex), but not in the adjacent prelimbic cortex, evoked robust antidepressant-like effects through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor activation and increased serotonin release...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994678/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-metformin-and-insulin-in-hyperglycemia-treatment-after-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-in-nondiabetic-patients
#20
Kamran Ghods, Hossein Davari, Abbasali Ebrahimian
INTRODUCTION: Insulin therapy is the most commonly used treatment for controlling hyperglycemia after coronary artery bypass surgery in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Metformin has been indicated for critically ill patients as an alternate for the treatment of hyperglycemia. This study evaluated the effect of metformin and insulin in hyperglycemia treatment after coronary artery bypass surgery in nondiabetic patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This study was a clinical trial comprising nondiabetic patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery...
October 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
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