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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679217/spatiotemporal-imaging-of-cellular-energy-metabolism-with-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-sensors-in-brain
#1
REVIEW
Zhuo Zhang, Weicai Chen, Yuzheng Zhao, Yi Yang
The brain has very high energy requirements and consumes 20% of the oxygen and 25% of the glucose in the human body. Therefore, the molecular mechanism underlying how the brain metabolizes substances to support neural activity is a fundamental issue for neuroscience studies. A well-known model in the brain, the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle, postulates that glucose uptake and glycolytic activity are enhanced in astrocytes upon neuronal activation and that astrocytes transport lactate into neurons to fulfill their energy requirements...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679000/valsartan-alleviates-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-of-chronic-renal-failure-rats
#2
Yang Wang, Ri-Bao Wei, Yue Yang, Ting-Yu Su, Meng-Jie Huang, Ping Li, Xiang-Mei Chen
BACKGROUND Studies on insulin resistance (IR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are rare, and its exact mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of IR with chronic renal failure (CRF) and interventions to alleviate IR in patients with CRF. MATERIAL AND METHODS In vivo and in vitro models of CRF were established by 5/6 nephrectomy and urea stimulation C2C12 cells, respectively. Based on the CRF model, angiotensin II (Ang II) and valsartan groups were established to observe the effect of drug intervention on IR...
April 21, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678570/overexpression-of-nrk1-ameliorates-diet-and-age-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#3
Rui Fan, Jing Cui, Feng Ren, Qingzhi Wang, Yanmei Huang, Bin Zhao, Lai Wei, Xinlai Qian, Xiwen Xiong
NAD+ is a co-enzyme in redox reactions and a substrate required for activity of various enzyme families, including Sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Dietary supplementation of NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR) protects against metabolic disease, neurodegenerative disorders and age-related physiological decline in mammals. Here we sought to identify the roles of nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 (NRK1) plays in regulating hepatic NAD+ biosynthesis and lipid metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674181/high-glucose-forces-a-positive-feedback-loop-connecting-erbb4-expression-and-mtor-s6k-pathway-to-aggravate-the-formation-of-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-differentiated-sh-sy5y-cells
#4
Sheng-Dan Nie, Xin Li, Can-E Tang, Fang-Yuan Min, Xia-Jie Shi, Liang-Yan Wu, Shan-Lei Zhou, Zi Chen, Jing Wu, Tao Song, Zhi-Jie Dai, Jiao Zheng, Jia-Jia Liu, Shan Wang
High glucose (HG)-induced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) overactivation acts as a signaling hub for the formation of tau hyperphosphorylation, which contributes to the development of diabetes-associated cognitive deficit. How HG induces the sustained activation of mTOR in neurons is not clearly understood. ErbB4, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, plays critical roles in development and function of neural circuitry, relevant to behavioral deficits. Here, we showed HG-induced ErbB4 overexpression in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and primary hippocampal neurons and hippocampal pyramidal neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
March 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673309/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-beyond-glucose-lowering
#5
Asli F Ceylan, Sidney Y Ren
Diabetes is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in worldwide. Management of blood glucose is critical for diabetic patients since diabetes carries risk for many diseases and disorders. Although there are several antidiabetic agents in the markets for a long time, some of the agents have dose-limiting side effects, such as hypoglycemia and weight gain which limits their ability to reduce cardiovascular complications. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are new class of antidiabetic agents which exerts their effects insulin-independent mechanism therefore they do not cause hypoglycemia in the diabetic patients...
April 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673160/mechanisms-of-diabetes-induced-endothelial-cell-senescence-role-of-arginase-1
#6
Esraa Shosha, Zhimin Xu, S Priya Narayanan, Tahira Lemtalsi, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Modesto Rojas, Ji Xing, David Fulton, R William Caldwell, Ruth B Caldwell
We have recently found that diabetes-induced premature senescence of retinal endothelial cells is accompanied by NOX2-NADPH oxidase-induced increases in the ureohydrolase enzyme arginase 1 (A1). Here, we used genetic strategies to determine the specific involvement of A1 in diabetes-induced endothelial cell senescence. We used A1 knockout mice and wild type mice that were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin and retinal endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to high glucose or transduced with adenovirus to overexpress A1 for these experiments...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669206/recyclable-thermoresponsive-polymer-%C3%AE-glucosidase-conjugate-with-intact-hydrolysis-activity
#7
Ishita Mukherjee, Sushant K Sinha, Supratim Datta, Priyadarsi De
β-Glucosidase (BG) catalyses the hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose and is a rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars towards biofuels. Since the cost of enzyme is a major contributor to biofuel economics, we report the bioconjugation of a temperature responsive polymer with the highly active thermophilic β-glucosidase (B8CYA8) from Halothermothrix orenii towards improving enzyme recyclability. The bioconjugate, with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 33 °C withstands high temperatures up to 70 °C...
April 18, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667130/beneficial-effects-of-the-calcium-channel-blocker-ctk-01512-2-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Rodrigo B M Silva, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C da Costa, Marcus V Gomez, Maria M Campos
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a critical role in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). CTK 01512-2 is a recombinant version of the peptide Phα1β derived from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, which inhibits N-type VGCC/TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. We investigated the effects of this molecule in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of CTK 01512-2 were compared to those displayed by ziconotide-a selective N-type VGCC blocker clinically used for chronic pain-and fingolimod-a drug employed for MS treatment...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666185/hepatocyte-nuclear-receptor-shp-suppresses-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
An Zou, Nancy Magee, Fengyan Deng, Sarah Lehn, Cuncong Zhong, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem worldwide, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis without hepatocellular injury) to the more aggressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, steatosis with ballooning, inflammation, or fibrosis). Although many studies have greatly contributed to the elucidation of NAFLD pathogenesis, the disease progression from NAFL to NASH still remains incompletely understood. Nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (Nr0b2, SHP) is a transcriptional regulator critical for the regulation of bile acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666155/sil1-the-er-hsp70-co-chaperone-plays-a-critical-role-in-maintaining-skeletal-muscle-proteostasis-and-physiology
#10
Viraj P Ichhaporia, Jieun Kim, Kanisha Kavdia, Peter Vogel, Linda Horner, Sharon Frase, Linda M Hendershot
Mutations in SIL1 , a co-factor for the endoplasmic reticular (ER) chaperone BiP, cause Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS), an autosomal recessive disorder. Using a mouse model, we characterized molecular aspects of the progressive myopathy associated with MSS. Proteomic-profiling of quadriceps at the onset of myopathy revealed that SIL1 deficiency affected multiple pathways critical to muscle physiology. We observed an increase in ER chaperones prior to the onset of muscle weakness, which was complemented by up-regulation of multiple components of cellular protein degradation pathways...
April 9, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663801/identification-and-characterization-of-phenolic-compounds-in-black-walnut-kernels
#11
Danh Vu, Phuc Vo, Mark Coggeshall, Chung-Ho Lin
Black walnuts ( Juglans nigra L.) are highly valued for producing phenolic-enriched nuts. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize phenolic contents of eleven different black walnut cultivars and compare the levels of these phenolics between black walnuts and English walnut ( Juglans regia L.). Totally, 16 phenolics including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and catechins were identified in the black walnut kernels, with ellagic acid predominating over the other phenolics. Significant differences were noted for the levels of quinic acid, gallic acid, 1,3,6-trigalloylglucose, catechin, and penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose between the studied black walnuts and English walnut...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662780/distinct-metabolic-programs-induced-by-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-bmp2-in-human-articular-chondrocytes-with-osteoarthritis
#12
Cuicui Wang, Richard M Silverman, Jie Shen, Regis J O'Keefe
Objectives: Cellular energy metabolism is important for the function of all tissues, including cartilage. Recent studies indicate that superficial and deep subpopulations of articular chondrocytes (ACs) have distinct metabolic profiles. At the cellular and molecular level, osteoarthritis (OA) is characterised by alteration from a healthy homoeostatic state towards a catabolic state. Several molecular pathways, including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling, have been identified as critical players in the pathogenesis and progression of OA...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662049/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-presenting-with-liver-infiltration-and-severe-lactic-acidosis
#13
Ayman Hassan Sayyed, Aamer Aleem, Mohammad Sami Al-Katari, Fatma Algahtani, Khaldoon Aljerian, Talha A Aleem, Khalid Alsaleh
BACKGROUND Type-B lactic acidosis is a rare complication of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. It occurs secondary to Warburg effect, when glucose metabolism in cancer cells switches from the oxidative pathway to the glycolytic pathway. Malignant lactic acidosis is a life-threatening condition if not promptly diagnosed and treated urgently. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who presented with severe chest pain, dyspnea, systemic symptoms, leukopenia, normocytic anemia, and severe lactic acidosis...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661504/stress-induced-hyperglycemia-on-complications-in-non-critically-elderly-hospitalized-patients
#14
F J Carrasco-Sánchez, J Carretero-Gómez, R Gómez-Huelgas, M A Garcia-Ordoñez, M V Pardo-Ortega, B de Escalante-Yanguela, L Mateos-Polo, F Formiga, J Ena
AIMS: Hospital complications and hyperglycemia are common in elderly patients during hospitalization. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between hyperglycemia and hospital complications in an ageing population. METHODS: We conducted an observational study to evaluate the association between maximum blood glucose (MBG) levels and hospital complications. Patients were stratified according to the quartiles of MBG levels. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was determined by patient history and/or admission glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥6...
April 13, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659664/depletion-of-sucrose-induces-changes-in-the-tip-growth-mechanism-of-tobacco-pollen-tubes
#15
Luigi Parrotta, Claudia Faleri, Stefano Del Duca, Giampiero Cai
Background and Aims: Pollen tubes are rapidly growing, photosynthetically inactive cells that need high rates of energy to support growth. Energy can derive from internal and external storage sources. The lack of carbon sources can cause various problems during pollen tube growth, which in turn could affect the reproduction of plants. Methods: We analysed the effects of energy deficiency on the development of Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes by replacing sucrose with glycerol in the growth medium...
April 12, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659562/organic-cation-transporter-1-oct1-modulates-multiple-cardiometabolic-traits-through-effects-on-hepatic-thiamine-content
#16
Xiaomin Liang, Sook Wah Yee, Huan-Chieh Chien, Eugene C Chen, Qi Luo, Ling Zou, Meiling Piao, Arias Mifune, Ligong Chen, Meredith E Calvert, Sarah King, Frode Norheim, Janna Abad, Ronald M Krauss, Kathleen M Giacomini
A constellation of metabolic disorders, including obesity, dysregulated lipids, and elevations in blood glucose levels, has been associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Analysis of data from recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) demonstrated that reduced-function polymorphisms in the organic cation transporter, OCT1 (SLC22A1), are significantly associated with higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the mechanism linking OCT1 to these metabolic traits remains puzzling...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657719/inpatient-diabetes-management-by-specialized-diabetes-team-versus-primary-service-team-in-non-critical-care-units-impact-on-30-day-readmission-rate-and-hospital-cost
#17
Vivek Bansal, Adham Mottalib, Taranveer K Pawar, Noormuhammad Abbasakoor, Eunice Chuang, Abrar Chaudhry, Mahmoud Sakr, Robert A Gabbay, Osama Hamdy
Objective: We compared the cost-effectiveness of two inpatient diabetes care models: one offered by a specialized diabetes team (SDT) versus a primary service team (PST). Research design and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 756 hospital admissions of patients with diabetes to non-critical care units over 6 months. Out of 392 patients who met the eligibility criteria, 262 were matched 1:1 based on the mean of the initial four blood glucose (BG) values after admission...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657375/comparison-of-glycemic-control-between-continuous-regular-insulin-infusion-and-single-dose-subcutaneous-insulin-glargine-injection-in-medical-critically-ill-patients
#18
Rungsun Bhurayanontachai, Tharittamon Rattanaprapat, Chanon Kongkamol
Background and Aims: This study aimed to compare glycemic control between continuous intravenous regular insulin infusion and single-dose subcutaneous insulin glargine injection in medical critically ill patients. Subjects and Methods: A prospective noninferiority study was conducted in medical critically ill patients who developed hyperglycemia and required regular insulin infusion by the Intensive Care Unit glycemic control protocol. The eligible patients were switched from the daily regular insulin requirement to single-dose subcutaneous insulin glargine injection by a 100% conversion dose...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655929/aging-impairs-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-in-classical-monocytes
#19
Brandt D Pence, Johnathan R Yarbro
Aging is a critical healthcare concern, with age-related inflammation disposing individuals to a variety of diseases. Monocytes are affected by the aging process, with increased inflammation and impaired cellular functions such as phagocytosis. Mechanisms by which aging alters monocyte function are unknown, but recent research suggests that the balance of metabolic processes determine immune cell phenotype and function. Given the known association between aging and mitochondrial dysfunction in other tissues, we hypothesized that aging would impair mitochondrial function in monocytes...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655866/activation-of-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-trcp-axis-via-phlpp1-exacerbates-nrf2-degradation-leading-to-impairment-in-cell-survival-pathway-during-diabetic-nephropathy
#20
Alpana Mathur, Vivek Kumar Pandey, Poonam Kakkar
NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a major redox sensitive transcription factor that plays an essential role in regulating glucose metabolism. Inactivation of Nrf2 has been associated with diabetic complications however, mechanisms warranting Nrf2 suppression are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that PHLPP1 activates GSK3β to induce β-TrCP mediated Nrf2 phosphorylation and degradation. In vivo study was carried out in STZ-NA induced type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats. GSK3β mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination was confirmed by administration of GSK3β inhibitor (LiCl; 60mg/kg bwt...
April 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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