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Glucose critically

Georgios Vassilakos, Hanqin Lei, Yun Yang, Jason Puglise, Michael Matheny, Julia Durzynska, Matan Ozery, Katherine Bennett, Ray Spradlin, Heather Bonanno, Soohyun Park, Rexford S Ahima, Elisabeth R Barton
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are essential for local skeletal muscle growth and organismal physiology, but these actions are entwined with glucose homeostasis through convergence with insulin signaling. The objective of this work was to determine whether the effects of IGF-I on growth and metabolism could be separated. We generated muscle-specific IGF-I-deficient (MID) mice that afford inducible deletion of Igf1 at any age. After Igf1 deletion at birth or in young adult mice, evaluations of muscle physiology and glucose homeostasis were performed up to 16 wk of age...
June 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Thomas E Marler
The pachycaulous stem of arborescent cycad species exhibits unique traits and has received limited research. To date, nothing is known about the axial and radial spatial patterns of non-structural resources within cycad stems. Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill stem tissue was collected from apical and basal axial positions of ca. 100-cm tall plants to serve as two axial regions; and from pith, vascular, and cortex tissues to serve as three radial regions. Starch and four free sugars were quantified. These stems contained more starch than any of the individual sugars, and sucrose concentration exceeded that of fructose and glucose, which exceeded that of maltose...
June 22, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Young Kyuen Im, Ouafa Najyb, Simon-Pierre Gravel, Shawn McGuirk, Ryuhjin Ahn, Daina Avizonis, Valérie Chénard, Valerie Sabourin, Jesse Hudson, Tony Pawson, Ivan Topisirovic, Michael N Pollak, Julie St-Pierre, Josie Ursini-Siegel
The ShcA adaptor protein transduces oncogenic signals downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. We show here that breast tumors engage the ShcA pathway to increase their metabolism. ShcA signaling enhanced glucose catabolism through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, rendering breast cancer cells critically dependent on glucose. ShcA signaling simultaneously increased the metabolic rate and flexibility of breast cancer cells by inducing the PGC-1α transcription factor, a central regulator of mitochondrial metabolism...
June 21, 2018: Cancer Research
Andrew A Gibb, Bradford G Hill
Metabolic pathways integrate to support tissue homeostasis and to prompt changes in cell phenotype. In particular, the heart consumes relatively large amounts of substrate not only to regenerate ATP for contraction but also to sustain biosynthetic reactions for replacement of cellular building blocks. Metabolic pathways also control intracellular redox state, and metabolic intermediates and end products provide signals that prompt changes in enzymatic activity and gene expression. Mounting evidence suggests that the changes in cardiac metabolism that occur during development, exercise, and pregnancy as well as with pathological stress (eg, myocardial infarction, pressure overload) are causative in cardiac remodeling...
June 22, 2018: Circulation Research
Mary D Adu, Usman H Malabu, Emily J Callander, Aduli Eo Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S Malau-Aduli
BACKGROUND: There is increased research interest in the use of mobile phone apps to support diabetes management. However, there are divergent views on what constitute the minimum standards for inclusion in the development of mobile phone apps. Mobile phone apps require an evidence-based approach to development which will consequently impact on their effectiveness. Therefore, comprehensive information on developmental considerations could help designers and researchers to develop innovative and effective patient-centered self-management mobile phone apps for diabetes patients...
June 21, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Hong-Xuan Feng, Chun-Pu Li, Shuang-Jie Shu, Hong Liu, Hai-Yan Zhang
There is an urgent need to develop effective therapies for ischemic stroke, but the complicated pathological processes after ischemia make doing so difficult. In the current study, we identified a novel diaryl acylhydrazone derivative, A11, which has multiple neuroprotective properties in ischemic stroke models. First, A11 was demonstrated to induce neuroprotection against ischemic injury in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.3 to 3 μM) in three in vitro experimental ischemic stroke models: oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), hydrogen peroxide, and glutamate-stimulated neuronal cell injury models...
June 20, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Raffael Ott, Jens H Stupin, Andrea Loui, Elisabeth Eilers, Kerstin Melchior, Rebecca C Rancourt, Karen Schellong, Thomas Ziska, Joachim W Dudenhausen, Wolfgang Henrich, Andreas Plagemann
BACKGROUND: Both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as overweight/obesity during pregnancy are risk factors for detrimental anthropometric and hormonal neonatal outcomes, identified to 'program' adverse health predispositions later on. While overweight/obesity are major determinants of GDM, independent effects on critical birth outcomes remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, in women with GDM, the relative/independent impact of overweight/obesity vs...
June 20, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Jiangtong Peng, Yutian Li, Xiaohong Wang, Shan Deng, Jenna Holland, Emily Yates, Jing Chen, Haitao Gu, Kobina Essandoh, Xingjiang Mu, Boyu Wang, Robert K McNamara, Tianqing Peng, Anil G Jegga, Tiemin Liu, Takahisa Nakamura, Kai Huang, Diego Perez-Tilve, Guo-Chang Fan
Exposure to cold temperature is well known to upregulate heat shock protein (Hsp) expression and recruit and/or activate brown adipose tissue and beige adipocytes in humans and animals. However, whether and how Hsps regulate adipocyte function for energy homeostatic responses is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of Hsp20 as a negative regulator of adipocyte function. Deletion of Hsp20 enhances non-shivering thermogenesis and suppresses inflammatory responses, leading to improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism under both chow diet and high-fat diet conditions...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
K L Pennington, T Y Chan, M P Torres, J L Andersen
14-3-3 proteins are a family of structurally similar phospho-binding proteins that regulate essentially every major cellular function. Decades of research on 14-3-3s have revealed a remarkable network of interacting proteins that demonstrate how 14-3-3s integrate and control multiple signaling pathways. In particular, these interactions place 14-3-3 at the center of the signaling hub that governs critical processes in cancer, including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, autophagy, glucose metabolism, and cell motility...
June 18, 2018: Oncogene
Nagaraja M Phani, Manik Vohra, Ananth Kakar, Prabha Adhikari, Shivashankara K Nagri, Sydney C D'Souza, Shashikiran Umakanth, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Padmalatha S Rai
AIM: Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug is the first line of treatment for Type 2 diabetes individuals. We studied the effect of critical gene single nucleotide polymorphisms  on the glucose lowering effect of metformin. METHOD: We performed a prospective study on 221 newly diagnosed, treatment-naive Type 2 diabetes subjects. Individuals were started with metformin monotherapy and followed up for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Our association analysis revealed that SLC22A2 rs316019 and SLC47A2 rs12943590 were significantly associated with metformin drug response across co-dominant and dominant models, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
Wei Cai, Phillip C Calder, Maria F Cury-Boaventura, Elisabeth De Waele, Julie Jakubowski, Gary Zaloga
Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) have been an integral component of parenteral nutrition for more than 50 years. Numerous formulations are available and are based on vegetable (soybean, olive, coconut) and animal (fish) oils. Therefore, each of these formulations has a unique fatty acid composition that offers both benefits and limitations. As clinical experience and our understanding of the effects of fatty acids on various physiological processes has grown, there is evidence to suggest that some ILEs may have benefits compared with others...
June 15, 2018: Nutrients
Eric J M Blondeel, Marc G Aucoin
Glycosylation is a critical quality attribute (CQA) of many therapeutic proteins, particularly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and is a major consideration in the approval of biosimilar biologics due to its effects to therapeutic efficacy. Glycosylation generates a distribution of glycoforms, resulting in glycoproteins with inherent molecule-to-molecule heterogeneity, capable of activating (or failing to activate) different effector functions of the immune system. Glycoforms can be affected by the supplementation of nucleotide-sugar precursors, and related components, to culture growth medium, affecting the metabolism of glycosylation...
June 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Sunghwan Kim, Younho Lee, Jun Woo Kim, Young-Jin Son, Min Jung Ma, Jee-Hyun Um, Nam Doo Kim, Sang Hyun Min, Dong Il Kim, Brian B Kim
Activation of adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) by its natural ligand, adiponectin has been known to be involved in modulating critical metabolic processes such as glucose metabolism and fatty acid oxidation as demonstrated by a number of in vitro and in vivo studies over last two decades. These findings suggest that AdipoRs' agonists could be developed into a potential therapeutic agent for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, especially for type II diabetes, a long-term metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin...
2018: PloS One
Fabienne Lampert, Diana Stafa, Algera Goga, Martin Varis Soste, Samuel Gilberto, Natacha Olieric, Paola Picotti, Markus Stoffel, Matthias Peter
In yeast, the glucose-induced degradation-deficient (GID) E3 ligase selectively degrades superfluous gluconeogenic enzymes. Here we identified all subunits of the mammalian GID/CTLH complex and provide a comprehensive map of its hierarchical organization and step-wise assembly. Biochemical reconstitution demonstrates that the mammalian complex possesses inherent E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, using Ube2H as its cognate E2. Deletions of multiple GID subunits compromise cell proliferation, and this defect is accompanied by deregulation of critical cell cycle markers such as the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor, phospho-Histone H3 and Cyclin A...
June 18, 2018: ELife
Andy Jing Chen, Junjie Li, Amber Jannasch, Sena Ozseker, Meng C Wang, Ji-Xin Cheng
Retinoids play critical roles in development, immunity and lipid metabolism, and their deficiency leads to various human disorders. Yet, tools for sensing retinoids in vivo are lacking, which limits the understanding of retinoid distribution, dynamics and functions in living organisms. Here, using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, we discover a previously unknown cytoplasmic store of retinoids in Caenorahbditis elegans. Following the temporal dynamics of retinoids, we reveal that their levels are positively correlated with fat storage, and their supplementation slows down fat loss during dauer starvation...
June 17, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Sandeep Donagaon, Mala Dharmalingam
Objectives: Glycemic excursions are commonly seen in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and are related to adverse outcomes. Glycemic gap is a marker of this excursion in patients with diabetes. It can be used to predict adverse outcomes in patients with diabetes admitted to the ICU. It is calculated by subtracting A1C-derived average glucose (ADAG) = ([28.7 × HbA1c]-46.7) from plasma glucose at admission. Objective of this study was to correlate glycemic gap and adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) admitted to the ICU...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Raphaela Fritsche-Guenther, Christin Zasada, Guido Mastrobuoni, Nadine Royla, Roman Rainer, Florian Roßner, Matthias Pietzke, Edda Klipp, Christine Sers, Stefan Kempa
Metabolic reprogramming is as a hallmark of cancer, and several studies have reported that BRAF and KRAS tumors may be accompanied by a deregulation of cellular metabolism. We investigated how BRAFV600E and KRASG12V affect cell metabolism, stress resistance and signaling in colorectal carcinoma cells driven by these mutations. KRASG12V expressing cells are characterized by the induction of glycolysis, accumulation of lactic acid and sensitivity to glycolytic inhibition. Notably mathematical modelling confirmed the critical role of MCT1 designating the survival of KRASG12V cells...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chieh Kao, Ritu Chandna, Abhijeet Ghode, Charlotte Dsouza, Mo Chen, Andreas Larsson, Siau Hoi Lim, Minjun Wang, Zhonglian Cao, Yizhun Zhu, Ganesh S Anand, Ruowen Ge
Glucose regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) is a recently emerged target for cancer therapy and a biomarker for cancer prognosis. Overexpression of GRP78 is observed in many types of cancers, with the cell-surface GRP78 being preferentially present in cancer cells and cancer blood vessel endothelial cells. Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted high-affinity proapoptotic protein ligand of cell-surface GRP78 that suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth in mice. The C-terminal AMOP (adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins) domain of ISM is critical in mediating its interaction with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
June 12, 2018: EBioMedicine
M Samsonia, M Kandelaki, N Baratashvili
Cerebrovascular diseases of ischemic origin still remain the leading cause of death and disability of the population. In acute cerebral discirculation conditions, anaerobic glycolysis is activated, ATP formation rate decreases, the ion pumps work is disrupted and superoxide radicals are formed. Eventually, ionic asymmetry leads to the cytotoxic and vasogenic brain edema. Therefore, it is extremely important to induce simultaneous (complex) effect of medications on the key mechanisms of neuronal damage in process of survival of brain cells during acute ischemic stroke...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Ummu K Jamaludin, Fatanah M Suhaimi, Normy Norfiza Abdul Razak, Azrina Md Ralib, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Christopher G Pretty, Luqman Humaidi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Blood glucose variability is common in healthcare and it is not related or influenced by diabetes mellitus. To minimise the risk of high blood glucose in critically ill patients, Stochastic Targeted Blood Glucose Control Protocol is used in intensive care unit at hospitals worldwide. Thus, this study focuses on the performance of stochastic modelling protocol in comparison to the current blood glucose management protocols in the Malaysian intensive care unit...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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