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Glucose critically

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232262/intermittent-versus-continuous-feeding-in-critically-ill-adults
#1
Jayshil J Patel, Martin D Rosenthal, Daren K Heyland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early enteral nutrition is recommended in critically ill adult patients. The optimal method of administering enteral nutrition remains unknown. Continuous enteral nutrition administration in critically ill patients remains the most common practice worldwide; however, its practice has recently been called into question in favor of intermittent enteral nutrition administration, where volume is infused multiple times per day. This review will outline the key differences between continuous and intermittent enteral nutrition, describe the metabolic responses to continuous and intermittent enteral nutrition administration and outline recent studies comparing continuous with intermittent enteral nutrition administration on outcomes in critically ill adults...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228335/gram-scale-production-of-recombinant-microbial-enzymes-in-shake-flasks
#2
Lukas Chrast, Radka Chaloupkova, Jiri Damborsky
Heterologous production of recombinant proteins is a cornerstone of microbiological and biochemical research as well as various biotechnological processes. Yields and quality of produced proteins have a tremendous impact on structural and enzymology studies, development of new biopharmaceuticals and establishing new biocatalytic processes. Majority of current protocols for recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli exploit batch cultures with complex media, often providing low yields of the target protein due to oxygen transfer limitation, rapid depletion of carbon sources, and pH changes during the cultivation...
December 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226508/glucose-homeostasis-in-two-degrees-of-sepsis-lethality-induced-by-caecum-ligation-and-puncture-in-mice
#3
Francielle B D Ferreira, Cristiane Dos Santos, Maciel A Bruxel, Everson A Nunes, Fernando Spiller, Alex Rafacho
Sepsis is associated with high mortality. Both critically ill humans and animal models of sepsis exhibit changes in their glucose homeostasis, that is, hypoglycaemia, with the progression of infection. However, the relationship between basal glycaemia, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity is not well understood. Thus, we aimed to evaluate this glucose homeostasis triad at the late stage of sepsis (24 h after surgery) in male Swiss mice subjected to lethal and sublethal sepsis by the caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225740/glycemic-control-in-acute-illness
#4
REVIEW
Moritoki Egi, Nana Furushima, Shohei Makino, Satoshi Mizobuchi
Hyperglycemia is commonly observed in critical illness. A landmark large randomized controlled trial (RCT) reported that the incidence of hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration > 108 mg/dl) was as high as 97.2% in critically ill patients. During the past two decades, a number of RCTs and several meta-analyses and network meta-analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal target for acute glycemic control. The results of those studies suggest that serum glucose concentration would be better to be maintained between 144 and 180 mg/dl...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224892/how-glucose-glutamine-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-shape-blood-and-lymph-vessel-development
#5
REVIEW
Laure-Anne Teuwen, Vincent Geldhof, Peter Carmeliet
Recently, endothelial cell metabolism has emerged as an essential driver and regulator of both blood and lymph vessel development. Evidence rapidly builds that metabolism is not only necessary for endothelial cell function, but moreover controls several aspects of the (lymph)-angiogenic process. So far, the best-characterized metabolic pathways to have an impact on angiogenesis are glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation and glutamine metabolism. Glycolysis regulates tip cell behavior by providing ATP, fatty acid oxidation controls stalk cell proliferation by producing nucleotide biomass, and glutamine metabolism is critical for tip and stalk cell dynamics by supporting Krebs cycle anaplerosis, protein production and redox homeostasis, and links to asparagine metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#6
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#7
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222806/identification-of-udp-glucose-binding-site-in-glycosyltransferase-domain-of-sucrose-phosphate-synthase-from-sugarcane-saccharum-officinarum-by-structure-based-site-directed-mutagenesis
#8
REVIEW
Widhi Dyah Sawitri, Siti Nurul Afidah, Atsushi Nakagawa, Toshiharu Hase, Bambang Sugiharto
Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is believed to be the key enzyme for controlling the biosynthesis of sucrose. SPSs consist of a functional glycosyltransferase domain that shares conserved residues with the glycosyltransferase domain of sucrose biosynthesis-related protein. The formation of sucrose-6-phosphate is catalyzed by SPS with the transfer of a glycosyl group of uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-G) as an activated donor sugar to a fructose-6-phosphate as a sugar acceptor. However, understanding of the mechanism of catalytic and substrate binding in SPS is very limited...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221433/hyporesponsiveness-of-natural-killer-cells-and-impaired-inflammatory-responses-in-critically-ill-patients
#9
Minkyung Kim, Minjoo Kim, Hana Jeong, Jey Sook Chae, Young Sam Kim, Jae Gil Lee, Younsoo Cho, Jong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: To investigate natural killer (NK) cell activity, circulating cytokine level and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production status in critically ill patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected <24 h after admission from 24 intensive care unit (ICU) patients and 24 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Serum cytokine concentrations and cytokine production by PBMCs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs were measured...
December 8, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221144/ucp2-overexpression-enhanced-glycolysis-via-activation-of-pfkfb2-during-skin-cell-transformation
#10
Annapoorna Sreedhar, Petra Petruska, Sumitra Miriyala, Manikandan Panchatcharam, Yunfeng Zhao
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane transporter which is often upregulated in human cancers. However, how this anion transporter affects tumorigenesis is not well understood. Using the skin cell transformation JB6 model, we demonstrated that UCP2 overexpression activated phosphofructokinase 2/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 2 (PFKFB2), a key regulator of glycolysis. In conjunction, upregulation of PFKFB2 expression correlated with elevated fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1) activity, glucose uptake, and lactate production...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218549/accuracy-and-reliability-of-a-subcutaneous-continuous-glucose-monitoring-device-in-critically-ill-patients
#11
S Rijkenberg, S C van Steen, J H DeVries, P H J van der Voort
Subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may have benefits in achieving glycemic control in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of the FreeStyle Navigator I in critically ill patients and to assess patient related factors influencing the accuracy and reliability. This study is a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in a 20-bed mixed intensive care unit. Analytical accuracy, clinical accuracy and reliability were assessed against arterial blood glucose samples as reference...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218528/proximity-ligation-assay-to-study-the-glut4-membrane-trafficking-machinery
#12
Dimitrios Kioumourtzoglou, Gwyn W Gould, Nia J Bryant
In this chapter a detailed protocol of proximity ligation assay (PLA) is described thoroughly. PLA is a technique that allows detection of protein associations in situ, providing a sensitive and selective approach for protein-protein interaction studies. We demonstrate the technique by applying it for trafficking studies of the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4. Trafficking of GLUT4 from perinuclear depots to the plasma membrane is regulated by insulin in adipocytes and muscle cells, and mediated by formation of functional SNARE complexes containing Syntaxin4, SNAP23, and VAMP2...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218237/increased-mir-21a-provides-metabolic-advantages-through-suppression-of-fbp1-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#13
Qingchun Dai, Na Li, Xiaohong Zhou
Lung cancer is the most common solid tumor and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. miR-21 is one of the most commonly observed aberrant miRNAs in human cancers. However, the biological roles of miR-21 in glucose metabolism of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells remain unknown. In the present study, our findings demonstrated that miR-21 promoted glucose uptake and increased TXNIP expression. miR-21 increased lactate generation and decreased oxygen consumption in NSCLC cells. Moreover, we found that miR-21 promoted glycolysis and decreased OXPHOS...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218064/non-diabetic-hyperglycemia-and-some-of-its-correlates-in-icu-hospitalized-patients-receiving-enteral-nutrition
#14
Mohammad Amin Valizadeh Hasanloei, Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Davoud Vahabzadeh, Zakaria Vahabzadeh, Leila Nasiri, Ali Shargh
Introduction: Hyperglycemia is a common occurrence in critically ill patients, and its prevalence in patients receiving nutritional support is much higher than in other patients. The non-diabetic form is associated with more undesirable outcomes. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of non-diabetic hyperglycemia and its correlates in patients receiving enteral nutrition. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between March and December 2015...
September 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217655/regulation-of-lipolytic-response-and-energy-balance-by-melanocortin-2-receptor-accessory-protein-mrap-in-adipocytes
#15
Xiaodong Zhang, Alicia M Saarinen, Latoya E Campbell, Elena A De Filippis, Jun Liu
MRAP is highly expressed in adrenal gland and adipose tissue. In adrenal cells, MRAP is essential for ACTH-induced activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway by melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), leading to glucocorticoid production and secretion. Although ACTH was known to stimulate PKA-dependent lipolysis, the functional involvement of MRAP in adipocyte metabolism remains incompletely defined. Herein, we found that knockdown or overexpression of MRAP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced or increased ACTH-induced lipolysis, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217500/peripheral-neuropathy-as-a-complication-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-child-with-newly-diagnosed-diabetes-type-1-case-report
#16
Marta Baszyńska-Wilk, Marta Wysocka-Mincewicz, Anna Świercz, Jolanta Świderska, Magdalena Marszał, Mieczysław Szalecki
BACKGROUND: Neurological complications of diabetic ketoacidosis are considered to be very serious clinical problem. The most common complication is cerebral edema. However this group includes also less common syndromes such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis or very rare peripheral neuropathy. CASE REPORT: We present a case of 9-year old girl with new onset type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, cerebral edema, multifocal vasogenic brain lesions and lower limbs peripheral paresis...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216370/the-role-of-arabidopsis-inositol-polyphosphate-kinase-atipk2%C3%AE-in-glucose-suppression-of-seed-germination-and-seedling-development
#17
Qiaofeng Yang, Sihong Sang, Yao Chen, Zhaoyun Wei, Peng Wang
Seed germination and subsequent seedling development are critical phases in plant. These processes are regulated by a complex molecular network in which sugar has been reported to play an essential role. However, factors affecting sugar responses remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that AtIPK2β, known to participate in the synthesis of myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (IP6, phytate), affects Arabidopsis responses to glucose during seed germination. Loss-of-function mutant atipk2β showed increased sensitivity to 6% glucose and paclobutrazol (PAC)...
December 4, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215097/the-molecular-dialogue-between-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-the-necrotrophic-fungus-botrytis-cinerea-leads-to-major-changes-in-host-carbon-metabolism
#18
Florian Veillet, Cécile Gaillard, Pauline Lemonnier, Pierre Coutos-Thévenot, Sylvain La Camera
Photoassimilates play crucial roles during plant-pathogen interactions, as colonizing pathogens rely on the supply of sugars from hosts. The competition for sugar acquisition at the plant-pathogen interface involves different strategies from both partners which are critical for the outcome of the interaction. Here, we dissect individual mechanisms of sugar uptake during the interaction of Arabidopsis thaliana with the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea using millicell culture insert, that enables molecular communication without physical contact...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215013/allosteric-pyruvate-kinase-based-logic-gate-synergistically-senses-energy-and-sugar-levels-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Wenhe Zhong, Liang Cui, Boon Chong Goh, Qixu Cai, Peiying Ho, Yok Hian Chionh, Meng Yuan, Abbas El Sahili, Linda A Fothergill-Gilmore, Malcolm D Walkinshaw, Julien Lescar, Peter C Dedon
Pyruvate kinase (PYK) is an essential glycolytic enzyme that controls glycolytic flux and is critical for ATP production in all organisms, with tight regulation by multiple metabolites. Yet the allosteric mechanisms governing PYK activity in bacterial pathogens are poorly understood. Here we report biochemical, structural and metabolomic evidence that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) PYK uses AMP and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) as synergistic allosteric activators that function as a molecular "OR logic gate" to tightly regulate energy and glucose metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213308/the-effect-of-liquid-hot-water-pretreatment-on-the-chemical-structural-alteration-and-the-reduced-recalcitrance-in-poplar
#20
Mi Li, Shilin Cao, Xianzhi Meng, Michael Studer, Charles E Wyman, Arthur J Ragauskas, Yunqiao Pu
Background: Hydrothermal pretreatment using liquid hot water (LHW) is capable of substantially reducing the cell wall recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass. It enhances the saccharification of polysaccharides, particularly cellulose, into glucose with relatively low capital required. Due to the close association with biomass recalcitrance, the structural change of the components of lignocellulosic materials during the pretreatment is crucial to understand pretreatment chemistry and advance the bio-economy...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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