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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109739/in%C3%A2-vivo-antianaerobe-activity-of-ds-8587-a-new-fluoroquinolone-against-fusobacterium-necrophorum-in-a-mouse-model
#1
Kentaro Nagaoka, Katsunori Yanagihara, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Yuichi Kurosaka, Kazuki Hoshino, Shigeru Kohno
DS-8587 is a novel parenteral fluoroquinolone, which has an activity equivalent to sitafloxacin against various pathogens including anaerobes. We examined the in vivo anti-anaerobic activity of DS-8587, and compared it with that of levofloxacin (LVFX), using a murine model of Fusobacterium necrophorum-induced liver abscess developed via blood borne infection. Mice with liver abscess infection caused by F. necrophorum were treated with saline (control), DS-8587 (0.8, 4, and 20 mg/kg twice daily), or LVFX (20 and 100 mg/kg) for a day...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109720/ucp1-in-adipose-tissues-two-steps-to-full-browning
#2
Anastasia V Kalinovich, Jasper M A de Jong, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues...
January 18, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109242/local-spin-dynamics-of-iron-oxide-magnetic-nanoparticles-dispersed-in-different-solvents-with-variable-size-and-shape-a-1-h-nmr-study
#3
M Basini, T Orlando, P Arosio, M F Casula, D Espa, S Murgia, C Sangregorio, C Innocenti, A Lascialfari
Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based on a nearly monodisperse iron oxide core and capped by oleic acid have been used as model systems for investigating the superparamagnetic spin dynamics by means of magnetometry measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) relaxometry. The key magnetic properties (saturation magnetization, coercive field, and frequency dependent "blocking" temperature) of MNPs with different core size (3.5 nm, 8.5 nm, and 17.5 nm), shape (spherical and cubic), and dispersant (hexane and water-based formulation) have been determined...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109103/-value-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-3d-whole-brain-arterial-spin-labeling-in-the-diagnosis-of-medulloblastoma
#4
Dong-Liang Cheng, Wen-Sheng Wang, Yi-Xin Hu, Meng-Lin Chen, Ge Wen, Li-Na Cheng, Jing Wu, Liu-Qing Yan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and 3D whole-brain arterial spin labeling (3D ASL) in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa. METHODS: The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 16 patients with pathologically confirmed medulloblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients were examined with plane and enhanced brain MRI scans; 5 patients also underwent examinations with DWI, 12 with MRS, and 5 with 3D ASL...
January 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108513/relb-expression-determines-the-differential-effects-of-ascorbic-acid-in-normal-and-cancer-cells
#5
Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K St Clair, William H St Clair
Cancer cells typically experience higher oxidative stress than normal cells, such that elevating pro-oxidant levels can trigger cancer cell death. Although pre-exposure to mild oxidative agents will sensitize cancer cells to radiation, this pre-exposure may also activate the adaptive stress defense system in normal cells. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a prototype redox modulator that when infused intravenously appears to kill cancers without injury to normal tissues; however, the mechanisms involved remain elusive...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108216/the-phenomenon-of-atherosclerosis-reversal-and-regression-lessons-from-animal-models
#6
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Victor V Revin, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Studies in non-rodent and murine models showed that atherosclerosis can be reversed. Atherosclerosis progression induced by high-fat or cholesterol-rich diet can be reduced and reversed to plaque regression after switching to a normal diet or through administration of lipid-lowering agents. The similar process should exist in humans after implementation of lipid-lowering therapy and as a result of targeting of small rupture-prone plaques that are major contributors for acute atherosclerotic complications. Lowering of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the activation of reverse cholesterol transport lead to a decline in foam cell content, to the depletion of plaque lipid reservoirs, a decrease in lesional macrophage numbers through the activation of macrophage emigration and, probably, apoptosis, dampening plaque inflammation, and the induction of anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in clearance of the necrotic core and plaque healing...
January 17, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107023/doxorubicin-delivery-into-tumor-cells-by-stable-cavitation-without-contrast-agents
#7
Kamel Chettab, Jean-Louis Mestas, Maxime Lafond, Djamel Eddine Saadna, Cyril Lafon, Charles Dumontet
Doxorubicin, alone or in combination with other anticancer agents, is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents and is administered in a wide range of cancers. However, the use of doxorubicin is limited due to its potential serious adverse reactions. Previous studies have established the ability of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in combination with various contrast agents to increase intracellular doxorubicin delivery in a targeted and noninvasive manner. In this study, we developed a new sonoporation device generating and monitoring acoustic cavitation bubbles without any addition of contrast agents...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106540/detection-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-using-a-2-deoxy-d-glucose-functionalized-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#8
Xiu-Hong Shan, Peng Wang, Fei Xiong, Hao-Yue Lu, Hui Hu
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common type of female cancer worldwide and represents 14% of cancer-related deaths in women. Early detection is the most important factor for treatment and prognosis of breast cancer. In most countries, the women are currently screened with mammography only. Even though there has been considerable progress in the detection, surgical therapy, hormonal and target therapy of breast cancer, there are about ∼ 3500 000 women who die from breast cancer each year...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106206/moo3-x-quantum-dots-for-photoacoustic-imaging-guided-photothermal-photodynamic-cancer-treatment
#9
Dandan Ding, Wei Guo, Chongshen Guo, Jianzhe Sun, Nannan Zheng, Fei Wang, Mei Yan, Shaoqin Liu
A theranostic system of image-guided phototherapy is considered as a potential technique for cancer treatment because of the ability to integrate diagnostics and therapies together, thus enhancing accuracy and visualization during the treatment. In this work, we realized photoacoustic (PA) imaging-guided photothermal (PT)/photodynamic (PD) combined cancer treatment just via a single material, MoO3-x quantum dots (QDs). Due to their strong NIR harvesting ability, MoO3-x QDs can convert incident light into hyperthermia and sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen synchronously as evidenced by in vitro assay, hence, they can behave as both PT and PD agents effectively and act as a "dual-punch" to cancer cells...
January 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106110/in-vivo-detection-of-cucurbit-6-uril-a-hyperpolarized-xenon-contrast-agent-for-a-xenon-magnetic-resonance-imaging-biosensor
#10
Francis T Hane, Tao Li, Peter Smylie, Raiili M Pellizzari, Jennifer A Plata, Brenton DeBoef, Mitchell S Albert
The Hyperpolarized gas Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (HyperCEST) Magnetic Resonance (MR) technique has the potential to increase the sensitivity of a hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI contrast agent. Signal enhancement is accomplished by selectively depolarizing the xenon within a cage molecule which, upon exchange, reduces the signal in the dissolved phase pool. Herein we demonstrate the in vivo detection of the cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) contrast agent within the vasculature of a living rat. Our work may be used as a stepping stone towards using the HyperCEST technique as a molecular imaging modality...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105237/xanthohumol-inhibits-proliferation-of-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
Yan Li, Kai Wang, Shankai Yin, Hongliang Zheng, Daliu Min
Xanthohumol is a flavonoid compound that exhibits antioxidant and anticancer effects, and is used to treat atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the cell proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to understand the mechanism of its action. The effects of xanthohumol on the cell viability and apoptosis rate of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells were assessed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. In addition, the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) p53 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as well as anti-apoptotic markers, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), were analyzed by western blotting...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104976/clinical-role-of-non-invasive-assessment-of-portal-hypertension
#12
EDITORIAL
Massimo Bolognesi, Marco Di Pascoli, David Sacerdoti
Measurement of portal pressure is pivotal in the evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis. The measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient represents the reference method by which portal pressure is estimated. However, it is an invasive procedure that requires significant hospital resources, including experienced staff, and is associated with considerable cost. Non-invasive methods that can be reliably used to estimate the presence and the degree of portal hypertension are urgently needed in clinical practice...
January 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104777/naturally-occurring-inlb-variants-that-support-intragastric-listeria-monocytogenes-infection-in-mice
#13
Konstantin Sobyanin, Elena Sysolyatina, Mikhail Krivozubov, Yaroslava Chalenko, Anna Karyagina, Svetlana Ermolaeva
Listeria monocytogenes is a causative agent of foodborne infection in humans and animals. The virulence factor InlB interacts with mammalian receptor c-Met via its internalin domain to provide L. monocytogenes invasion in non-professional phagocytes. Naturally occurring InlB internalin domain variants form 4 subclusters on the maximal likelihood tree. Four variants belonging to distinct subclusters were cloned into the vector carrying 3' and 5'-flanking sequences to restore full length inlB and expressed in the L...
January 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104363/insights-into-the-distinct-mechanisms-of-action-of-taxane-and-non-taxane-microtubule-stabilizers-from-cryo-em-structures
#14
Elizabeth H Kellogg, Nisreen M A Hejab, Stuart Howes, Peter Northcote, John H Miller, J Fernando Díaz, Kenneth H Downing, Eva Nogales
A number of microtubule-stabilizing agents have demonstrated or predicted potential as anticancer agents, but a detailed structural basis for their mechanism of action is still lacking. We have obtained high-resolution (3.9-4.2Å) cryo-EM reconstructions of microtubules stabilized by the taxane-site binders Taxol and zampanolide, and by peloruside, which targets a distinct, non-taxoid pocket on β-tubulin. We find that each molecule has unique distinct structural effects on the microtubule lattice structure...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103421/structure-of-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-nadph-cytochrome-p450-reductase-2-atr2-provides-insight-into-its-function
#15
Guoqi Niu, Shun Zhao, Lei Wang, Wei Dong, Lin Liu, Yikun He
Members of the cytochrome P450 family catalyze a variety of monooxygenase reactions, and for the eukaryotic membrane-bound members, NADPH is typically used as the reducing agent. The flavoprotein NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) enables electron transfer from NADPH to cytochrome P450 via its flavin cofactors. ATR2 is one of the two authentic CPR genes in the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and its product has been physiologically and kinetically characterized. Here, we report the 2.3-Å structure of ATR2 and find that the position of the two flavin cofactors differs from that of other known CPR structures...
January 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103140/avoiding-accidents-at-the-champagne-reception
#16
Giovanni Pezzulo, Pierpaolo Iodice, Francesco Donnarumma, Haris Dindo, Günther Knoblich
Using a lifting and balancing task, we contrasted two alternative views of planning joint actions: one postulating that joint action involves distinct predictions for self and other, the other postulating that joint action involves coordinated plans between the coactors and reuse of bimanual models. We compared compensatory movements required to keep a tray balanced when 2 participants lifted glasses from each other's trays at the same time (simultaneous joint action) and when they took turns lifting (sequential joint action)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102961/assessing-the-use-of-4dct-ventilation-in-pre-operative-surgical-lung-cancer-evaluation
#17
Yevgeniy Vinogradskiy, Matthew Jackson, Leah Schubert, Bernard Jones, Richard Castillo, Edward Castillo, Thomas Guerrero, John Mitchell, Chad Rusthoven, Moyed Miften, Brian Kavanagh
PURPOSE: A primary treatment option for lung cancer patients is surgical resection. Patients who have poor lung function prior to surgery are at increased risk of developing serious and life-threatening complications after surgical resection. Surgeons use nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scans along with pulmonary function test (PFT) information to assess a patient's pre-surgical lung function. The nuclear medicine images and pre-surgery PFTs are used to calculate percent predicted postoperative (%PPO) PFT values by estimating the amount of functioning lung tissue that would be lost with surgical resection...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102583/successful-splenorenal-shunt-occlusion-with-balloon-occluded-retrograde-transvenous-obliteration-yielded-improvement-of-residual-liver-function-enabled-administration-of-direct-acting-antivirals-and-achieved-sustained-virologic-response-to-hepatitis-c-virus
#18
Hironori Ochi, Michiko Aono, Shunji Takechi, Toshie Mashiba, Tomoyuki Yokota, Kouji Joko
We report the use of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for portosystemic shunt in one patient, resulting in marked improvements in residual liver function and enabling safe hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination with direct-acting antiviral agents. A woman undergoing outpatient treatment at our institution for HCV-related cirrhosis with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE; Child-Pugh score 8) at age 65 years. Improvement was obtained with conservative treatment; however, contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a splenorenal shunt with decreased portal vein blood flow...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102031/dual-nano-sized-contrast-agents-in-pet-mri-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Afsaneh Lahooti, Saeed Sarkar, Sophie Laurent, Saeed Shanehsazzadeh
Nowadays molecular imaging plays a vital role in achieving a successful targeted and personalized treatment. Hence, the approach of combining two or more medical imaging modalities was developed. The objective of this review is to systematically compare recent dual contrast agents in Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and in some cases Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/MRI in terms of some their characteristics, such as tumor uptake, and reticuloendothelial system uptake (especially liver) and their relaxivity rates for early detection of primary cancer tumor...
November 2016: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101129/a-traditional-poly-herbal-medicine-le-pana-guliya-induces-apoptosis-in-hepg2-and-hela-cells-but-not-in-cc1-cells-an-in-vitro-assessment
#20
Nekadage Don Amal Wageesha, Preethi Soysa, Keerthi Atthanayake, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Mahinda Ekanayake
"Le Pana Guliya" (LPG) is a polyherbal formulation which is used to treat different types of cancers in traditional medicine. In this study we describe in vitro efficacy and mechanism of action of LPG on two cancer cell lines (HepG2 and HeLa) compared with a normal cell line CC1. The MTT, LDH assays and protein synthesis were used to study antiproliferative activity of LPG while NO synthesis and GSH content were assayed to determine the oxidative stress exerted by LPG. Rhodamine 123 staining, caspase 3 activity, DNA fragmentation and microscopic examination of cells stained with ethidium bromide/acridine orange were used to identify the apoptosis mechanisms associated with LPG...
2017: Chemistry Central Journal
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