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Contrast agent

Keisuke Nakase, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Yuta Toda, Norihisa Noguchi
Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Salem A E Omar, Paul A Scattergood, Luke K McKenzie, Helen E Bryant, Julia A Weinstein, Paul I P Elliott
The complex [Os(btzpy)₂][PF₆]₂ (1, btzpy = 2,6-bis(1-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine) has been prepared and characterised. Complex 1 exhibits phosphorescence (λem = 595 nm, τ = 937 ns, φem = 9.3% in degassed acetonitrile) in contrast to its known ruthenium(II) analogue, which is non-emissive at room temperature. The complex undergoes significant oxygen-dependent quenching of emission with a 43-fold reduction in luminescence intensity between degassed and aerated acetonitrile solutions, indicating its potential to act as a singlet oxygen sensitiser...
October 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tetsushi Kubota, Shinji Kuroda, Toshiaki Morihiro, Hiroshi Tazawa, Shunsuke Kagawa, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
Trastuzumab(Tmab)is a humanized monoclonalantibody that binds to the human epidermalgrowth factor receptor 2 (HER2). It is clinically used for HER2-positive breast and gastric cancers; however, the use of Tmab is restricted to tumors expressing high levels of HER2(accounting for only 20%of tumors), and Tmab cannot be used for tumors resistant to Tmab. Although novel HER2-targeted agents have been developed to treat Tmab-resistant tumors, none of these have shown clinical efficacy in gastric cancer patients...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Anton S Becker, Cristina Rossi
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI allows the quantification of tissue perfusion without administration of exogenous contrast agents. Patients with reduced renal function or other contraindications to Gadolinium-based contrast media may benefit from the non-invasive monitoring of tissue microcirculation. So far, only few studies have investigated the sensitivity, the specificity and the reliability of the ASL techniques for the assessment of renal perfusion. Moreover, only little is known about the interplay between ASL markers of perfusion and functional renal filtration parameters...
October 20, 2016: Nephron
Jing-Min Liu, Yao-Yao Liu, Dong-Dong Zhang, Guozhen Fang, Shuo Wang
The rise of multimodal nanoprobes has promoted the development of new methods to explore multiple molecular targets simultaneously, or to combine various bioimaging tools in one assay to more clearly delineate localization and expression of bio-markers. Persistent luminescence nanophosphors (PLNPs) have been qualified as the promising contrast agent for in vivo imaging. The easy surface modification and proper nanostructure design strategy would favor the fabrication of PLNPs based multi-functional nanoprobes for biological application...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J Wu, S Dehkharghani, F Nahab, J Allen, D Qiu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Measuring cerebrovascular reactivity with the use of vasodilatory stimuli, such as acetazolamide, is useful for chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acetazolamide on the assessment of hemodynamic impairment and functional connectivity by using noninvasive resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 20-minute resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging scan was acquired with infusion of acetazolamide starting at 5 minutes after scan initiation...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Xueting Jin, Denis Sviridov, Ying Liu, Boris Vaisman, Lia Addadi, Alan T Remaley, Howard S Kruth
OBJECTIVE: We examined the function of ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) in ApoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) mobilization of cholesterol microdomains deposited into the extracellular matrix by cholesterol-enriched macrophages. We have also determined whether an ApoA-I mimetic peptide without and with complexing to sphingomyelin can mobilize macrophage-deposited cholesterol microdomains. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Extracellular cholesterol microdomains deposited by cholesterol-enriched macrophages were detected with a monoclonal antibody, 58B1...
October 6, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Banafsheh Bakhshoude, Hassan Ravari, Gholam Hosein Kazemzadeh, Masoud Pezeshki Rad
INTRODUCTION: Currently, venography is the standard diagnostic method to examine veins before implementing access, which is invasive in nature. Computerized tomography venography (CTV) can simultaneously indicate deep and superficial venous systems in the upper extremity and their relation to the surrounding anatomical structures; however, its diagnostic value in the detection of central venous disease has yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of CT venography compared to venography in the diagnosis of stenosis and the occlusion of subclavian veins and the superior vena in renal failure patients...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Laurent Nyssen, Pierre Delanaye, Caroline Le Goff, Stéphanie Peeters, Étienne Cavalier
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is diagnosed and explored through the determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Our goal was to develop a simple LC-MS method for the determination in serum of 2 popular GFR markers, contrast agents iohexol and iothalamate, for routine use and comparison studies between the two markers. A similar contrast agent, ioversol, was used as an internal standard and the method underwent a rigorous validation protocol based on β-expectation tolerance intervals...
October 15, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Ali Yusuf Öner, Berrak Barutcu, Şükrü Aykol, Emin Turgut Tali
OBJECTIVES: There have been recent studies evaluating brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with normal renal function, after intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Their findings were supported by histological evidence as well and brought a new vision concerning what needs to be learned to provide better patient care. In this report, we aim to present brain magnetic resonance imaging changes after intrathecal administration of a linear ionic agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine)...
October 13, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Jessica Bollyn, Mathias Nijsen, Stijn Baken, Iris J Joye, Nadia Waegeneers, Geert Cornelis, Erik Smolders
Iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) are natural vectors of phosphate (PO4) in the environment. Their mobility is determined by colloidal stability, which is affected by surface composition. This might be manipulated in engineered NPs for environmental or agricultural applications. Here, stability of PO4-Fe-NPs (HFO/goethite) was determined across contrasting environmental conditions (pH, Ca) and by using fulvates (FA) and polyphosphates as coatings. The PO4-Fe-NPs are unstable at Ca concentrations above 0...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Daniel Todt, Stephanie Walter, Richard J P Brown, Eike Steinmann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an important agent of viral hepatitis worldwide, can cause severe courses of infection in pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. To date, HEV infections can only be treated with ribavirin (RBV). Major drawbacks of this therapy are that RBV is not approved for administration to pregnant women and that the virus can acquire mutations, which render the intra-host population less sensitive or even resistant to RBV. One of the proposed modes of action of RBV is a direct mutagenic effect on viral genomes, inducing mismatches and subsequent nucleotide substitutions...
October 13, 2016: Viruses
Ya-Jing Lin, Shu-Fen Peng, Meng-Liang Lin, Chao-Lin Kuo, Kung-Wen Lu, Ching-Lung Liao, Yi-Shih Ma, Fu-Shin Chueh, Kuo-Ching Liu, Fu-Shun Yu, Jing-Gung Chung
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy of the head and neck and the incidence is higher in Southeast Asia. Tetrandrine (TET) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, a natural product, and exhibits biological activities including action against many human cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanism of TET-induced cell apoptosis in human NPC cells is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated TET-induced apoptotic cell death and associated possible signal pathways on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC-TW 076 cells in vitro...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Audrey Berthe, Stéphane Flament, Stéphanie Grandemange, Marie Zaffino, Michel Boisbrun, Sabine Mazerbourg
We have previously shown that Δ2-Troglitazone (Δ2-TGZ) displayed anticancer effects on breast cancer cell lines grown in low serum conditions (1% fetal calf serum (FCS)). The present study was performed in order to characterize the effects of Δ2-TGZ in high serum containing medium and to determine if starvation could influence the response of breast cancer cells to this compound, keeping in mind the potential interest for breast cancer therapy. We observed that in high serum conditions (10% FCS), a 48 h treatment with Δ2-TGZ induced a decrease in cell numbers in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines...
October 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Wen-Shuo Kuo, Chia-Yuan Chang, Hua-Han Chen, Chih-Li Lilian Hsu, Jiu-Yao Wang, Hui-Fang Kao, Lawrence Chao-Shan Chou, Yi-Chun Chen, Shean-Jen Chen, Wen-Tsan Chang, Shih-Wen Tseng, Ping-Ching Wu, Ying-Chih Pu
A graphene quantum dot (GQD) used as the photosensitizer with high two-photon absorption in the near-infrared region, a large absolute cross section of two-photon excitation (TPE), strong two-photon luminescence and impressive two-photon stability could be used for dual modality two-photon photodynamic therapy (PDT) and two-photon bioimaging with an ultrashot pulse laser (or defined as TPE). In this study, a GQD efficiently generated reactive oxygen species coupled with TPE, which highly increased the effective PDT ability of both gram-positive and -negative bacteria, with ultra-low energy and an extremely short photoexcitation time generated by TPE...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J Gallo, N Vasimalai, M T Fernandez-Arguelles, M Bañobre-López
Diagnosis by MRI is frequently non-trivial due to the low sensitivity of the technique. Signal enhancing contrast agents (CAs) are used to aid in the analysis of MR images. We present here a simple protocol for the preparation of responsive CAs based on Mn nanosheets. Mn nanostructures presented here undergo a chemical and structural change in the presence of altered physiological conditions that activate their signal. This strategy allows for a reduction of background, increasing the sensitivity of the technique...
October 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Kuen-Lin Chen, Yao-Wei Yeh, Jian-Ming Chen, Yu-Jie Hong, Tsung-Lin Huang, Zu-Yin Deng, Chiu-Hsien Wu, Su-Hsien Liao, Li-Min Wang
Magnetoplasmonic nanoparticles, composed of a plasmonic layer and a magnetic core, have been widely shown as promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. However, their application in low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LFNMR) research remains scarce. Here we synthesised γ-Fe2O3/Au core/shell (γ-Fe2O3@Au) nanoparticles and subsequently used them in a homemade, high-Tc, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) LFNMR system. Remarkably, we found that both the proton spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and proton spin-spin relaxation time (T2) were influenced by the presence of γ-Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tamilmani Vairapperumal, Ariya Saraswathy, Jayasree S Ramapurath, Sreeram Kalarical Janardhanan, Nair Balachandran Unni
Tetragonal (t)-LaVO4 has turned out to be a potential host for luminescent materials. Synthesis of t-LaVO4 till date has been based on chelating effect of EDTA making it not ideal for bioimaging applications. An alternative was proposed by us through the use of catechin. In recent times there is interest for new MRI contrast agents that can through appropriate doping function both as MRI contrast and optical/upconversion materials. It is generally believed that under appropriate doping, t-LaVO4 would be a better upconversion material than monoclinic (m)-LaVO4...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Boriphat Methachan, Kamolrat Thanapprapasr
The emergence of theranostics with ultrasound technology is a promising development, as it opens pathways to providing more effective treatments for cancer. Advancements in ultrasound imaging would give a more detailed and accurate image for better diagnosis and treatment planning. Polymeric ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are appealing because they are stable and easily modified for active targeting. In addition, a better therapy could be achieved in conjunction with advancements in UCAs. The active targeting not only makes the precise imaging possible, but also leads to targeted delivery of active components to specific local treatment sites...
October 14, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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