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C. Diff

Marianne Skreden, Elisabet R Hillesund, Andrew K Wills, Anne Lise Brantsæter, Elling Bere, Nina C Øverby
The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health challenge. Pregnancy and beyond is a potentially important window for future weight gain in women. We investigated associations between maternal adherence to the New Nordic diet (NND) during pregnancy and maternal BMI trajectories from delivery to 8 years post delivery. Data are from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Pregnant women from all of Norway were recruited between 1999 and 2008, and 55 056 are included in the present analysis...
June 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Bao Shi Jin, Hong Yuan Yan, Wei Qi Wang, Cong Sheng Zeng
To clarify the effect of invasive alien plants on ecosystem functions, soil total carbon (TC), total carbon (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents were studied in the exotic invasive plant Spartina alterniflora marsh with different durations and the native species Cyperus malaccensis marsh in the Minjiang River estuary. The results showed that there were different variations of TC, TN and TP at 0-50 cm soil layer in the C. malaccensis marsh invaded by S. alterniflora, but the changes of TC and TN were similar and the change of the TP lagged behind them...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yong Feng He, Xing Bing Wu, Xu Ge Wang, Yong Jiu Zhu, De Guo Yang
In order to investigate the role of otolith carbon (δ13 C) and oxygen (δ18 O) stable isotopes in identification of freshwater fish stocks, otolith δ13 C and δ18 O of cultured Schizothorax kozlovi at different ages were measured by stable isotope mass spectrometer. The relationships between otolith δ13 C / δ18 O and environment were discussed. The results showed that δ13 C and δ18 O values of S. kozlovi at age 1+ were not significantly correlated with otolith mass, but both were significantly different between lapillus and asteriscus...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Bernardo Valdivieso, Anibal García-Sempere, Gabriel Sanfélix-Gimeno, Raquel Faubel, Julian Librero, Elisa Soriano, Salvador Peiró
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of home based telehealth or structured telephone support interventions with respect to usual care on quality of life, mortality and healthcare utilization in elderly high-risk multiple chronic condition patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 472 elderly high-risk patients with plurimorbidity in the region of Valencia (Spain) were recruited between June 2012 and May 2013, and followed for 12 months from recruitment. Patients were allocated to either: (a) a structured telephone intervention, a nurse-led case management program with telephone follow up every 15 days; (b) telehealth, which adds technology for remote self-management and the exchange of clinical data; or (c) usual care...
April 25, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Ya Li Yin, Yu Qin Wang, Gen Sheng Bao, Hong Sheng Wang, Shi Xiong Li, Mei Ling Song, Bao Lian Shao, Yu Cun Wen
Soil microbial biomass C and N, microbial diversities and enzyme activity in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers of different degraded grasslands (non-degradation, ND; light degradation, LD; moderate degradation, MD; sever degradation, SD; and black soil beach, ED) were measured by Biolog and other methods. The results showed that: 1) There were significant diffe-rences between 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers in soil microbial biomass, diversities and inver-tase activities in all grasslands. 2) The ratio of soil microbial biomass C to N decreased significantly with the grassland degradation...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xiao Hang Bai, Jin Tun Zhang
This paper analyzed the niche breadth and niche overlap of dominant species of forest community in Xiaowutai Mountain, and fitted the response patterns of dominant species to the environment gradients by generalized additive models. The results showed that a total of 392 species of vascular plants, belonging to 222 genera, 75 families were recorded in 148 quadrats. A total of 36 dominant species were selected from the tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer by importance va-lues. Betula albosinensis, Betula platyphylla, Larix principis-rupprechtii, Pinus tabuliformis at the tree layer, Spiraea pubescens, Abelia biflora, Rosa bella, Corylus mandshurica at the shrub layer, Carex breviculmis, Deyeuxia arundinacea, Sanguisorba officinalis, Carex siderosticta at the herb la-yer had higher niche breadth, and these species had greater competitiveness and stronger environmental adaptability...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Christiane Schmautz, Maria Hillreiner, Ines Ballweg, Michael W Pfaffl, Heike Kliem
Cow milk products enriched with Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) specific IgA are possible alternative therapeutics against C. diff. associated diarrhea. A persistently high level of C. diff. specific IgA in mature milk triggered by continuous immunizations of dairy cows against C. diff. was hypothesized. Nine Brown Swiss cows were repeatedly vaccinated against C. diff. and divided into low responder (LR) and high responder (HR) cows, as measured by their production of anti-C. diff. specific IgA in milk (threshold: 8...
2018: PloS One
Ya Chen, Wan Qin Yang, Fu Zhong Wu, Fan Yang, Li Ying Lan, Yu Wei Liu, Cai Hong Guo, Bo Tan
In order to understand the diversity of soil nematodes in the subalpine/alpine forests of the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, soil nematodes in the primary forest, mixed forest and secondary forest of Abies faxoniana were extracted by elutriation and sugar-centrifugation method in July 2015, and the composition and structure characteristics of soil nematode communities were studied in the three forests at different altitudes. A total of 37950 soil nematodes were collected, which belonged to 20 families and 27 genera, and the mean density was 4217 ind·100 g-1 dry soil...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yukinobu Akamatsu, Shota Morishita, Ryo Okamoto, Kensaku Okada, Tsuyoshi Kitaura, Naomi Miyake, Kosuke Yamaguchi, Masaki Nakamoto, Hisashi Shimohiro, Miyako Takata, Akira Yamasaki, Naoto Burioka, Eiji Shimizu
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a challenging nosocomial infectious disease. C. DIFF Quik Chek Complete assay is widely used to detect glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A/B of C. difficile simultaneously. However, the interpretation of GDH positive/toxin negative results is problematic. We performed a retrospective study of patients with GDH positive/toxin negative results to determine the probability of detecting toxigenic C. difficile and its risk factors. Between April 2012 and March 2017, we investigated cultures of fecal specimens followed by toxin detection tests...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Emily J Gomez, Sandra Montgomery, Kevin Alby, Diana P Robinson, Sylvester S Roundtree, Deborah Blecker-Shelly, Kaede V Sullivan
We compared the performance of algorithmic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis with four molecular tests in children. Stool samples in patients 1-18 years old were tested with an algorithm (C. Diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) reflexed to illumigene C. difficile); AmpliVue C. difficile (ACD); Lyra Direct C. difficile (Lyra); BD MAX C diff (BDM); and Xpert C. difficile (XCD). The gold standard was positivity by two tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85%, 99%, 93%, 97% for the algorithm; 21%, 99%, 78%, 87% for QCC's toxin component; 94%, 99%, 94%, 99% for ACD; 88%, 99%, 94%, 98% for Lyra; 94%, 100%, 100%, 99% for BDM, and 94%, 99%, 94% and 99% for XCD...
February 25, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Shelley Johnson
A successful collaboration between clinical nurse leaders and clinical nurse specialists.
March 2018: Nursing Management
James A Karlowsky, Heather J Adam, Tyler Kosowan, Melanie R Baxter, Kim A Nichol, Nancy M Laing, George Golding, George G Zhanel
Clostridium difficile toxin-positive diarrheal stool specimens submitted to eight Canadian hospital laboratories from 2013 to 2015 were cultured. Polymerase chain reaction ribotyping of isolates was performed using an internationally standardized, high-resolution capillary gel-based electrophoresis protocol and antimicrobial susceptibility testing conducted by CLSI-defined agar dilution (M11-A8, 2012). Among the 1310 isolates of C. difficile cultured, 141 different ribotypes were identified; the most common ribotypes were 027 (24...
January 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Michael C Abt
Outbreaks of hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile began to be reported in healthcare facilities worldwide around 20 years ago. Concurrently, trehalose became a common additive used by the global food industry. A new study provides evidence that these two observations are a linked phenomenon (Collins et al., 2018).
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Mariyana V Stoycheva, Nikolay T Vatev, Vania B Georgieva, Antonina P Dineva, Maria V Atanasova, Tatiana A Popova
BACKGROUND: The introduction of complex antiretroviral therapy has resulted in signifi cant decrease in the mortality rate of HIV positive patients, but it still remains unacceptably high, especially in some groups of patients. AIM: To investigate the death rate in patients with HIV/AIDS, lethality and mortality in co-infection, and the most common causes and predictors of fatal outcome, focused on early diagnosis and appropriate therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 53 deceased patients with HIV/AIDS, monitored at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in St George University Hospital, Plovdiv between 01...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
Raina G Ardasheva, Mariana D Argirova, Valentin I Turiiski, Athanas D Krustev
BACKGROUND: Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) causes tissue ischemia, subsequent hypoxia, and impairment of normal tissue metabolism. Elevation of IAP above 20 mmHg leads to progression of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) that is associated with organ dysfunction or failure not previously manifested. AIM: To evaluate the eff ects of diff erent grades and time of exposure to IAP on biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in organs aff ected by ischemia using previously developed rat model...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
Rebecca E Thomas, Shripada C Rao, Corrado Minutillo, Bruce Hullett, Max K Bulsara
BACKGROUND: Cuffed endotracheal tubes are being increasingly used in infants; however, current evidence in the literature mostly includes infants ≥ 3-kg weight. AIMS: The aim of this observational study was to compare the short-term outcomes with the use of Microcuff® cuffed vs uncuffed endotracheal tubes in neonates < 3 kg. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in a single-centre, tertiary children's hospital neonatal intensive care unit...
March 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Katherine J Cotter, Yunhua Fan, Gretchen K Sieger, Christopher J Weight, Badrinath R Konety
Background and Objectives: Clostridium Difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. This study evaluates the prevalence and predictors of Clostridium Difficile infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients undergoing cystectomy and urinary diversion at a single institution from 2011-2017. Infection was documented in all cases with testing for Clostridium Difficile polymerase chain reaction toxin B...
October 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
Daniela Vaustat, Raquel Rollet
Clostridioides difficile is the main etiological agent of diarrhea associated with health care, it produces toxins and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), an enzyme that is highly conserved in this species. Rapid diagnosis and effective treatment produce prompt improvement of the patient and subsequent control of the microorganism spread. There are several techniques whose results are interpreted in the context of algorithms. However, the optimal diagnostic method is yet unknown. The performance of GDH as a screening test for the diagnosis of C...
November 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Seema Mutti-Packer, David C Hodgins, Robert J Williams, Barna Konkolÿ Thege
BACKGROUND: Little research has examined the potential protective influence of religiosity against problem gambling; a common addictive behavior, and one with a host of associated negative health and social outcomes. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the potential longitudinal association between religiosity and problem gambling among adults and (2) the potential moderating role of gender on this association. METHODS: Data were from five waves of the Quinte Longitudinal Study (QLS), between 2006 and 2010...
November 6, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Seung-Joo Kwon, Yoon-Hee Kim, Hyun-Hee Oh, Ul-Soo Choi
This report describes a dog infected with Hepatozoon canis, the first canine infection in the Republic of Korea. A 2-year-old intact male Maltese dog presented with anorexia and depression. Physical examinations revealed mild dehydration and hyperthermia (39.8°C), and blood analysis showed pancytopenia. Diff-Quik staining of blood smear specimens showed the presence of ellipsoidal shaped structures (gamonts of H. canis) within a small number of neutrophils. Real-time PCR analysis using whole blood confirmed infection by H...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
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