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Fear immune system

Abu Musa Md Talimur Reza, Yun-Jung Choi, Jin-Hoi Kim
The Rag2 knockout (KO) mouse is a well-established immune-compromised animal model for biomedical research. A comparative study identified the deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in Rag2 KO mice. However, the interaction between deregulated genes and miRNAs in the alteration of systemic (cardiac, renal, hepatic, nervous, and hematopoietic) regulations and the synthesis of biomolecules (such as l-tryptophan, serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, alcohol, noradrenaline, putrescine, and acetate) are unclear...
February 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Isadora C Furigo, Helen M Melo, Natalia M Lyra E Silva, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Frederick Wasinski, Eliana R Lima, Eliza Higuti, Cibele N Peroni, Paolo Bartolini, Carlos R J Soares, Martin Metzger, Fernanda G de Felice, Jose Donato
The signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is a transcription factor recruited by numerous cytokines. STAT5 is important for several physiological functions, including body and tissue growth, mammary gland development, immune system and lipid metabolism. However, the role of STAT5 signaling for brain functions is still poorly investigated, especially regarding cognitive aspects. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate whether brain STAT5 signaling modulates learning and memory formation...
February 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Aritz Lasarte-Cia, Teresa Lozano, Marta Pérez-González, Marta Gorraiz, Kristina Iribarren, Sandra Hervás-Stubbs, Pablo Sarobe, Obdulia Rabal, Mar Cuadrado-Tejedor, Ana García-Osta, Noelia Casares, Juan José Lasarte
A complex network of interactions exists between the immune, the olfactory, and the central nervous system (CNS). Inhalation of different fragrances can affect immunological reactions in response to an antigen but also may have effects on the CNS and cognitive activity. We performed an exploratory study of the immunomodulatory ability of a series of compounds representing each of the 10 odor categories or clusters described previously. We evaluated the impact of each particular odor on the immune response after immunization with the model antigen ovalbumin in combination with the TLR3 agonist poly I:C...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
P V Jeurink, K Knipping, F Wiens, K Barańska, B Stahl, J Garssen, B Krolak-Olejnik
Latest forecasts predict that half of the European population will be allergic within the coming 15 years, with food allergies contributing substantially to the total burden; preventive measures are urgently needed. Unfortunately, all attempted alimentary strategies for primary prevention of allergic diseases through allergen avoidance so far have failed. This also holds true for the prevention of food allergies in breastfed infants by the common practice of excluding certain foods with allergenic potential from the maternal diet...
February 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Frank Birklein, Violeta Dimova
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was described for the first time in the 19th century by Silas Weir Mitchell. After the exclusion of other causes, CRPS is characterised by a typical clinical constellation of pain, sensory, autonomic, motor, or trophic symptoms which can no longer be explained by the initial trauma. These symptoms spread distally and are not limited to innervation territories. If CRPS is not improved in the acute phase and becomes chronic, the visible symptoms change throughout because of the changing pathophysiology; the pain, however, remains...
November 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Abdul Wadood, Alam Jamal, Muhammad Riaz, Ajmal Khan, Reaz Uddin, Musharraf Jelani, Syed Sikander Azam
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium. Humans are the major target for the pneumococcus. The pneumococcus is a common etiological agent of many different diseases such as bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media (OM), sinusitis, and conjunctivitis. According to the WHO, the pneumococcus is responsible for causing 1 million deaths each year. In 2000, over 14 million children worldwide under the age of 5 years were diagnosed with a pneumococcal disease, with the highest incidence seen in Africa...
December 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Bojana Zupan, Bingfang Liu, Faten Taki, Judit Gal Toth, Miklos Toth
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that not only coordinates local and systemic immune responses [1, 2] but also regulates neuronal functions. Most prominently, glia-derived TNF-α has been shown to regulate homeostatic synaptic scaling [3-6], but TNF-α-null mice exhibited no apparent cognitive or emotional abnormalities. Instead, we found a TNF-α-dependent intergenerational effect, as mothers with a deficit in TNF-α programmed their offspring to exhibit low innate fear. Cross-fostering and conditional knockout experiments indicated that a TNF-α deficit in the maternal brain, rather than in the hematopoietic system, and during gestation was responsible for the low-fear offspring phenotype...
December 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Thomas G O'Connor, Kristin Scheible, Ana Vallejo Sefair, Michelle Gilchrist, Emma Robertson Blackmore, Marcia A Winter, Megan R Gunnar, Claire Wyman, Jennifer Carnahan, Jan A Moynihan, Mary T Caserta
There is now a clear focus on incorporating, and integrating, multiple levels of analysis in developmental science. The current study adds to research in this area by including markers of the immune and neuroendocrine systems in a longitudinal study of temperament in infants. Observational and parent-reported ratings of infant temperament, serum markers of the innate immune system, and cortisol reactivity from repeated salivary collections were examined in a sample of 123 infants who were assessed at 6 months and again when they were, on average, 17 months old...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
Michio Miyajima, Baihao Zhang, Yuki Sugiura, Kazuhiro Sonomura, Matteo M Guerrini, Yumi Tsutsui, Mikako Maruya, Alexis Vogelzang, Kenji Chamoto, Kurara Honda, Takatoshi Hikida, Satomi Ito, Hongyan Qin, Rikako Sanuki, Keiichiro Suzuki, Takahisa Furukawa, Yasushi Ishihama, Fumihiko Matsuda, Makoto Suematsu, Tasuku Honjo, Sidonia Fagarasan
T cells reorganize their metabolic profiles after being activated, but the systemic metabolic effect of sustained activation of the immune system has remained unexplored. Here we report that augmented T cell responses in Pdcd1-/- mice, which lack the inhibitory receptor PD-1, induced a metabolic serum signature characterized by depletion of amino acids. We found that the depletion of amino acids in serum was due to the accumulation of amino acids in activated Pdcd1-/- T cells in the lymph nodes. A systemic decrease in tryptophan and tyrosine led to substantial deficiency in the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine in the brain, which resulted in behavioral changes dominated by anxiety-like behavior and exacerbated fear responses...
December 2017: Nature Immunology
Inga Schubert, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Andrew Winter, Lauren Vollmer, Ian Lewkowich, Renu Sah
Mounting evidence supports immune dysfunction in psychiatric conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The association of immunomodulatory mechanisms with PTSD-relevant behavior and physiology is not well understood. Communication between neurons and microglia, resident immune cells of the central nervous system, is crucial for optimal regulation of behavior and physiology. In this regard, the fractalkine CX3CL1, secreted from neurons and its target, the microglial CX3CR1 receptor represent a primary neuron-microglia inter-regulatory system important for synaptic plasticity and function...
September 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yong Li, Jimok Kim
The effects of cannabinoids are primarily mediated by type-1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain and type-2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2Rs) in the peripheral immune system. However, recent evidence demonstrates that CB2Rs are also expressed in the brain and implicated in neuropsychiatric effects. Diverse types of cells in various regions in the brain express CB2Rs but the cellular loci of CB2Rs that induce specific behavioral effects have not been determined. To manipulate CB2R expression in specific types of cells in the dorsal hippocampus of adult mice, we used Cre-dependent overexpression and CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing techniques in combination with adeno-associated viruses and transgenic mice...
November 5, 2017: Neuroscience
Farshad Ghazanfari, Zulfikar Jabbar, Johannes Nossent
BACKGROUND: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a feared complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal biopsy is valuable to assess disease severity and prognosis, but no histological data are available for Indigenous Australians (IA). We compared histopathology between IA and non-IA patients (NI) with LN in northern Australia and describe main outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all patients with biopsy evidence of LN at Royal Darwin Hospital over a 10-year period...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Jeffrey L Ebersole, Dolph Dawson, Pinar Emecen-Huja, Radhakrishnan Nagarajan, Katherine Howard, Martha E Grady, Katherine Thompson, Rebecca Peyyala, Ahmad Al-Attar, Kathryn Lethbridge, Sreenatha Kirakodu, Octavio A Gonzalez
Maintenance of periodontal health or transition to a periodontal lesion reflects the continuous and ongoing battle between the vast microbial ecology in the oral cavity and the array of resident and emigrating inflammatory/immune cells in the periodontium. This war clearly signifies many 'battlefronts' representing the interface of the mucosal-surface cells with the dynamic biofilms composed of commensal and potential pathogenic species, as well as more recent knowledge demonstrating active invasion of cells and tissues of the periodontium leading to skirmishes in connective tissue, the locality of bone and even in the local vasculature...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
Stephen Koester, Shane R Mueller, Lisa Raville, Sig Langegger, Ingrid A Binswanger
BACKGROUND: Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) training for persons who inject drugs (PWID) underlines the importance of summoning emergency medical services (EMS). To encourage PWID to do so, Colorado enacted a Good Samaritan law providing limited immunity from prosecution for possession of a controlled substance and/or drug paraphernalia to the overdose victim and the witnesses who in good faith provide emergency assistance. This paper examines the law's influence by describing OEND trained PWIDs' experience reversing overdoses and their decision about calling for EMS support...
October 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Stephan Keusch, Alexander Turk, Stéphanie Saxer, Nicola Ehlken, Ekkehard Grunig, Silvia Ulrich, On Behalf Of The Swiss Society Of Pulmonary Hypertension
Exertional dyspnoea is a leading symptom in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Patients suffering from PAH report poor quality of life, have skeletal muscle dysfunction and in the absence of advanced medical therapy deteriorate progressively due to right heart failure which can lead to death. For decades, patients with PAH were advised to avoid exercise in fear of exacerbated right heart failure. Recently, it has been shown that a highly supervised rehabilitation programme in expert centres leads to significant improvements in symptoms, quality of life, exercise capacity and may even enhance haemodynamics in selected stable patients treated with advanced regimens of PAH-targeted drugs...
July 11, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Edmund K Moon, Corey J Langer, Steven M Albelda
Despite recent advances with targeted kinase inhibitors and better-tolerated chemotherapy, the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer remains suboptimal. One recent advance that holds great promise is immunotherapy-an approach that enhances a patient's immune system to better recognize and react to abnormal cells. The most successful immunotherapeutic strategy to date uses antibodies to block inhibitory receptors (also called "checkpoints") that are up-regulated on the T cells that infiltrate the tumor...
August 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Paolo Bonanni, Beatrice Zanella, Francesca Santomauro, Chiara Lorini, Angela Bechini, Sara Boccalini
Vaccines stimulate a person's immune system to produce an adequate reaction against a specific infectious agent; i.e. the person is protected from that disease without having to get it first. As vaccines are administrated to healthy subjects, they are held to the highest standards of safety. Regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, at present three prophylactic vaccines are licensed (bivalent HPV 16/18, quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 and the nonovalent HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine). Pre- and post-licensure studies (i...
June 10, 2017: Vaccine
Wegene Borena, Tamara Hofer, Karin Stiasny, Stephan W Aberle, Manfred Gaber, Dorothee von Laer, Harald Schennach
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that Zika virus can infect and be transmitted by A. albopictus. The World Health organization (WHO) has raised concerns of autochthonous transmission of the virus in regions where the vector is endemic. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the occurrence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in western Austria (Tyrol) especially after a history of travel to A. albopictus endemic regions. METHODS: The study participants were healthy blood donors at randomly selected donation sites in the west Austrian region Tyrol...
2017: PloS One
Yi-Ling Liu, Wei-Ting Chen, Yu-Yi Lin, Po-Hung Lu, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Irene Han-Juo Cheng
BACKGROUND: Microglia mediate amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation, which is one of the key events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3)/TNFRSF6B is a pleiotropic immunomodulator that promotes macrophage differentiation toward the M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. Based on its role as an immunosupressor, we examined whether DcR3 could alleviate neuroinflammation and AD-like deficits in the central nervous system. METHOD: We crossed human APP transgenic mice (line J20) with human DcR3 transgenic mice to generate wild-type, APP, DcR3, and APP/DcR3 mice for pathological analysis...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Ian C G Weaver, Austin C Korgan, Kristen Lee, Ryan V Wheeler, Amos S Hundert, Donna Goguen
The influence of early life experience and degree of parental-infant attachment on emotional development in children and adolescents has been comprehensively studied. Structural and mechanistic insight into the biological foundation and maintenance of mammalian defensive systems (metabolic, immune, nervous and behavioral) is slowly advancing through the emerging field of developmental molecular (epi)genetics. Initial evidence revealed that differential nurture early in life generates stable differences in offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation, in part, through chromatin remodeling and changes in DNA methylation of specific genes expressed in the brain, revealing physical, biochemical and molecular paths for the epidemiological concept of gene-environment interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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