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Fear immune system

V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
November 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Janine M Duke, Sean M Randall, Mark W Fear, James H Boyd, Suzanne Rea, Fiona M Wood
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The systemic responses triggered by burns and resuscitative measures may cause pulmonary damage and edema in the acute phase. These effects may occur in the absence of inhalation injury. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the recovery of the respiratory system postburn. This study aimed to examine 10-year hospital service use for respiratory morbidity in children with cutaneous burns and no smoke inhalation injury. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study with 10-year follow-up using linked hospital and death from Western Australia for children <5 years when hospitalized for a first burn injury (n = 5290) between 1980 and 2012 and a frequency matched noninjury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations (n = 27 061)...
September 23, 2016: Pediatrics
Asma A Abahussin, Ahmed I Albarrak
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood vaccine-preventable diseases can be significantly reduced through adherence to confirmed vaccination schedules. However, many barriers to vaccination compliance exist, including a lack of awareness regarding the importance of vaccines, missing due dates, and fear of complications from vaccinations. The aim of this study is to review the existing tools and publications regarding vaccination adherence, and to propose a design for a vaccination adherence application (app) for smartphones...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Lyndon J Zass, Stephanie A Hart, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings, Stefanie Malan-Müller
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that only occurs in the aftermath of traumatic event exposure and is characterized by an impaired stress response and chronic, low-grade inflammation. Dysregulation of the immune system may contribute towards central nervous system tissue damage and exacerbation of fear memories following trauma. Patients with PTSD often have comorbid psychiatric and somatic disorders that are of themselves associated with heightened inflammation. Several immune-related genes have been associated with PTSD and other co-occurring disorders...
September 15, 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
Pei-Jung Wu, Hsin-Yu Liu, Tzyy-Nan Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh
Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carine Weiss, Daniel Schröpfer, Sonja Merten
BACKGROUND: Despite the successes of routine national childhood vaccination programmes, measles remains a public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how patterns of parental attitudes are linked to the decision-making process for or against MMR vaccination. This exploratory study was designed to identify distinct patterns of attitudes towards or against measles vaccination through Latent Class Analysis (LCA) in a sub-sample of mothers living in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Qiang Bi, Lijuan Shi, Pingting Yang, Jianing Wang, Ling Qin
BACKGROUND: Extinction of conditioned fear is an important brain function for animals to adapt to a new environment. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cytokines are involved in the pathology of psychotic disorders. However, the involvement of cytokines in fear dysregulation remains less investigated. In the present study, we investigated how interferon (IFN)-α disrupts the extinction of conditioned fear and propose an approach to rescue IFN-α-induced neurologic impairment...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Lijuan Shi, Qiang Bi, Wai Li, Ling Qin, Pingting Yang
OBJECTIVE: Chemokines, such as CXCL12, are signaling molecules playing an important role in immune regulations. Chemokine upsurge has also been associated with neuroinflammatory conditions characterized with cognitive impairments. Recently, some in-vitro data suggests that CXCL12 is a potential neuromodulator and interacts with GABAergic system, but, so far, whether these effects translate into alterations in neural and behavioral functions has not been investigated. METHODS: In the present study, we used auditory fear conditioning as a model to define the contribution of CXCL12/CXCR4 on fear-related cognitive disorders...
September 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ting Chen, Chang Chen, Zongze Zhang, Yufeng Zou, Mian Peng, Yanlin Wang
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in the innate immune system, and increasing evidence supports its role in inflammation, stress, and tissue injury, including injury to the lung and brain. We aimed to investigate the effects of TLR4 on neuroinflammation due to the lung-brain interaction in mechanically ventilated mice. Male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and TLR4 knockout (TLR4 KO) mice were divided into three groups: (1) control group (C): spontaneous breathing; (2) anesthesia group (A): spontaneous breathing under anesthesia; and (3) mechanical ventilation group (MV): 6h of MV under anesthesia...
August 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Eva A Malt, Katalin Juhasz, Ulrik F Malt, Thomas Naumann
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder with diverse mental and somatic symptoms. The molecular mechanisms leading from genes to disease pathology in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have shown that common single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with specific diseases are enriched in the recognition sequences of transcription factors that regulate physiological processes relevant to the disease. We have used a "bottom-up" approach and tracked a developmental trajectory from embryology to physiological processes and behavior and recognized that the transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1) possesses properties of particular interest for schizophrenia...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yuchen Fan, James J Moon
Bioterrorism agents that can be easily transmitted with high mortality rates and cause debilitating diseases pose major threats to national security and public health. The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa and ongoing Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, now spreading throughout Latin America, are case examples of emerging infectious pathogens that have incited widespread fear and economic and social disruption on a global scale. Prophylactic vaccines would provide effective countermeasures against infectious pathogens and biological warfare agents...
April 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Monica Betta, Marco Laurino, Andrea Pugliese, Giorgio Guzzetta, Alberto Landi, Piero Manfredi
Herpes zoster arises from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), causing varicella in children. As reactivation occurs when cell-mediated immunity (CMI) declines, and there is evidence that re-exposure to VZV boosts CMI, mass varicella immunization might increase the zoster burden, at least for some decades. Fear of this natural zoster boom is the main reason for the paralysis of varicella immunization in Europe. We apply optimal control to a realistically parametrized age-structured model for VZV transmission and reactivation to investigate whether feasible varicella immunization paths that are optimal in controlling both varicella and zoster exist...
March 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Joerg Bittenbring, Joerg Reichrath
Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the most feared adverse events of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In severe grades of GvHD patients die from infections due to impairment of their immune defense or therapy-refractory involvement of intestines, liver and lung. Extracorporeal photopheresis is an effective treatment for acute and chronic graft versus host disease without severe impairment of the recipient's immune system. It is generally better known for its effect on skin GvHD but all other manifestations of GvHD can respond as well...
March 2016: Anticancer Research
Chunlu Li, Yixiu Yan, Jingjing Cheng, Gang Xiao, Jueqing Gu, Luqi Zhang, Siyu Yuan, Junlu Wang, Yi Shen, Yu-Dong Zhou
Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces...
April 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Vanessa S Fear, Wee-Peng Poh, Samantha Valvis, Jason C Waithman, Bree Foley, Fiona M Wood, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: Burn excision has emerged as the dominant clinical paradigm in treatment of deep burns. Surgical intervention is common but the timing of wound excision is a balance between wound depth assessment, avoidance of infection and unnecessary intervention. However the physiological impact of timing of excision and consequences for the immune response are not well understood. METHODS: Mice were subject to full-thickness burn (<8% TBSA) followed by early (day 1) or late (day 8) surgical excision...
June 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Florence Faure
The immune system (IS) and the central nervous system (CNS) are complex cognitive networks involved in defining the identity (self) of the individual through recognition and memory processes that enable one to anticipate responses to stimuli. Brain memory has traditionally been classified as either implicit or explicit on psychological and anatomical grounds, with reminiscences of the evolutionarily-based innate-adaptive IS responses. Beyond the multineuronal networks of the CNS, we propose a theoretical model of brain memory integrating the CNS as a whole...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Akhilesh K Shakya, Mohammed Y E Chowdhury, Wenqian Tao, Harvinder S Gill
Most childhood infections occur via the mucosal surfaces, however, parenterally delivered vaccines are unable to induce protective immunity at these surfaces. In contrast, delivery of vaccines via the mucosal routes can allow antigens to interact with the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) to induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. The induced mucosal immunity can neutralize the pathogen on the mucosal surface before it can cause infection. In addition to reinforcing the defense at mucosal surfaces, mucosal vaccination is also expected to be needle-free, which can eliminate pain and the fear of vaccination...
February 6, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Yong Li, Jimok Kim
Neurocognitive effects of cannabinoids have been extensively studied with a focus on CB1 cannabinoid receptors because CB1 receptors have been considered the major cannabinoid receptor in the nervous system. However, recent discoveries of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain demand accurate determination of whether and how CB2 receptors are involved in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are primarily involved in immune functions, but also implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Giulia Bonato, Laura Cristoferi, Mario Strazzabosco, Luca Fabris
UNLABELLED: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology, primarily targeting cholangiocytes at any portion of the biliary tree. No effective medical treatments are currently available. A unique feature of PSC is its close association (about 80%) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly ulcerative colitis (UC). As in many chronic inflammatory conditions, cancer development can complicate PSC, accounting for >40% of deaths. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) have been variably associated to PSC, with a prevalence up to 13-14%...
2015: Digestive Diseases
Berit Taraldsen Valeberg, Christine Miaskowski, Steven M Paul, Tone Rustøen
BACKGROUND: Both cancer patients and their family caregivers (FCs) report concerns about pain and pain management. When dyads share appraisal of the illness context, they may experience better dyadic adjustment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare oncology outpatients' and their FCs' attitudes and concerns toward pain and pain management. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, outpatients with pain (n = 71) and their FCs completed the Barriers Questionnaire II, the Brief Pain Inventory, and information about demographic characteristics...
July 2016: Cancer Nursing
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