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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334508/practical-valvular-issues-in-patients-requiring-ventricular-assist-devices
#1
Mitesh Badiwala, Terrence Yau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy in patients with advanced heart failure continues to grow, experience with concomitant valvular diseases present either before or after VAD implantation continues to accrue. In this review, we discuss recent data and current practice as it pertains to the subject of concomitant valvular disease in patients requiring VADs. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent aortic valve closure has been identified as a potential contributor to aortic valve 'disuse atrophy' resulting in valve degeneration...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334498/evidence-based-interpretation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-pet-results-a-clinician-s-tool
#2
David Bergeron, Rik Ossenkoppele, Robert Jr Laforce
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β positron emission tomography (PET) allows for in vivo detection of fibrillar amyloid plaques, a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, amyloid-β PET interpretation is limited by the imperfect correlation between PET and autopsy, and the fact that it is positive in about 20% to 30% of cognitively normal individuals and non-AD dementias, especially when older or carrying the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4). When facing a positive amyloid PET, clinicians have to evaluate the probability of a pathologic false positive as well as the probability of amyloid positivity being age-related, comorbid to a primary non-AD dementia (clinicopathologic false positive)...
January 12, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333147/novel-filtration-markers-for-gfr-estimation
#3
Amy B Karger, Lesley A Inker, Josef Coresh, Andrew S Levey, John H Eckfeldt
Creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate estimation (eGFRcr) has been improved and refined since the 1970s through both the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in 1999 and the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation in 2009, with current clinical practice dependent primarily on eGFR for accurate assessment of GFR. However, researchers and clinicians have recognized limitations of relying on creatinine as the only filtration marker, which can lead to inaccurate GFR estimates in certain populations due to the influence of non-GFR determinants of serum or plasma creatinine...
December 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333006/rational-use-of-imaging-to-stage-breast-cancer-evidences-for-a-selective-approach
#4
S G D Gangadaran
Introduction: Staging investigations at diagnosis are customary to accurately assign a clinical stage before therapy. The practice of routine imaging in patients asymptomatic for metastasis is not recommended but widely adopted. This study was done to reexamine the basis behind guideline recommendations and to identify the factors predictive of asymptomatic metastasis. Methods: Oncology records of 200 breast cancer patients in clinical Stages I-III at diagnosis were prospectively reviewed...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332572/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-and-coronary-heart-disease
#5
Areti Sofogianni, Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
In the last decades, the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been the topic of intense research. Several markers of inflammation have shown predictive value for first and recurrent coronary events in patients without and with established coronary heart disease (CHD). Among these markers, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has recently received considerable attention. In the present review, the potential role of Lp-PLA2 as a marker of CHD risk and as a therapeutic target is discussed...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332133/fumarate-hydratase-fh-deficiency-in-uterine-leiomyomas-recognition-by-histological-features-versus-blind-immunoscreening
#6
Lisa Siegler, Ramona Erber, Stefanie Burghaus, Tobias Brodkorb, David Wachter, Nafisa Wilkinson, James Bolton, Helen Stringfellow, Florian Haller, Matthias W Beckmann, Arndt Hartmann, Abbas Agaimy
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Affected individuals develop cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and aggressive RCC. To date, only few publications described the frequency and morphology of FH-deficient uterine leiomyomas. We reviewed 22 cases collected over 8 years from routine and consultation files based on distinctive histological features. In addition, we screened 580 consecutive uterine leiomyomas from 484 patients, 23 extra-uterine and 8 uterine leiomyosarcomas, and 6 leiomyomas with bizarre nuclei for FH loss using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMAs)...
January 13, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331395/tyrosine-hydroxylase-as-a-sentinel-for-central-and-peripheral-tissue-responses-in-parkinson-s-progression-evidence-from-clinical-studies-and-neurotoxin-models
#7
REVIEW
M E Johnson, M F Salvatore, S A Maiolo, L Bobrovskaya
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. While the typical motor symptoms of PD are well known, the lesser known non-motor symptoms can also greatly impact the patient's quality of life. These symptoms often appear before motor impairment, therefore identifying biomarkers that may predict PD risk or pathology has been a major and challenging endeavour. Given that the loss of dopamine, and its rate-limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) occurs in PD, the expression and accompanying post-translational changes in TH during PD progression could yield insight into the disruption of cellular signalling occurring in the CNS, and also in peripheral tissues wherein catecholamine function plays a role...
January 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330892/ophthalmic-artery-doppler-prediction-of-preeclampsia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Erkan Kalafat, Ariana Laoreti, Asma Khalil, Fabricio Da Silva Costa, Basky Thilaganathan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of ophthalmic artery Doppler in pregnancy for the prediction of preeclampsia. METHODS: MEDLINE (1947-2017), EMBASE (1974-2017), CINAHL (inception-2017) and the Cochrane Library (inception-2017) were searched for relevant citations without language restrictions. Two reviewers independently selected studies that evaluated the accuracy of ophthalmic artery Doppler to predict the development of preeclampsia and performed data extraction to construct 2 × 2 tables...
January 12, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330781/a-review-of-the-methods-and-associated-mathematical-models-used-in-the-measurement-of-fat-free-mass
#9
REVIEW
Jaydeep Sinha, Stephen B Duffull, Hesham S Al-Sallami
Fat-free mass (FFM) represents the lean component of the body devoid of fat. It has been shown to be a useful predictor of drug dose requirements, particularly in obesity where the excess fat mass does not contribute to drug clearance. However, measuring FFM involves complex and/or expensive experimental methodologies that preclude their use in routine clinical practice. Thus, models to predict FFM from readily measurable variables, such as body weight and height, have been developed and are used in both population pharmacokinetic modelling and clinical practice...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330227/earlier-post-operative-hypocortisolemia-may-predict-durable-remission-from-cushing-s-disease
#10
Natasha Ironside, Gregoire Chatain, David Asuzu, Sarah Benzo, Maya Lodish, Susmeeta Sharma, Lynnette Nieman, Constantine Stratakis, Russell Lonser, Prashant Chittiboina
CONTEXT: Achievement of hypocortisolemia following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing's disease (CD) is associated with successful adenoma resection. However, up to one third of these patients recur. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether delay in reaching post-operative cortisol nadir may delineate those at risk of recurrence for CD following TSS. METHODS: A retrospective review of of 257 patients who received 291 TSS procedures for CD at NIH, between 2003 and 2016...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327781/treatment-with-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-patients-with-pyogenic-liver-abscess
#11
D Bettinger, D Martin, S Rieg, M Schultheiss, N Buettner, R Thimme, T Boettler
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are often used in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux and peptic ulcer disease. A higher risk for infectious diseases and for pyogenic liver abscess has been reported in patients with prolonged PPI intake. Although many patients have ongoing PPI treatment after diagnosis of liver abscess, there are no data available that focus on the prognostic impact of PPI treatment in these patients. AIM: To analyse the effect of PPI treatment on mortality in patients with pyogenic liver abscesses...
January 12, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327597/endothelial-cell-derived-microvesicles-potential-mediators-and-biomarkers-of-pathologic-processes
#12
Veronika Vítková, Jan Živný, Jan Janota
This review focuses on the formation, composition and function of endothelial microvesicles (MV), often called microparticles (MP). MV release is a controlled event and is considered a hallmark of cellular activation or alteration. MV may affect the function of target cells through surface interaction and receptor activation, cellular fusion and the delivery of intravesicular cargo. Endothelial MV are released as a consequence of endothelial activation during inflammation and have been described to affect hemostasis, various aspects of inflammatory reaction, vessel formation, apoptosis and cell survival, endothelial cell differentiation and function...
January 12, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326307/mycophenolate-mofetil-in-combination-with-steroids-for-treatment-of-c3-glomerulopathy-a-case-series
#13
Rupali S Avasare, Pietro A Canetta, Andrew S Bomback, Maddalena Marasa, Yasar Caliskan, Yasemin Ozluk, Yifu Li, Ali G Gharavi, Gerald B Appel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: C3 glomerulopathy is a form of complement-mediated GN. Immunosuppressive therapy may be beneficial in the treatment of C3 glomerulopathy. Mycophenolate mofetil is an attractive treatment option given its role in the treatment of other complement-mediated diseases and the results of the Spanish Group for the Study of Glomerular Diseases C3 Study. Here, we study the outcomes of patients with C3 glomerulopathy treated with steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in the C3 glomerulopathy registry at Columbia University and identified patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil for at least 3 months and follow-up for at least 1 year...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325739/anti-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-1-pd-1-pd-l1-antibodies-for-the-treatment-of-urothelial-carcinoma-state-of-the-art-and-future-development
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Powles, Andrea Necchi, Galit Rosen, Subramanian Hariharan, Andrea B Apolo
Immunotherapy with programmed cell death 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has expanded a previously limited pool of effective treatment options for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, particularly those with recurring or refractory disease and those who are ineligible for cisplatin. This review reports key findings from completed and ongoing clinical trials that highlight the potential of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in urothelial carcinoma. A literature search was performed of PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325682/computer-based-quantitative-computed-tomography-image-analysis-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-mini-review
#15
REVIEW
Hirotsugu Ohkubo, Hiroaki Nakagawa, Akio Niimi
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of progressive idiopathic interstitial pneumonia in adults. Many computer-based image analysis methods of chest computed tomography (CT) used in patients with IPF include the mean CT value of the whole lungs, density histogram analysis, density mask technique, and texture classification methods. Most of these methods offer good assessment of pulmonary functions, disease progression, and mortality. Each method has merits that can be used in clinical practice...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325580/the-predictive-prognostic-factors-for-polymyositis-dermatomyositis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease
#16
Yumiko Sugiyama, Ryusuke Yoshimi, Maasa Tamura, Mitsuhiro Takeno, Yosuke Kunishita, Daiga Kishimoto, Yuji Yoshioka, Kouji Kobayashi, Kaoru Takase-Minegishi, Toshiyuki Watanabe, Naoki Hamada, Hideto Nagai, Naomi Tsuchida, Yutaro Soejima, Hiroto Nakano, Reikou Kamiyama, Takeaki Uehara, Yohei Kirino, Akiko Sekiguchi, Atsushi Ihata, Shigeru Ohno, Shouhei Nagaoka, Hideaki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the principal cause of death in polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). Here we investigated prognostic factors for death and serious infection in PM/DM-ILD using the multicenter database. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with PM/DM-ILD. The distribution of ILD lesions was evaluated in four divided lung zones of high-resolution computed tomography images...
January 11, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325562/increased-epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-is-a-predictor-of-new-onset-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-treated-with-high-intensity-statins
#17
Jeehoon Kang, Young-Chan Kim, Jin Joo Park, Sehun Kim, Si-Hyuck Kang, Young Jin Cho, Yeonyee E Yoon, Il-Young Oh, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Jung-Won Suh, Young-Seok Cho, Tae-Jin Youn, In-Ho Chae, Dong-Ju Choi
BACKGROUND: Statins are widely used for lipid lowering in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but increasing evidence indicates an association between statin use and new-onset of diabetes mellitus (NODM). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) refers to the visceral fat surrounding the heart, which is associated with metabolic diseases. We sought to determine the association between EAT thickness and NODM in CAD patients treated with high-intensity statins. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical record review of CAD patients treated with high-intensity statins for at least 6 months after percutaneous coronary intervention performed between January 2009 and June 2013 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital...
January 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324312/the-hypoxia-responsive-long-non-coding-rnas-may-impact-on-the-tumor-biology-and-subsequent-management-of-breast-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Andrea Kapinova, Peter Kubatka, Pavol Zubor, Olga Golubnitschaja, Zuzana Dankova, Sona Uramova, Ivana Pilchova, Martin Caprnda, Radka Opatrilova, Jan Richnavsky, Peter Kruzliak, Jan Danko
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are DNA transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides without protein-coding potential. As they are key regulators of gene expression at chromatic, transcriptional and posttranscriptional level, they play important role in various biological and pathological processes. Dysregulation of lncRNAs has been observed in several diseases including cancer. Breast cancer is heterogeneous disease with many molecular subtypes specific in different prognosis and treatment responses. Hypoxia, a common micro-environmental feature of rapidly growing tumour is associated with metastases, recurrences and resistance to therapy...
January 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323987/care-bundles-in-the-management-of-a-copd-exacerbation
#19
Charlotte Lloyd, Joanne Garside
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the umbrella term used to describe chronic lung diseases that cause limitations in lung airflow, is predicted to be the third leading cause of death by 2030. COPD is said to affect 3 million people in the UK, resulting in approximately 30 000 deaths each year. Related healthcare costs continue to escalate, not least because of increasing readmission rates associated with COPD emergencies. The use of care bundles to streamline care is becoming more popular in an attempt to tackle this issue...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321845/failure-to-define-low-back-pain-as-a-disease-or-an-episode-renders-research-on-causality-unsuitable-results-of-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Emad M Ardakani, Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde, Bruce F Walker
Background: Causative factors may be different for the very first onset of symptoms of the 'disease' of low back pain (LBP) than for ensuing episodes that occur after a pain-free period. This differentiation hinges on a life-time absence of low back pain at first onset and short-term absence for further episodes. In this systematic review, we explored whether researchers make these distinctions when investigating the causality of LBP. Methods: A literature search of PUBMED, CINAHL, and SCOPUS databases was performed from January 2010 until September 2016 using the search terms 'low back pain' or 'back pain' and 'risk factor' or 'caus*' or 'predict*' or 'onset' or 'first-time' or 'inception' or 'incidence'...
2018: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
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