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Disease prediction review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792762/genetic-profiling-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-path-to-predicting-treatment-outcome
#1
Giuseppe Visani, Federica Loscocco, Alessandro Isidori, Pier Paolo Piccaluga
Despite substantial progresses in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) diagnosis and treatment, at least half of patient will eventually die for the disease. In the last decades, the use of genetic and genomic approaches allowed the identification of patients with higher risk of recurrence after and/or resistance to CHT. However, though many novel drugs have been proposed and tested, only little clinical improvements have been made concerning the treatment of the so called 'high risk' patients. Areas covered: In this article, the authors, based on their own experience and the most updated literature, review the basic knowledge of AML prognostication and treatment prediction developed throughout genetic and genomic profiling, and focus on the use of gene expression profiling as a promising predictive tool...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790177/mri-based-emvi-positivity-predicts-systemic-recurrence-in-rectal-cancer-patients-with-a-good-tumor-response-to-chemoradiotherapy-followed-by-surgery
#2
Min Soo Cho, Youn Young Park, Jiho Yoon, Seung Yoon Yang, Seung Hyuk Baik, Kang Young Lee, Ik Yong Kim, Nam Kyu Kim
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of baseline magnetic resonance imaging-based extramural vascular invasion status (EMVI) among rectal cancer patients with a good tumor response to standard chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. METHODS: A total of 359 patients with ypT0-2/N0 disease from The Yonsei Multicenter Colorectal Cancer Electronic Database were retrospectively included between January 2000 and December 2014. Magnetic resonance images and medical records were reviewed to investigate risk factors for tumor recurrence...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789686/the-personal-and-clinical-utility-of-polygenic-risk-scores
#3
REVIEW
Ali Torkamani, Nathan E Wineinger, Eric J Topol
Initial expectations for genome-wide association studies were high, as such studies promised to rapidly transform personalized medicine with individualized disease risk predictions, prevention strategies and treatments. Early findings, however, revealed a more complex genetic architecture than was anticipated for most common diseases - complexity that seemed to limit the immediate utility of these findings. As a result, the practice of utilizing the DNA of an individual to predict disease has been judged to provide little to no useful information...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789351/development-and-validation-of-two-clinical-prediction-models-to-inform-clinical-decision-making-for-lumbar-spinal-fusion-surgery-for-degenerative-disorders-and-rehabilitation-following-surgery-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Alison B Rushton, Martin L Verra, Andrew Emms, Nicola R Heneghan, Deborah Falla, Michael Reddington, Ashley A Cole, Paul Willems, Lorin Benneker, David Selvey, Michael Hutton, Martijn W Heymans, J Bart Staal
INTRODUCTION: Potential predictors of poor outcome will be measured at baseline: (1) preoperatively to develop a clinical prediction model to predict which patients are likely to have favourable outcome following lumbar spinal fusion surgery (LSFS) and (2) postoperatively to predict which patients are likely to have favourable long-term outcomes (to inform rehabilitation). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Prospective observational study with a defined episode inception of the point of surgery...
May 22, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789268/making-individual-prognoses-in-psychiatry-using-neuroimaging-and-machine-learning
#5
REVIEW
Ronald J Janssen, Janaina Mourão-Miranda, Hugo G Schnack
Psychiatric prognosis is a difficult problem. Making a prognosis requires looking far into the future, as opposed to making a diagnosis, which is concerned with the current state. During the follow-up period, many factors will influence the course of the disease. Combined with the usually scarcer longitudinal data and the variability in the definition of outcomes/transition, this makes prognostic predictions a challenging endeavor. Employing neuroimaging data in this endeavor introduces the additional hurdle of high dimensionality...
April 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788997/2d-versus-3d-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cultures-for-neurodegenerative-disease-modelling
#6
REVIEW
Eduarda G Z Centeno, Helena Cimarosti, Angela Bithell
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), affect millions of people every year and so far, there are no therapeutic cures available. Even though animal and histological models have been of great aid in understanding disease mechanisms and identifying possible therapeutic strategies, in order to find disease-modifying solutions there is still a critical need for systems that can provide more predictive and physiologically relevant results...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787740/conservative-management-following-clinical-complete-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-contemporary-outcomes-of-a-multi-institutional-cohort-study
#7
Patrick Mazza, George W Moran, Gen Li, Dennis J Robins, Justin T Matulay, Harry W Herr, Guarionex J Decastro, James M McKiernan, Christopher B Anderson
PURPOSE: We report the outcomes of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer from two institutions who experienced a clinical complete response to neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and opted for active surveillance. It is unknown if conservative management can be safely implemented in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients at Columbia University Medical Center and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who elected surveillance following a clinical complete response to transurethral resection of bladder tumors and neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 2001-2017...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787730/plant-pathogen-warfare-under-changing-climate-conditions
#8
REVIEW
André C Velásquez, Christian Danve M Castroverde, Sheng Yang He
Global environmental changes caused by natural and human activities have accelerated in the past 200 years. The increase in greenhouse gases is predicted to continue to raise global temperature and change water availability in the 21st century. In this Review, we explore the profound effect the environment has on plant diseases - a susceptible host will not be infected by a virulent pathogen if the environmental conditions are not conducive for disease. The change in CO2 concentrations, temperature, and water availability can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on disease development, as each disease may respond differently to these variations...
May 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787498/the-value-of-modified-renal-rim-grade-in-predicting-acute-kidney-injury-following-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#9
Yi Wang, Li-Kun Cao, Yi Wei, Bin Song
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively determine the value of modified renal rim grade (MRRG) in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) in the early phase of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: This institutional review board-approved retrospective study included patients with SAP who underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) within 48 hours after disease onset. Modified renal rim grade, renal rim grade, CT severity index, modified CT severity index, extrapancreatic inflammation on CT scores, and posterior pararenal (PPR) space involvement were assessed...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786691/prognosis-and-nomogram-for-predicting-postoperative-survival-of-duodenal-adenocarcinoma-a-retrospective-study-in-china-and-the-seer-database
#10
Sujing Jiang, Rongjie Zhao, Yiran Li, Xufeng Han, Zhen Liu, Weiting Ge, Ying Dong, Weidong Han
As primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is rare, the prognostic factors of this disease remain insufficiently explored, especially in China. We identified postoperative duodenal adenocarcinoma patients at a Chinese double-center (from 2006 to 2016) or who were registered with the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (from 2004 to 2014). Clinicopathological features and significant prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival (CSS) were reviewed and analyzed by using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786487/diffusion-weighted-mri-is-superior-to-pet-ct-in-predicting-survival-of-patients-undergoing-90-y-radioembolization-of-hepatic-metastases
#11
Alexandra Barabasch, Alexander Heinzel, Philipp Bruners, Nils A Kraemer, Christiane K Kuhl
Purpose To determine the relationship between diffusion-weighted (DW) liver MR images obtained 4-6 weeks after lobar yttrium 90 (90 Y) treatment and overall survival in comparison with PET/CT or established oncologic factors known to affect survival. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this prospective intraindividual comparative study in 36 consecutive patients (25 women) with liver-dominant metastases (20 colorectal, 14 breast, two other) (mean age, 60 years ± 10 [standard deviation]) who underwent fluorine 18 (18 F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT and DW MRI before and 4-6 weeks after 90 Y radioembolization...
May 21, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786482/human-epidermal-growth-factor-2-positive-breast-cancer-with-mammographic-microcalcification-relationship-to-pathologic-complete-response-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#12
Fayyaz A K Mazari, Nisha Sharma, David Dodwell, Kieran Horgan
Purpose To determine the relationship between the presence or absence of mammographic calcifications in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers and pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to determine other tumor and clinical characteristics that may be predictive of such a response. Materials and Methods A database of all patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 2007 and 2015 was retrospectively reviewed...
May 16, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786131/ca19-9-on-postoperative-surveillance-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-predicting-recurrence-and-changing-prognosis-over-time
#13
Caroline J Rieser, Mazen Zenati, Ahmad Hamad, Amr I Al Abbas, Nathan Bahary, Amer H Zureikat, Herbert J Zeh, Melissa E Hogg
BACKGROUND: Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) correlates with response to therapy and overall survival (OS) for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study aimed to define the chronologic relationship between CA19-9 elevation and radiographic recurrence to develop a model that can predict the risk of recurrence (RFS) and prognosis during interval surveillance for patients with resected PDAC. METHODS: A retrospective review examined patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic adenocarcinoma from January 2010 to May 2016...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785933/a-comparison-of-peripheral-imaging-technologies-for-bone-and-muscle-quantification-a-review-of-segmentation-techniques
#14
REVIEW
Andy Kin On Wong, Sarah Lynn Manske
Musculoskeletal science has developed many overlapping branches, necessitating specialists from 1 area of focus to often require the expertise in others. In terms of imaging, this means obtaining a comprehensive illustration of bone, muscle, and fat tissues. There is currently a lack of a reliable resource for end users to learn about these tissues' imaging and quantification techniques together. An improved understanding of these tissues has been an important progression toward better prediction of disease outcomes and better elucidation of their interaction with frailty, aging, and metabolic disorders...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785491/follow-up-of-negative-mri-targeted-prostate-biopsies-when-are-we-missing-cancer
#15
Samuel A Gold, Graham R Hale, Jonathan B Bloom, Clayton P Smith, Kareem N Rayn, Vladimir Valera, Bradford J Wood, Peter L Choyke, Baris Turkbey, Peter A Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has improved clinicians' ability to detect clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). Combining or fusing these images with the real-time imaging of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) allows urologists to better sample lesions with a targeted biopsy (Tbx) leading to the detection of greater rates of csPCa and decreased rates of low-risk PCa. In this review, we evaluate the technical aspects of the mpMRI-guided Tbx procedure to identify possible sources of error and provide clinical context to a negative Tbx...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784840/oxidative-stress-and-first-line-antituberculosis-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity
#16
Wing Wai Yew, Kwok Chiu Chang, Denise P Chan
Hepatotoxicity induced by antituberculosis drugs is a serious adverse reaction with significant morbidity and even rarely mortality. This form of toxicity potentially impacts the treatment outcome of tuberculosis in some patients. Confining to first-line antituberculosis drugs, this review addresses whether and how oxidative stress, and more broadly, disturbance in redox homeostasis alongside mitochondrial dysfunction, may contribute to the hepatotoxicity induced by them. Risk factors for such toxicity that have been identified, in addition to genetic factors, principally include old age, malnutrition, alcoholism, chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B infection, HIV infection and pre-existing liver disease...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784249/multiple-sclerosis-biomarkers-helping-the-diagnosis
#18
REVIEW
E Thouvenot
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex heterogeneous disease. Diagnostic criteria are based on symptoms, biomarkers, MRI data and exclusion of differential diagnoses. Over the past few years, the usefulness of biomarkers has progressively decreased with the development of new MRI criteria, yet dozens of new biomarkers, especially in cerebrospinal fluid, for MS diagnosis and prognosis have been described. Large-scale studies validating some of these new biomarkers have also provided confirmation of a restricted set of biomarkers (presented here in this review) as having potential value for different stages of the disease, including as early as clinically isolated syndrome and radiologically isolated syndrome...
May 18, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783966/perceptions-and-attitudes-toward-performing-risk-assessment-for-periodontal-disease-a-focus-group-exploration
#19
Thankam Thyvalikakath, Mei Song, Titus Schleyer
BACKGROUND: Currently, many risk assessment tools are available for clinicians to assess a patient's periodontal disease risk. Numerous studies demonstrate the potential of these tools to promote preventive management and reduce morbidity due to periodontal disease. Despite these promising results, solo and small group dental practices, where most people receive care, have not adopted risk assessment tools widely, primarily due to lack of studies in these settings. The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of dental providers in these settings toward risk-based care through focus groups...
May 21, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783691/old-and-young-actors-playing-novel-roles-in-the-drama-of-multiple-myeloma-bone-marrow-microenvironment-dependent-drug-resistance
#20
REVIEW
Sabrina Manni, Marilena Carrino, Gianpietro Semenzato, Francesco Piazza
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most frequent hematologic cancer. In addition to the deleterious effects of neoplastic plasma cell growth and spreading during the disease evolution, this tumor is characterized by the serious pathological consequences due to the massive secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins and by the derangement of bone physiology with progressive weakening of the skeleton. Despite significant progresses having been made in the last two decades in the therapeutic management of this plasma cell tumor, MM remains invariably lethal, due to its extremely complex genetic architecture and to the constant protection it receives from the tumor niche, which is represented by the bone marrow microenvironment...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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