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Disease prediction review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911103/tools-for-outcome-prediction-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
Faheem Khan, Mark B Owens, Marcos Restrepo, Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common causes of mortality world-wide. The mortality rate of patients with CAP is influenced by the severity of the disease, treatment failure and the requirement for hospitalization and/or intensive care unit (ICU) management, all of which may be predicted by biomarkers and clinical scoring systems. Areas Covered: We review the recent literature examining the efficacy of established and newly-developed clinical scores, biological and inflammatory markers such as C-Reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6), whether used alone or in conjunction with clinical severity scores to assess the severity of CAP, predict treatment failure, guide acute in-hospital or ICU admission and predict mortality...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910075/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-are-any-of-the-morphological-molecular-markers-useful-in-clinical-management
#2
REVIEW
Francesca Lunardi, Elisabetta Balestro, Nazarena Nannini, Stefania Edith Vuljan, Federico Rea, Fiorella Calabrese
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common form of chronic interstitial lung disease, is a severe progressive fibrotic disorder of unknown aetiology. The disease has a heterogeneous clinical course, with frequent poor prognosis, similar to malignant disease. Correctly diagnosing IPF has become particularly important in view of the availability of more precise therapeutic indications, thus avoiding steroid treatment and allowing new approaches with novel drugs. To date we have limited information about biomarkers predictive of progressive disease and associated complications...
December 2, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909934/current-achievements-and-future-perspectives-of-metronomic-chemotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Adriana Romiti, Rosa Falcone, Michela Roberto, Paolo Marchetti
In recent years, many anticancer drugs have been tested at metronomic dosages for a variety of tumours. Mechanisms of action attributed to metronomic chemotherapy (MCT) include antiangiogenesis, immunomodulation, direct inhibition of tumour growth, effect on tumour initiating cells and the modulation of clonal evolution. An active clinical research, aimed at testing MCT in several cancers, has been conducted over the past 15 years. However, because the majority of available results come from earlier phase II studies, mainly performed in the area of breast cancer (BC), it is clear that there are areas still to be investigated...
December 1, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909796/-clinical-morphological-and-molecular-biological-characteristics-of-the-aging-eye
#4
M R R Böhm, H Thomasen, F Parnitzke, K-P Steuhl
BACKGROUND: The physiological aging of the eye is associated with loss of visual function. Age-related changes of the eye can result in ophthalmological diseases. The aim of this article is to display morphological, histological and molecular biological alterations of the aging eye. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A web-based search and review of the literature for aging of the visual system including cornea, lens, vitreous humor, retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroidea and optic nerve were carried out...
December 1, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909650/pbpk-modeling-and-simulation-in-drug-research-and-development
#5
REVIEW
Xiaomei Zhuang, Chuang Lu
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation can be used to predict the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs in humans using preclinical data. It can also explore the effects of various physiologic parameters such as age, ethnicity, or disease status on human pharmacokinetics, as well as guide dose and dose regiment selection and aid drug-drug interaction risk assessment. PBPK modeling has developed rapidly in the last decade within both the field of academia and the pharmaceutical industry, and has become an integral tool in drug discovery and development...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908824/arteriographic-patterns-of-atherosclerosis-and-the-association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-ethnicity-in-chronic-critical-limb-ischemia
#7
Jayer Chung, J Gregory Modrall, Martyn Knowles, Qun Xiang, Lawrence A Lavery, Carlos H Timaran, R James Valentine
BACKGROUND: Disparate outcomes in critical limb ischemia (CLI) persist between ethnicities. The contribution of modifiable factors versus intrinsic biologic differences remains unclear. Hence, we aimed to quantify the associations between ethnicity and anatomic patterns of arterial occlusive disease in CLI, adjusting for known atherosclerotic risk factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center review of consecutive patients presenting to the vascular surgery service with CLI...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908820/true-aneurysm-of-the-inferior-thyroid-artery-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Luigi Venturini, Paolo Sapienza, Raffaele Grande, Valerio Scarano Catanzaro, Fabrizio Fanelli, Luca di Marzo
Aneurysms of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) are extremely rare and potentially determine severe sequelae. We report a case of true ITA aneurysm in a 45-year old Caucasian woman treated with endovascular embolization; postoperative course was uneventful and, at 6-month follow-up, the aneurysm is completely thrombized. A systematic review of the literature has been also performed to identify the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics and diagnostic and operative options of this disease. Size alone is not able to predict the fate of the aneurysm and an aggressive treatment seems to be justified because of the high risk of complications in case of rupture...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908639/animal-models-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#9
Geraldine Taylor
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908536/the-sensitivity-and-negative-predictive-value-of-a-pediatric-cervical-spine-clearance-algorithm-that-minimizes-computerized-tomography
#10
Mary Arbuthnot, David P Mooney
BACKGROUND: It is crucial to identify cervical spine injuries while minimizing ionizing radiation. This study analyzes the sensitivity and negative predictive value of a pediatric cervical spine clearance algorithm. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all children <21years old who were admitted following blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine clearance utilizing our institution's cervical spine clearance algorithm over a 10-year period. Age, gender, International Classification of Diseases 9th Edition diagnosis codes, presence or absence of cervical collar on arrival, Injury Severity Score, and type of cervical spine imaging obtained were extracted from the trauma registry and electronic medical record...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908272/exosome-encapsulated-micrornas-as-potential-circulating-biomarkers-in-colon-cancer
#11
Mina Hosseini, Sara Khatamianfar, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Reza Nedaeinia, Mojtaba Shafiee, Mina Maftouh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Soudabeh Shahid Sales, Amir Avan
Exosome-encapsulated microRNAs are being suggested as a new class novel biomarker and diagnostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer. These particles are released from many cell types into the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane. They contain a wide variety of information, including proteins, lipids, RNAs, non-transcribed RNAs, microRNAs, which can be circulated in various body fluids (e.g., blood, salvia, ascites, urine). Exosomes can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and thereby modulate the functional of recipient cells and play a key role in disease progression or facilitate metastasis in cancers...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907168/are-urinary-tubular-injury-markers-useful-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Le-Ting Zhou, Lin-Li Lv, Ming-Ming Pan, Yu-Han Cao, Hong Liu, Ye Feng, Hai-Feng Ni, Bi-Cheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Adverse outcome of chronic kidney disease, such as end stage renal disease, is a significant burden on personal health and healthcare costs. Urinary tubular injury markers, such as NGAL, KIM-1 and NAG, could provide useful prognostic value for the early identification of high-risk patients. However, discrepancies between recent large prospective studies have resulted in controversy regarding the potential clinical value of these markers. Therefore, we conducted the first meta-analysis to provide a more persuasive argument to this debate...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906719/diagnosis-of-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury-from-functional-to-damage-biomarkers
#13
Wim Vandenberghe, Jorien De Loor, Eric A J Hoste
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in up to 30% after cardiac surgery and is associated with adverse outcome. Currently, cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is diagnosed by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria based on creatinine and urine output. To detect and treat AKI earlier, various biomarkers have been evaluated. This review addresses the current position of the two damage biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and [TIMP-2] [IGFBP7] in clinical practice...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906696/medical-therapy-refractory-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-productivity-costs
#14
Kristine A Smith, Luke Rudmik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address the most recent advances in the medical therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), define recalcitrant and refractory CRS, and discuss the productivity costs associated with CRS. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies evaluating anti-IL-4 receptor α antibodies and calcium channel blockers have demonstrated promising early results during management of CRS. Recent appropriateness criteria have been developed to assist clinicians with defining which patients have 'refractory' CRS and may be considered candidates for endoscopic sinus surgery...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905921/systematic-review-of-the-role-of-angiopoietin-1-and-angiopoietin-2-in-plasmodium-species-infections-biomarkers-or-therapeutic-targets
#15
Gerdie M de Jong, Jasper J Slager, Annelies Verbon, Jaap J van Hellemond, Perry J J van Genderen
BACKGROUND: Levels of both angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) correlate with malaria disease severity and are proposed as biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets. To establish their role in malaria, a systematic review was performed of the literature on Ang-1 and Ang-2 with regard to their potential as biomarkers in malaria and discuss their possible place in adjuvant treatment regimens. METHODS: Ten electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies investigating Ang-1 and Ang-2 in human and murine malaria in both clinical and experimental settings...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905474/inflammatory-processes-in-cardiovascular-disease-a-route-to-targeted-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Neil Ruparelia, Joshua T Chai, Edward A Fisher, Robin P Choudhury
Inflammatory processes are firmly established as central to the development and complications of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated levels of inflammatory markers have been shown to be predictive of future cardiovascular events. The specific targeting of these processes in experimental models has been shown to attenuate myocardial and arterial injury, reduce disease progression, and promote healing. However, the translation of these observations and the demonstration of clear efficacy in clinical practice have been disappointing...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904269/serum-procalcitonin-level-reflects-the-severity-of-cellulitis
#17
Soo Hyeon Noh, Seok Don Park, Eun Jung Kim
BACKGROUND: Cellulitis is a common bacterial infection of the superficial skin. Procalcitonin is one of the precursor proteins of calcitonin, its levels are elevated in bacterial infection, and it has been established as a diagnostic marker for severe bacterial infections. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of procalcitonin for predicting disease severity and prognosis of cellulitis. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 160 patients diagnosed with cellulitis in the past 3 years...
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904029/coronary-artery-calcium-and-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-and-plaque-clinical-use-in-need-of-clarification
#18
Maryam Zaid, Akira Fujiyoshi, Aya Kadota, Robert D Abbott, Katsuyuki Miura
Atherosclerosis begins in early life and has a long latent period prior to onset of clinical disease. Measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, therefore, may have important implications for research and clinical practice of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In this review, we focus on coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque as many population-based studies have investigated these measures due to their non-invasive features and ease of administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903834/saliva-diagnostics-current-views-and-directions
#19
Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Carmen Martin Carreras-Presas, Katri Aro, Michael Tu, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, David Tw Wong
In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903658/prognostic-considerations-of-the-new-world-health-organization-classification-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#20
REVIEW
Alain C Borczuk
The 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) lung adenocarcinoma classification divides tumours into categories of indolent pre-invasive, minimally invasive and predominantly lepidic and, by examining predominant patterns of invasion, allows for further stratification into intermediate and high-grade tumours. The impact of the 2015 classification on prognosis was reviewed by a PubMed search for search terms "adenocarcinoma", "lung pathology" and "prognosis" and relevant publications reviewed. These were sorted for data on stage and survival as impacted by histological classification, and survival studies were separated into all stage versus stage 1 studies...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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