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Prediction risk

Marianna Amaral Pedroso, Kirsten Rebecca Palmer, Ryan James Hodges, Fabricio da Silva Costa, Daniel Lorber Rolnik
OBJECTIVE:  To perform a comprehensive review of the current evidence on the role of uterine artery Doppler, isolated or in combination with other markers, in screening for preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the general population. The review included recently published large cohort studies and randomized trials. METHODS:  A search of the literature was conducted using Medline, PubMed, MeSH and ScienceDirect. Combinations of the search terms "preeclampsia," "screening," "prediction," "Doppler," "Doppler velocimetry," "fetal growth restriction," "small for gestational age" and "uterine artery" were used...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Marc R Larochelle, Dana Bernson, Thomas Land, Thomas J Stopka, Na Wang, Ziming Xuan, Sarah M Bagley, Jane M Liebschutz, Alexander Y Walley
Background: Opioid overdose survivors have an increased risk for death. Whether use of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) after overdose is associated with mortality is not known. Objective: To identify MOUD use after opioid overdose and its association with all-cause and opioid-related mortality. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: 7 individually linked data sets from Massachusetts government agencies...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Elizabeth Selvin, Dan Wang, Kunihiro Matsushita, Morgan E Grams, Josef Coresh
Background: Current clinical definitions of diabetes require repeated blood work to confirm elevated levels of glucose or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to reduce the possibility of a false-positive diagnosis. Whether 2 different tests from a single blood sample provide adequate confirmation is uncertain. Objective: To examine the prognostic performance of a single-sample confirmatory definition of undiagnosed diabetes. Design: Prospective cohort study...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Esme I Kamphuis, Anita C J Ravelli, Bouchra Koullali, Brenda Kazemier, Christianne J M de Groot, Ben Willem J Mol
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of sPTB and iPTB in women with three consecutive singleton pregnancies and the impact of the outcome of the 1st and 2nd pregnancy on the (recurrent) PTB risk in the 3rd pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A nationwide retrospective cohort study using the population based longitudinal linked dataset of the Netherlands. We included all nulliparous women with three consecutive singleton pregnancies ending between 22 and 44 weeks of gestation between 1999 and 2009...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Petra Lavríková, Peter Sečník, Zdenek Kubíček, Antonín Jabor, Lenka Hošková, Janka Franeková
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between tacrolimus (TAC) immunosuppressive treatment and serum concentrations of immunoglobulin heavy/light chain pairs (sHLC) and free light chains (sFLC) in patients after heart transplantation (HTX) and to use these biomarkers to predict the risk of infection in these patients. A total of 88 patients with an immunosuppressive regimen involving tacrolimus who underwent HTX were analyzed over 24 months of follow-up. sFLC and sHLC levels were determined before and at three time points after HTX...
June 15, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Emily H Adhikari, Devin Macias, Donna Gaffney, Sarah White, Vanessa L Rogers, Donald D McIntire, Scott W Roberts
BACKGROUND: False positive HIV screening tests in pregnancy may lead to unnecessary interventions in labor. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a new algorithm for HIV diagnosis using a 4th generation screening test, which detects antibodies to HIV as well as p24 antigen and has a shorter window period compared with prior generations. A reactive screen requires a differentiation assay, and supplemental qualitative RNA testing is necessary for nonreactive differentiation assay...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kortany McCauley, Anupama Chundu, Helen Song, Robin High, Donny Suh
PURPOSE: To develop a simple prognostic model using postnatal weight gain, birth weight, and gestational age to identify infants at risk for developing severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: Medical records from two tertiary referral centers with the diagnosis code "Retinopathy of Prematurity" were evaluated. Those with a birth weight of 1,500 g or less, gestational age of 30 weeks or younger, and unstable clinical courses were included. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to transform three independent variables into a growth rate algorithm...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Janet Ong, Xu Liu, Jayanthi Rajarethinam, Suet Yheng Kok, Shaohong Liang, Choon Siang Tang, Alex R Cook, Lee Ching Ng, Grace Yap
BACKGROUND: Singapore experiences endemic dengue, with 2013 being the largest outbreak year known to date, culminating in 22,170 cases. Given the limited resources available, and that vector control is the key approach for prevention in Singapore, it is important that public health professionals know where resources should be invested in. This study aims to stratify the spatial risk of dengue transmission in Singapore for effective deployment of resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Random Forest was used to predict the risk rank of dengue transmission in 1km2 grids, with dengue, population, entomological and environmental data...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nathaniel Mon Père, Tom Lenaerts, Jorge M Pacheco, David Dingli
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal blood disorder characterized by hemolysis and a high risk of thrombosis, that is due to a deficiency in several cell surface proteins that prevent complement activation. Its origin has been traced to a somatic mutation in the PIG-A gene within hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). However, to date the question of how this mutant clone expands in size to contribute significantly to hematopoiesis remains under debate. One hypothesis posits the existence of a selective advantage of PIG-A mutated cells due to an immune mediated attack on normal HSC, but the evidence supporting this hypothesis is inconclusive...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Olubunmi O Olubamwo, Jyrki K Virtanen, Ari Voutilainen, Jussi Kauhanen, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen
BACKGROUND: Fatty liver disease (FLD) has been identified as constituting cardiometabolic risk. However, evidence on the association of fatty liver index (FLI) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely cross-sectional, with limited evidence on the predictability of incident CVD, and specifically, acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between fatty liver as estimated by FLI and incident CVD, and specifically AMI, in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study cohort...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Parvaneh Yazdani-Brojeni, Reo Tanoshima, Nobuko Taguchi, Facundo Garcia-Bournissen, Izhar Wallach, Myla E Moretti, Zulfikarali Verjee, Shinya Ito
BACKGROUND: Risk assessment of the use of quetiapine during breastfeeding is challenging owing to a paucity of data. METHODS: A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in lactating women who were taking quetiapine. The primary endpoint was to determine quetiapine concentration profiles in milk and estimated infant exposure levels. Multiple milk and a single blood quetiapine concentrations were determined using a highly sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy method...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jianchao Ying, Teng Xu, Qian Wang, Jun Ye, Jianxin Lyu
The accurate diagnosis of endometrial cancer (EC) holds great promise for improving its treatment choice and prognosis prediction. This work aimed to identify diagnostic biomarkers for differentiating EC tumors from tumors in other tissues, as well as prognostic signatures for predicting survival in EC patients. We identified 48 tissue-specific markers using a cohort of genome-wide methylation data from three common gynecological tumors and their corresponding normal tissues. A diagnostic classifier was constructed based on these 48 CpG markers that could predict cancerous versus normal tissue with an overall correct rate of 98...
June 18, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Mark Sutherlin, Matthew Gage, Colby Mangum, Jay Hertel, Shawn Russell, Susan A Saliba, Joseph M Hart
CONTEXT:   Injury-prediction models have identified trunk muscle function as an identifiable factor for future injury. A history of low back pain (HxLBP) may also place athletes at increased risk for future low back pain. Reduced muscle thickness of the lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA) has been reported among populations with clinical low back pain via ultrasound imaging in multiple positions. However, the roles of the LM and TrA in a more functional cohort and for injury prediction are still unknown...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Salvatore Magliocca, Carmen De Caro, Loretta Lazzarato, Roberto Russo, Barbara Rolando, Konstantin Chegaev, Elisabetta Marini, Maria Nieddu, Lucia Burrai, Gianpiero Boatto, Claudia Cristiano, Domenica Marabello, Elena Gazzano, Chiara Riganti, Federica Sodano, Maria Grazia Rimoli
Aceclofenac is a popular analgesic, antipyretic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for prolonged treatment (at least three months) in musculoskeletal disorders. It is characterized by several limitations, such as poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability. The main side-effect of aceclofenac, as well as all NSAIDs, is the gastrotoxicity; among other adverse effects, there is the risk of bleeding since aceclofenac reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation. With the aim to reduce these drawbacks, we have designed, synthesized and characterized both in vitro and in vivo, an orally administrable pro-drug of aceclofenac (ACEgal)...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Michael Lattanzi, Yesung Lee, Danny Simpson, Una Moran, Farbod Darvishian, Randie H Kim, Eva Hernando, David Polsky, Doug Hanniford, Richard Shapiro, Russell Berman, Anna C Pavlick, Melissa A Wilson, Tomas Kirchhoff, Jeffrey S Weber, Judy Zhong, Iman Osman
Background: Two primary histologic subtypes, superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) and nodular melanoma (NM), comprise the majority of all cutaneous melanomas. NM is associated with worse outcomes, which have been attributed to increased thickness at presentation, and it is widely expected that NM and SSM would exhibit similar behavior once metastasized. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that primary histologic subtype is an independent predictor of survival and may impact response to treatment in the metastatic setting...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Tingbin Xie, Chenyan Zhao, Chao Ding, Liang Zhang, Minhua Cheng, Cao Chun, Wenkui Yu, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu
Background: The role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the prediction of intra-abdominal septic complications (IASCs) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) remains unclear. We assessed the serum IL-6 time course and its association with postoperative IASCs in patients undergoing elective intestinal operations for CD. Methods: In total, 118 patients who underwent intestinal operations for CD were prospectively evaluated. They were divided into an IASC group and non-IASC group...
June 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Molly M Quinn, Mitchell P Rosen, Isabel Elaine Allen, Heather G Huddleston, Marcelle I Cedars, Victor Y Fujimoto
STUDY QUESTION: Does the interval from delivery to initiation of a subsequent ART treatment cycle impact clinical pregnancy or live birth rates? SUMMARY ANSWER: An interval from delivery to treatment start of <6 months or ≥24 months is associated with decreased likelihood of clinical pregnancy and live birth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Short interpregnancy intervals are associated with poor obstetric outcomes in the naturally conceiving population prompting birth spacing recommendations of 18-24 months from international organizations...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
Teemu D Laajala, Mika Murtojärvi, Arho Virkki, Tero Aittokallio
Motivation: Prognostic models are widely used in clinical decision-making, such as risk stratification and tailoring treatment strategies, with the aim to improve patient outcomes while reducing overall healthcare costs. While prognostic models have been adopted into clinical use, benchmarking their performance has been difficult due to lack of open clinical datasets. The recent DREAM 9.5 Prostate Cancer Challenge carried out an extensive benchmarking of prognostic models for metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC), based on multiple cohorts of open clinical trial data...
June 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Marlena Maziarz, Tianxi Cai, Li Qi, Anna S Lok, Yingye Zheng
Little attention has been given to the design of efficient studies to evaluate longitudinal biomarkers. Measuring longitudinal markers on an entire cohort is cost prohibitive and, especially for rare outcomes such as cancer, may be infeasible. Thus, methods for evaluation of longitudinal biomarkers using efficient and cost-effective study designs are needed. Case cohort (CCH) and nested case-control (NCC) studies allow investigators to evaluate biomarkers rigorously and at reduced cost, with only a small loss in precision...
April 18, 2018: Biostatistics
Birgit Braun, Christian Weinland, Johannes Kornhuber, Bernd Lenz
Aims: To compare religious denomination, religiosity, guilt, altruism and forgiveness between alcohol-dependent patients and healthy control subjects and to prospectively investigate their relationship to the disorder's 24-month course following in-patient withdrawal treatment. Method: This study in Franconia (a mainly Christian protestant region of southern Germany) applied six questionnaires to evaluate religiosity, guilt, altruism and forgiveness in 166 alcohol-dependent in-patients during withdrawal and compared findings with that of 240 healthy controls...
April 18, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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