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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231626/default-mode-network-deactivation-to-smoking-cue-relative-to-food-cue-predicts-treatment-outcome-in-nicotine-use-disorder
#1
Claire E Wilcox, Eric D Claus, Vince D Calhoun, Srinivas Rachakonda, Rae A Littlewood, Jessica Mickey, Pamela B Arenella, Natalie Goodreau, Kent E Hutchison
Identifying predictors of treatment outcome for nicotine use disorders (NUDs) may help improve efficacy of established treatments, like varenicline. Brain reactivity to drug stimuli predicts relapse risk in nicotine and other substance use disorders in some studies. Activity in the default mode network (DMN) is affected by drug cues and other palatable cues, but its clinical significance is unclear. In this study, 143 individuals with NUD (male n = 91, ages 18-55 years) received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during a visual cue task during which they were presented with a series of smoking-related or food-related video clips prior to randomization to treatment with varenicline (n = 80) or placebo...
February 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231610/polygenic-risk-scores-for-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-associate-with-addiction
#2
Gunnar W Reginsson, Andres Ingason, Jack Euesden, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Sigurgeir Olafsson, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Hogni Oskarsson, Thorarinn Tyrfingsson, Valgerdur Runarsdottir, Ingunn Hansdottir, Stacy Steinberg, Hreinn Stefansson, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Thorgeir E Thorgeirsson, Kari Stefansson
We use polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) to predict smoking, and addiction to nicotine, alcohol or drugs in individuals not diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Using PRSs for 144 609 subjects, including 10 036 individuals admitted for in-patient addiction treatment and 35 754 smokers, we find that diagnoses of various substance use disorders and smoking associate strongly with PRSs for SCZ (P = 5.3 × 10(-50) -1.4 × 10(-6) ) and BPD (P = 1.7 × 10(-9) -1...
February 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231577/response-evaluation-in-head-and-neck-oncology-definition-and-prediction
#3
T K Hoffmann, P J Schuler, S Laban, R Grässlin, M Beer, A J Beer, U Friebe-Hoffmann, L Bullinger, P Möller, T Wiegel
Curative treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma includes surgery and/or (chemo)radiation, whereas in the palliative setting, chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy represent(s) the standard approach. With regard to quality control, methods for determining treatment response are sorely needed. For surgical therapy, histopathology is the standard quality control. Established criteria for high-risk patients include resection margins of the primary tumor and extracapsular extension of lymph node metastases...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231576/molecular-markers-involved-in-tumorigenesis-of-thyroid-carcinoma-focus-on-aggressive-histotypes
#4
Gustavo C Penna, Fernanda Vaisman, Mario Vaisman, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Paula Soares
Thyroid cancer derived from follicular cells (TCDFC) comprises well-differentiated (papillary and follicular) carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine cancer, and its incidence is steadily increasing. Lethality and aggressiveness of TCDFC is inversely correlated with differentiation degree. In this review, an emphasis has been put on molecular markers involved in tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma with a focus on aggressive histotypes and the role of such biomarkers in predicting thyroid cancer outcome...
February 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231474/early-disturbances-in-multimodal-evoked-potentials-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-long-term-disability-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#5
Frédéric London, Souraya El Sankari, Vincent van Pesch
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether early alterations in evoked potentials (EPs) have a prognostic value in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: We retrospectively selected 108 early MS patients with a neurological follow-up ranging from 5 to 15years, in whom multimodal EPs (visual, brainstem auditory, somatosensory and motor) were performed at diagnosis. A conventional ordinal score was used to quantify the observed abnormalities...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231420/serum-ferritin-concentration-predicts-hepatic-fibrosis-better-than-hepatic-iron-concentration-in-human-hfe-hemochromatosis
#6
Marnie J Wood, Darrell H G Crawford, Leesa F Wockner, Lawrie W Powell, Grant A Ramm
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ferritin is purported to have proinflammatory and profibrogenic effects on hepatic stellate cells. Thus, rather than acting as a passive indicator of hepatic iron concentration (HIC) in hemochromatosis, ferritin may directly influence fibrosis. This study evaluated whether serum ferritin is a better predictor of hepatic fibrosis compared to variables previously associated with increased fibrosis risk in hemochromatosis. METHODS: We identified 291 C282Y HFE-homozygous patients who had undergone liver biopsy for histological fibrosis staging and measurement of HIC...
February 23, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231324/a-framework-for-analyzing-contagion-in-assortative-banking-networks
#7
Thomas R Hurd, James P Gleeson, Sergey Melnik
We introduce a probabilistic framework that represents stylized banking networks with the aim of predicting the size of contagion events. Most previous work on random financial networks assumes independent connections between banks, whereas our framework explicitly allows for (dis)assortative edge probabilities (i.e., a tendency for small banks to link to large banks). We analyze default cascades triggered by shocking the network and find that the cascade can be understood as an explicit iterated mapping on a set of edge probabilities that converges to a fixed point...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231316/a-balanced-solution-to-the-cumulative-threat-of-industrialized-wind-farm-development-on-cinereous-vultures-aegypius-monachus-in-south-eastern-europe
#8
Dimitris P Vasilakis, D Philip Whitfield, Vassiliki Kati
Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231242/predicting-ebola-infection-a-malaria-sensitive-triage-score-for-ebola-virus-disease
#9
Mary-Anne Hartley, Alyssa Young, Anh-Minh Tran, Harry Henry Okoni-Williams, Mohamed Suma, Brooke Mancuso, Ahmed Al-Dikhari, Mohamed Faouzi
BACKGROUND: The non-specific symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) pose a major problem to triage and isolation efforts at Ebola Treatment Centres (ETCs). Under the current triage protocol, half the patients allocated to high-risk "probable" wards were EVD(-): a misclassification speculated to predispose nosocomial EVD infection. A better understanding of the statistical relevance of individual triage symptoms is essential in resource-poor settings where rapid, laboratory-confirmed diagnostics are often unavailable...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230929/investigation-of-p16-status-chemotherapy-regimen-and-other-nutrition-markers-for-predicting-gastrostomy-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#10
Teresa E Brown, Kym Wittholz, Mandy Way, Merrilyn D Banks, Brett G M Hughes, Charles Y Lin, Lizbeth M Kenny, Judith D Bauer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine if p16 status, chemotherapy regimen, or other nutrition markers could improve protocol accuracy in predicting proactive gastrostomy in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Patients who received curative treatment from July 2010 to June 2011 were included (n = 269). Associations among dependent variables (age, sex, tumor site, staging, treatment, p16 status, albumin, and Malnutrition Screening Tool [MST] score), the protocol risk rating, and requirement for proactive gastrostomy were examined...
February 23, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230834/risk-stratification-for-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-by-factors-within-24%C3%A2-h-after-birth
#11
K Terui, K Nagata, Y Kanamori, S Takahashi, M Hayakawa, H Okuyama, N Inamura, H Yoshida, T Taguchi, N Usui
OBJECTIVE: To establish a simple risk stratification system for patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) based on postnatal information within 24 h after birth. STUDY DESIGN: A multi-institutional retrospective cohort study was conducted including 348 neonates who had isolated CDH born between 2006 and 2010. Based on the two most powerful variables for 90-day survival selected by multivariate analyses, a risk stratification system was established. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two adverse prognostic factors: an Apgar score at 1 min (Ap1) of 0-4 (odds ratio (OR) 3...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230661/predicting-progression-in-barrett-s-esophagus-development-and-validation-of-the-barrett-s-esophagus-assessment-of-risk-score-bear-score
#12
Craig S Brown, Brittany Lapin, Jay L Goldstein, John G Linn, Mark S Talamonti, Joann Carbray, Michael B Ujiki
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a scoring tool capable of accurately predicting which patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) will progress to dysplasia and/or esophageal adenocarcinoma. BACKGROUND: Endoscopic therapies have emerged capable of eradicating BE with high efficacy and low complication rates, but which patients should receive treatment is still debated. Current knowledge of risk factors is insufficient to allow for the accurate prediction of which patients will progress to dysplasia or adenocarcinoma...
February 22, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230630/update-on-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-its-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#13
Lily Van, Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia occurs in ∼25% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. This review highlights recent literature in 22q11.2DS as it pertains to psychosis and schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in noninvasive prenatal testing allow for early detection of 22q11.2DS in utero, whereas premature birth has been shown to be a significant risk factor for development of psychotic illness in 22q11...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230564/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-aggression-and-illicit-stimulant-use-is-this-self-medication
#14
Annie P Odell, Grace L Reynolds, Dennis G Fisher, Loucine M Huckabay, William C Pedersen, Pamela Xandre, Milica Miočević
This study compares adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on measures of direct and displaced aggression and illicit drug use. Three hundred ninety-six adults were administered the Wender Utah Rating Scale, the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), and the Displaced Aggression Questionnaire (DAQ). Those with ADHD were higher on all scales of the AQ and DAQ, were younger at first use of amphetamines, and were more likely to have ever used crack and amphetamines...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230320/probability-of-success-for-phase-iii-after-exploratory-biomarker-analysis-in-phase-ii
#15
Heiko Götte, Marietta Kirchner, Martin Oliver Sailer
The probability of success or average power describes the potential of a future trial by weighting the power with a probability distribution of the treatment effect. The treatment effect estimate from a previous trial can be used to define such a distribution. During the development of targeted therapies, it is common practice to look for predictive biomarkers. The consequence is that the trial population for phase III is often selected on the basis of the most extreme result from phase II biomarker subgroup analyses...
February 23, 2017: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230309/evaluation-of-positive-and-false-positive-results-in-syphilis-screening-of-blood-donors-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#16
V S Sandes, S G C Silva, I J F Motta, L G C Velarde, S R de Castilho
OBJECTIVES: We propose to analyse the positive and false-positive results of treponemal and nontreponemal tests in blood donors from Brazil and to evaluate possible factors associated with the results of treponemal tests. BACKGROUND: Treponemal tests have been used widely for syphilis screening in blood banks. The introduction of these tests in donor screening has caused an impact and a loss of donors who need to be assessed. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of syphilis screening and confirmatory test results of blood donors that were obtained before and after adopting a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA)...
February 23, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230291/therapeutic-potentials-of-bdnf-trkb-in-breast-cancer-current-status-and-perspectives
#17
Amir Tajbakhsh, Amin Mokhtari-Zaer, Mehdi Rezaee, Fahimeh Afzaljavan, Mehdi Rivandi, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Gordon A Ferns, Alireza Pasdar, Amir Avan
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor that has been shown to stimulate breast cancer cell growth and metastasis via tyrosine kinase receptors TrkA, TrkB and the p75(NTR) death receptor. The aberrant activation of BDNF/TrkB pathways can modulate several signaling pathways, including Akt/PI3K, Jak/STAT, NF-kB, UPAR/UPA, Wnt/β-catenin and VEGF pathways as well as the ER receptor. Several microRNAs have been identified that are involved in the modulation of BDNF/TrkB pathways...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230266/who-is-a-distracted-driver-associations-between-mobile-phone-use-while-driving-domain-specific-risk-taking-and-personality
#18
Madison Sween, Andrea Ceschi, Francesco Tommasi, Riccardo Sartori, Joshua Weller
Mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD) is an increasingly common form of distracted driving. Given its widespread prevalence, it is important for researchers to identify factors that may predict who is more likely to engage in this risky behavior. The current study investigates associations between MPUWD risk behaviors, domain-specific risk perceptions, and broad personality dimensions. An Italian community sample (n = 804) completed a survey regarding MPUWD risk perceptions and engagement in MPUWD, in addition to the HEXACO-PI-R, a broad six-factor personality inventory (honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience), and the DOSPERT, a six-factor domain-specific self-report risk-taking measure (health/safety, recreational, social, ethical, gambling, and investment)...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230198/longitudinal-association-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-mellitus-with-cognitive-functioning-in-a-general-70-year-old-population-the-sonic-study
#19
Hirochika Ryuno, Kei Kamide, Yasuyuki Gondo, Mai Kabayama, Ryosuke Oguro, Chikako Nakama, Serina Yokoyama, Motonori Nagasawa, Satomi Maeda-Hirao, Yuki Imaizumi, Miyuki Takeya, Hiroko Yamamoto, Masao Takeda, Yoichi Takami, Norihisa Itoh, Yasushi Takeya, Koichi Yamamoto, Ken Sugimoto, Takeshi Nakagawa, Saori Yasumoto, Kazunori Ikebe, Hiroki Inagaki, Yukie Masui, Michiyo Takayama, Yasumichi Arai, Tatsuro Ishizaki, Ryutaro Takahashi, Hiromi Rakugi
Both hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals have been suggested to be predictive indicators of cognitive decline. However, the association of hypertension, diabetes and their combination with cognitive functioning is still controversial in older people. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive decline and hypertension, diabetes, and their combination in 70-year-old people based on a 3-year longitudinal analysis. Four hundred and fifty-four people aged 70 (±1) years who participated in the Japanese longitudinal cohort study of Septuagenarians, Octogenarians and Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC) were recruited randomly from a general population and were monitored for 3 years...
February 23, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229841/-neuroimaging-and-blood-biomarkers-in-functional-prognosis-after-stroke
#20
REVIEW
João Paulo Branco, Joana Santos Costa, João Sargento-Freitas, Sandra Oliveira, Bruno Mendes, Jorge Laíns, João Pinheiro
INTRODUCTION: Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis...
November 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
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