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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055268/early-age-of-e-cigarette-use-onset-mediates-the-association-between-impulsivity-and-e-cigarette-use-frequency-in-youth
#1
Krysten W Bold, Meghan E Morean, Grace Kong, Patricia Simon, Deepa R Camenga, Dana A Cavallo, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for youth e-cigarette use is critical, given high rates of e-cigarette use and unknown health effects of long-term use. The current study examined whether an early age of onset of e-cigarette use mediates the association between impulsivity and e-cigarette frequency. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data of e-cigarette users (n=927) were collected from 8 high schools in southeastern Connecticut. The sample was 44.7% female (mean age 16...
October 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055261/the-nosas-score-a-new-and-simple-screening-tool-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-depressive-disorder
#2
Kelly Guichard, Helena Marti-Soler, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Pierre Philip, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Peter Vollenweider, Gerard Waeber, Martin Preisig, José Haba-Rubio, Raphael Heinzer
BACKGROUND: Since the clinical presentation of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) shares common features with major depressive (MDE), the screening of OSAS is challenging in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the NoSAS score in predicting the presence of OSAS among participants with current MDE and to compare it with the performance of existing screening tools. METHODS: A random sample of the population-based cohort CoLaus (Lausanne, Switzerland) underwent a psychiatric evaluation (PsyCoLaus) and a complete polysomnography at home (HypnoLaus)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055127/shoe-floor-interactions-in-human-walking-with-slips-modeling-and-experiments
#3
Mitja Trkov, Jingang Yi, Tao Liu, Kang Li
Shoe-floor interactions play a crucial role in determining the possibility of potential slip and fall during human walking. Biomechanical and tribological parameters influence the friction characteristics between the shoe sole and the floor and the existing work mainly focus on experimental studies. In this paper, we present modeling, analysis, and experiments to understand slip and force distributions between the shoe sole and floor surface during human walking. We present results for both soft and hard sole material...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055111/genetic-based-dissection-of-arsenic-accumulation-in-maize-using-a-genome-wide-association-analysis-method
#4
Zhan Zhao, Huaisheng Zhang, Zhongjun Fu, Hao Chen, Yanan Lin, Pengshuai Yan, Weihua Li, Huiling Xie, Zhanyong Guo, Xuehai Zhang, Jihua Tang
Understanding the mechanism of arsenic (As) accumulation in plants is important in reducing As's toxicity to plants and its potential risks to human health. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study to dissect the genetic basis of the As contents of different maize tissues in Xixian, which was irrigated with As-rich surface water, and Changge using an association population consisting of 230 representative inbred maize lines. Phenotypic data revealed a wide normal distribution and high repeatability for the As contents in maize tissues...
October 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054844/the-impact-of-de-escalation-of-antianginal-medications-on-health-status-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#5
Mohammed Qintar, Arooge Towheed, Fengming Tang, Adam C Salisbury, P Michael Ho, J Aaron Grantham, John A Spertus, Suzanne V Arnold
BACKGROUND: Antianginal medications (AAMs) can be perceived to be less important after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and may be de-escalated after revascularization. We examined the frequency of AAM de-escalation at discharge post-PCI and its association with follow-up health status. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 10-center PCI registry, the Seattle Angina Questionnaire was assessed before and 6 months post-PCI. AAM de-escalation was defined as fewer AAMs at discharge versus admission or >25% absolute dose decrease...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054840/contemporary-risk-stratification-after-myocardial-infarction-in-the-community-performance-of-scores-and-incremental-value-of-soluble-suppression-of-tumorigenicity-2
#6
Yariv Gerber, Susan A Weston, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano, Allan S Jaffe, Sheila M Manemann, Ruoxiang Jiang, Véronique L Roger
BACKGROUND: Current American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines recommend the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) and TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) scores to assess myocardial infarction (MI) prognosis. Changes in the epidemiological characteristics of MI and the availability of new biomarkers warrant an assessment of the performance of these scores in contemporary practice. We assessed the following: (1) the performance of GRACE and TIMI to predict 1-year mortality in a cohort of patients stratified by ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and (2) the incremental discriminatory power of soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2, a myocardial fibrosis biomarker...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054805/factors-predicting-adherence-to-a-tailored-dose-adjuvant-treatment-on-the-basis-of-geriatric-assessment-in-elderly-people-with-colorectal-cancer-a-prospective-study
#7
Maite Antonio, Alberto Carmona-Bayonas, Juana Saldaña, Valentí Navarro, Cristian Tebé, Ramon Salazar, Josep Maria Borràs
BACKGROUND: Selecting elderly people with colorectal cancer (CRC) for adjuvant chemotherapy is challenging. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) can help by classifying them according to their frailty profile. The supposed benefit of chemotherapy is on the basis of the rate of treatment adherence. In this study we evaluated tolerance and adherence to tailored-dose adjuvant therapy on the basis of CGA in a cohort of older patients with high-risk stage II and stage III CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study in 193 consecutive patients aged 75 years or older...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054767/identifying-eustachian-tube-dysfunction-prior-to-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-who-is-at-risk-for-intolerance
#8
Jason E Cohn, Michael Pfeiffer, Niki Patel, Robert T Sataloff, Brian J McKinnon
PURPOSE: Determine whether specific risk factors, symptoms and clinical examination findings are associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) intolerance and subsequent tympanotomy tube placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case series with chart review was conducted from 2007 to 2016 of patients undergoing HBOT clearance at a tertiary care university hospital in an urban city. Eighty-one (n=81) patient charts were reviewed for risk factors, symptoms and clinical examination findings related to HBOT eustachian tube dysfunction and middle ear barotrauma...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054701/intra-and-inter-laboratory-reproducibility-and-predictivity-of-the-hacasens-assay-a-skin-sensitization-test-using-human-keratinocytes-hacat
#9
Hyewon Chung, Hailian Quan, Daun Jung, Gautam Ravi, Ahrang Cho, Mijeong Kang, Eunju Kim, Jeonghwan Che, Eung-Seok Lee, Taecheon Jeong, Yong Heo, Seung Hyeok Seok
Due to considerable constraints in using animals for risk assessment, much effort has been directed at developing non-animal test methods. Developing assays for skin sensitization, the leading cause of contact dermatitis, is particularly important, but there are currently no in vitro skin sensitization tests that completely replace animal tests. HaCaSens, a simple skin sensitization test using non-transformed HaCaT cells, predicts keratinocyte activation by skin sensitizers with 75% sensitivity, 83% specificity and 77% accuracy in a previous study using 22 coded substances...
October 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054670/risk-forewarning-model-for-rice-grain-cd-pollution-based-on-bayes-theory
#10
Bo Wu, Shuhai Guo, Lingyan Zhang, Fengmei Li
Cadmium (Cd) pollution of rice grain caused by Cd-contaminated soils is a common problem in southwest and central south China. In this study, utilizing the advantages of the Bayes classification statistical method, we established a risk forewarning model for rice grain Cd pollution, and put forward two parameters (the prior probability factor and data variability factor). The sensitivity analysis of the model parameters illustrated that sample size and standard deviation influenced the accuracy and applicable range of the model...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054568/genetic-epidemiology-of-ovarian-cancer-and-prospects-for-polygenic-risk-prediction
#11
REVIEW
Michelle R Jones, Daniella Kamara, Beth Y Karlan, Paul D P Pharoah, Simon A Gayther
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous disease with a major heritable component. The different histotypes of invasive disease - high grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous - are associated with different underlying genetic susceptibility and epidemiological and lifestyle risk factors, all of which contribute to the different biology and clinical characteristics of each histotype. A combination of familial and population based sequencing studies, and genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a range of genetic susceptibility alleles for EOC comprising rare but highly penetrant genes (e...
October 17, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054536/decreasing-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-of-alzheimer-s-pathology-in-mci-and-mild-dementia
#12
Jules Mathys, Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Hugues Henry, Armin von Gunten, Julius Popp
BACKGROUND: Several studies have identified an association between body mass index (BMI) and the incidence and severity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but this relationship is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the possible association between BMI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD pathology in subjects with normal cognition and cognitive impairment. The secondary objective was to test whether BMI may contribute to improve the accuracy of a clinical model to predict AD pathology in memory clinic patients with cognitive impairment...
October 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054485/genetic-correlates-of-insight-in-schizophrenia
#13
Rose Mary Xavier, Allison Vorderstrasse, Richard S E Keefe, Jennifer R Dungan
Insight in schizophrenia is clinically important as it is associated with several adverse outcomes. Genetic contributions to insight are unknown. We examined genetic contributions to insight by investigating if polygenic risk scores (PRS) and candidate regions were associated with insight. METHOD: Schizophrenia case-only analysis of the Clinical Antipsychotics Trials of Intervention Effectiveness trial. Schizophrenia PRS was constructed using Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) leave-one out GWAS as discovery data set...
October 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054441/diagnostic-value-of-alpha-1-fetoprotein-afp-as-a-biomarker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-after-liver-transplantation
#14
Aventinus Nörthen, Thomas Asendorf, Philip D Walson, Michael Oellerich
BACKGROUND: Alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP) is used to monitor progression, evaluate response to therapy and predict recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver transplantation (LTx) patients. To date, the diagnostic value of serum AFP determinations for detecting tumor recurrence in HCC patients after LTx is unclear. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective, single-center, cross-sectional, non-interventional study was performed with the objective of determining post-transplant cut-off AFP values for detecting HCC recurrence post LTx...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054440/external-validation-of-heart-type-fatty-acid-binding-protein-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-and-electrocardiography-as-rule-out-for-acute-myocardial-infarction
#15
Christopher B Van Hise, Jaimi H Greenslade, William Parsonage, Martin Than, Joanna Young, Louise Cullen
OBJECTIVE: To externally validate a clinical decision rule incorporating heart fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP), high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) and electrocardiogram (ECG) for the detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on presentation to the Emergency Department. We also investigated whether this clinical decision rule improved identification of AMI over algorithms incorporating hs-cTn and ECG only. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included data from 789 patients from the Brisbane ADAPT cohort and 441 patients from the Christchurch TIMI RCT cohort...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054394/immediate-postoperative-fibrosis-4-predicts-postoperative-liver-failure-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-undergoing-curative-surgery
#16
Haiqing Wang, Lei Li, Wentao Bo, Aixiang Liu, Xielin Feng, Yong Hu, Lang Tian, Hui Zhang, Xiaoli Tang, Lixia Zhang, Mingyi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Postoperative liver failure remains the main complication and predominant cause of hepatectomy-related mortality for patients undergoing liver resection. AIM: Our aim is to investigate whether immediate postoperative Fibrosis-4 could predict postoperative liver failure. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 1353 consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing radical resection. The characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between patients with high and low immediate postoperative Fibrosis-4...
October 4, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054189/development-of-a-diagnosis-model-for-coronary-artery-disease
#17
Hongzeng Xu, Zhiying Duan, Chi Miao, Song Geng, Yuanzhe Jin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop a coronary artery disease (CAD) prediction model that optimally estimates the pre-test probability of CAD for patients suspected of CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective, multi-centre study included 7360 consecutive patients (4678 men, 57.87±11.42 years old; 2682 women, 61.60±9.58 years old) who underwent coronary angiography for evaluation of CAD. A prediction model was fitted for diagnosis of CAD with the help of eight significant risk factors including sex, age, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, serum creatinine and angina...
September 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054185/the-prognostic-significance-of-serum-sodium-in-a-population-undergoing-cardiac-resynchronisation-therapy
#18
Kaushik Guha, Jens Spießhöfer, Adam Hartley, Simon Pearse, Philip Y Xiu, Rakesh Sharma
PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic implications of changes towards hyponatremia at varying time-points in the treatment of patients undergoing cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). METHODS: A retrospective series of 249 patients was studied from 2002 to 2013. The population was categorized on the basis of serum sodium profile at baseline, at 1 month and at 6 month follow up visits following successful CRT implantation. The composite endpoint was all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalisation (defined by the need for intravenous diuretic therapy) following CRT implantation...
September 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054125/external-validation-of-a-cancer-risk-prediction-model-for-suspected-head-and-neck-cancer-referrals
#19
T Tikka, V Paleri, K MacKenzie
Head and neck cancer (HNC) affects more than 9000 new patients every year in England and Wales with an additional 1200 in Scotland. (1,2) Patients are urgently referred to head and neck clinics for further assessment when a suspicion of cancer is raised in the primary care setting. In England, the referral criteria are based on the NICE recommendations for symptoms associated with HNC. (2) A different combination of symptoms is described in the Scottish cancer referral guidelines. (3) There is currently no unified referral proforma across the different UK cancer networks...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054117/assessing-global-range-expansion-in-a-cryptic-species-complex-insights-from-the-red-seaweed-genus-asparagopsis-florideophyceae
#20
Marianela Zanolla, María Altamirano, Raquel Carmona, Julio De la Rosa, Virginia Souza-Egipsy, Alison Sherwood, Konstantinos Tsiamis, Ana Márcia Barbosa, Antonio Román Muñoz, Nikos Andreakis
The mitochondrial genetic diversity, distribution and invasive potential of multiple cryptic operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the red invasive seaweed Asparagopsis were assessed by studying introduced Mediterranean and Hawaiian populations. Invasive behavior of each Asparagopsis OTU was inferred from phylogeographic reconstructions, past historical demographic dynamics, recent range expansion assessments and future distributional predictions obtained from demographic models. Genealogical networks resolved Asparagopsis gametophytes and tetrasporophytes into four A...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
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