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Neonatal injury

Y Hodovanets, A Babintseva, L Agafonova, O Makarova, A Frunza
Newborns are especially prone to oxidative stress (OS). Many free radical-mediated diseases have been described in newborns including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, encephalopathy, and kidney injury. Objective of this work was to determine predictive and diagnostic value of urinary malondialdehyde (UMDA) as a marker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically sick full-term newborns. 67 critically sick full-term neonates were enrolled in the study including 31 newborns with AKI (group I) and 36 newborns without AKI (group II)...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Daniela Klaus-Halla, Bettina Mair, Carola Sauter-Louis, Holm Zerbe
OBJECTIVE: In cows with uterine torsion, clinical parameters and different treatments were evaluated with regards to their success. The aim of the study was to investigate important factors for diagnosis and prognosis of uterine torsion and their consequences for treatment decisions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study presents 114 cases of uterine torsion documented under field conditions. The cows were examined before retorsion of the uterus and immediately post partum...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Karen Barlow, Michael M J Esser, Myra Veidt, Roslyn Boyd
Traumatic brain injury is common and yet effective treatments of the secondary brain injury are scarce. Melatonin is a potent, non-selective neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent that is showing promising results in neonatal brain injury. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the pre-clinical and clinical literature for the effectiveness of Melatonin to improve outcome after TBI. Using the systematic review protocol for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE) and Cochrane methodology for clinical studies, a search of English articles was performed...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Wei Zhou, Jintao Du, Di Jiang, Xianren Wang, Kaitian Chen, Haocheng Tang, Xuemei Zhang, Hui Cao, Ling Zong, Chang Dong, Hongyan Jiang
Auditory hair cell regeneration following injury is critical to hearing restoration. The Notch signaling pathway participates in the regulation of inner ear development and cell differentiation. Recent evidence suggests that microRNA (miR)‑183 has a similar role in the inner ear. However, it is unclear how Notch signaling functions in hair cell regeneration in mammals and if there is cross‑talk between Notch signaling and miR‑183. The present study used a gentamicin‑induced cochlear injury mouse model...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ruxiu Liu, Jie Li, Yu Liu, Jie Peng, Xuanke Guan
Objective: We investigated the role of astragaloside in the treatment of sick sinus syndrome (SSS). Methods: Neonatal New Zealand rabbits were selected for the study. Rabbit sinoatrial node (SAN) cells were isolated by the method of dual enzymatic digestion and differential adherence. The injury model was prepared through simulated ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), and changes in the pacemaker current ( I f ) were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The proteins F-actin and vinculin were examined between various groups of SAN cells using a microplate reader and laser scanning confocal microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Luiza V S Magalhães, Maria Isabel B Winckler, José Augusto Bragatti, Renato S Procianoy, Rita C Silveira
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between abnormal early amplitude integrated electroencephalography (EEG) and severe lesions in imaging tests performed during the neonatal period in very low birth weight infants. METHODS: An amplitude-integrated EEG was performed in 70 patients with a mean birth weight of 1226 g during the first 48 hours of life. Severe lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasonography (US) during the neonatal period were considered as adverse conditions...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Antti Holsti, Fredrik Serenius, Aijaz Farooqi
AIM: More infants born extremely preterm (EPT) are surviving, but major neonatal morbidities are consistently high. This study examined the impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), brain injuries and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) on adolescents who were born EPT. METHODS: We focused on EPT infants born at 23-25 weeks at the Swedish university hospitals in Uppsala and Umeå from January 1992 to December 1998. The poor outcome data covered 140/142 who survived to 36 weeks and the chronic conditions data reported by parents covered 132/134 still alive at 10-15 years...
June 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Ting Guo, Vann Chau, Shabnam Peyvandi, Beatrice Latal, Patrick S McQuillen, Walter Knirsch, Anne Synnes, Maria Feldmann, Nadja Naef, M Mallar Chakravarty, Alessandra De Petrillo, Emma G Duerden, A James Barkovich, Steven P Miller
BACKGROUND: Neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at high risk of punctate white matter injury (WMI) and impaired brain development. We hypothesized that WMI in CHD neonates occurs in a characteristic distribution that shares topology with preterm WMI and that lower birth gestational age (GA) is associated with larger WMI volume. OBJECTIVE: (1) To quantitatively assess the volume and location of WMI in CHD neonates across three centres. (2) To compare the volume and spatial distribution of WMI between term CHD neonates and preterm neonates using lesion mapping...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Andrew J Satin
Simulation in obstetrics is a widely accepted and valuable tool that benefits all levels of learners from medical students to maternal-fetal medicine subspecialists. What began as an adjunct to medical education now has a rapidly expanding role in acquisition of new and innovative procedures, team and unit training, and safety and quality initiatives. The number of obstetric simulation peer-reviewed reports has increased exponentially in recent years, yet only a small percentage of reports primarily addresses clinical outcomes...
June 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Cletus Cheyuo, Rahul Singh, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Cesar Serrano
Growing skull fracture remains a rare but clinically significant complication of traumatic skull fractures in children less than 3 years of age. Dog attacks on children commonly cause head and neck injuries. We report the first case of growing skull fracture caused by a Rottweiler bite in a 21 days old neonate. Early diagnosis and surgical repair resulted in excellent outcome.
2018: Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology
Dennis J Matthews
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Ashraf R Amer, Dorothy E Oorschot
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity. It generates primary neuronal damage of the neonatal brain and later secondary damage when reperfusion of the ischemic brain tissue causes a surge of oxygen free radicals and inflammation. This post-hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a leading cause of motor and intellectual disabilities in survivors. Research worldwide has focused on mitigating this injury. Mild or moderate hypothermia is the standard treatment in many centers. However, its benefit is modest and the search for combinatorial effective neuroprotectants continues...
February 27, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Olivier Poujade, Elie Azria, Pierre-François Ceccaldi, Carine Davitian, Carine Khater, Paul Chatel, Emilie Pernin, Nizar Aflak, Martin Koskas, Agnès Bourgeois-Moine, Laurence Hamou-Plotkine, Morgane Valentin, Jean-Paul Renner, Carine Roy, Candice Estellat, Dominique Luton
OBJECTIVE: Shoulder dystocia is a major obstetric emergency defined as a failure of delivery of the fetal shoulder(s). This study evaluated whether an obstetric maneuver, the push back maneuver performed gently on the fetal head during delivery, could reduce the risk of shoulder dystocia. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a multicenter, randomized, single-blind trial to compare the push back maneuver with usual care in parturient women at term. The primary outcome, shoulder dystocia, was considered to have occurred if, after delivery of the fetal head, any additional obstetric maneuver, beginning with the McRoberts maneuver, other than gentle downward traction and episiotomy was required...
June 4, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Li Yang, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Pranavkumar Shivakumar, Reena Mourya, Zhenhua Luo, Sridevi Gutta, Jorge A Bezerra
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biliary atresia (BA) results from a neonatal inflammatory and fibrosing obstruction of bile ducts of unknown etiology. Although the innate immune system has been linked to virus-induced mechanism of disease, the role of the inflammasome-mediated epithelial injury remains largely undefined. Here, we hypothesized that disruption of the inflammasome suppresses the neonatal proinflammatory response and prevents experimental BA. METHODS: We determined the expression of key inflammasome-related genes in livers from infants at diagnosis of BA and in extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDs) of neonatal mice after infection with rotavirus (RRV) immediately after birth...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Hannah C Glass, Adam L Numis, Dawn Gano, Varun Bali, Elizabeth E Rogers
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures due to acute brain injury are associated with high rates of death, disability, and epilepsy. Our objective was to examine incidence of and risk factors for epilepsy among survivors of acute symptomatic neonatal seizures who were cared for by a neonatal neurocritical care service. METHODS: Neonates with acute symptomatic seizures who were admitted to UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Neuro-Intensive Care Nursery from July 2008 to June 2014 were considered for inclusion...
April 20, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Marina Lopes Mechler, Felipe Dos Santos Gomes, Karla Alvarenga Nascimento, Andressa de Souza-Pollo, Felipe Ferreira Barbosa Pires, Samir Issa Samara, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira
Congenital tremor in pigs involves several etiologies, including pestivirus, which may cause neurological injuries in different animal species. To evaluate whether bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an important pestivirus, is one of the etiological agents of congenital tremor in swine, gilts and the fetuses were challenged at 45 days of gestation with BVDV-2. Four pregnant gilts were inoculated oronasally, four gilts underwent fetal intrauterine inoculation, and two gilts constituted the control group. Antibody titers were determined by virus neutralization (VN), and viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Chelsie L Brewer, Mark L Baccei
Clinical and basic science research have revealed persistent effects of early life injury on nociceptive processing and resulting pain sensitivity. While recent work has identified clear deficits in fast GABAA - and glycine receptor-mediated inhibition in the adult spinal dorsal horn after neonatal tissue damage, the effects of early injury on slow, metabotropic inhibition within spinal pain circuits are poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that neonatal surgical incision significantly enhances postsynaptic GABAB receptor signaling within the mature superficial dorsal horn (SDH) in a cell type-dependent manner...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Chun Wu, Zhengxia Pan, Yuhao Wu, Quan Wang, Yonggang Li, Yong An, Hongbo Li, Gang Wang, Yi Wang, Jiangtao Dai
PURPOSE: To summarize the etiology and treatment of 119 patients with chylothorax in our hospital. METHODS: A total of 119 patients with chylothorax, divided into a neonate group, an infant group, and an older-than-1-year group, were included in our study and analyzed from January 2000 to July 2017 in the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. RESULTS: A total of 90 males and 29 females were included in our study. In the neonate group, 21 chylothorax cases were due to idiopathic factors, constituting 72...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ali Al-Rubaie, Andrea F Wise, Foula Sozo, Robert De Matteo, Chrishan S Samuel, Richard Harding, Sharon D Ricardo
BACKGROUND: Exposure to high levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) after birth leads to lung injury. Our aims were to investigate the modulation of myeloid cell sub-populations and the reduction of fibrosis in the lungs following administration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia. METHOD: Newborn mice were exposed to 90% O2 (hyperoxia) or 21% O2 (normoxia) from postnatal days 0-4. A sub-group of hyperoxia mice were injected intratracheally with 2...
June 8, 2018: Respiratory Research
Anjali Sharma, Joshua E Porterfield, Elizabeth Smith, Rishi Sharma, Sujatha Kannan, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
Neurotherapeutics for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders must overcome challenges relating to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), brain tissue penetration, and the targeting of specific cells. Neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia is a major hallmark of several neurological disorders, making these cells a desirable therapeutic target. Building on the promise of hydroxyl-terminated generation four polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (D4-OH) for penetrating the injured BBB and targeting activated glia, we explored if conjugation of targeting ligands would enhance and modify brain and organ uptake...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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