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Neonatal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442209/capillary-rarefaction-and-altered-renal-development-the-imbalance-between-pro-and-anti-angiogenic-factors-in-response-to-angiotensin-ii-inhibition-in-the-developing-rat-kidney
#1
Kee Hwan Yoo, Hyung Eun Yim, Eun Soo Bae, Young Sook Hong
Proper and timely assembly of the kidney vasculature with their respective nephrons is crucial during normal kidney development. In this study, we investigated the effects of enalapril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) on angiogenesis-related gene expression and microvascular endothelium related to glomeular and tubular changes in the neonatal rat kidney. Enalapril-treated rats had higher tubular injury scores and lower glomerular maturity grades than those of untreated rats. In the enalapril-treated group, intrarenal angiopoietin-2, Tie-2, and thrombospondin-1 protein expression increased, whereas intrarenal angiopoietin-1 protein expression decreased...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439909/prediction-of-outcome-in-asphyxiated-newborns-treated-with-hypothermia-is-a-mri-scoring-system-described-before-the-cooling-era-still-useful
#2
Fatema Al Amrani, Jaclyn Marcovitz, Priscille-Nice Sanon, May Khairy, Christine Saint-Martin, Michael Shevell, Pia Wintermark
AIM: To determine whether an MRI scoring system, which was validated in the pre-cooling era, can still predict the neurodevelopmental outcome of asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia at 2 years of age. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia. An MRI scoring system, which was validated in the pre-cooling era, was used to grade the severity of brain injury on the neonatal brain MRI. Their neurodevelopment was assessed around 2 years of age; adverse outcome included cerebral palsy, global developmental delay, and/or epilepsy...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436652/neuronalinjury-and-roles-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-a-neonatal-rat-model-of-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-periventricular-leukomalacia
#3
Lin Qiao, Jianhua Fu, Xindong Xue, Yongyan Shi, Li Yao, Wanjie Huang, Jun Li, Dan Zhang, Na Liu, Xin Tong, Yanna Du, Yuqing Pan
As research into periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) gradually increases, concerns are emerging about long‑term neuron injury. The present study aimed to investigate neuronal injury and the relevant alterations in apoptosis and autophagy in a PVL model established previously. A rat model of hypoxia‑ischemia‑induced PVL was established. In the model group, Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats [postnatal day 3 (P3)] were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by suturing and exposed to 6‑8% oxygen for 2 h; in the control group, SD rats (P3) were subjected to right common carotid artery dissection followed by suturing, without ligation and hypoxic exposure...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433417/clinical-findings-and-neurologic-outcome-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-with-white-matter-injury-accompanied-by-rotavirus
#4
Jae Kyun Ku, Young Jin Heo, Keun Soo Lee, Bo Lyun Lee
Our objective was to elucidate the clinical characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonatal encephalopathy with characteristic white matter injury as compared with other injury patterns on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging. We conducted a retrospective study comparing clinical and laboratory findings, and neurologic outcomes between 17 newborns with diffuse lesions in the periventricular white matter and white matter tract (group I) and 22 newborns with other patterns (group II). Stool samples indicated that 16 neonates (94...
March 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432836/quercetin-attenuates-the-hyperoxic-lung-injury-in-neonatal-mice-implications-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-bpd
#5
Paramahamsa Maturu, Yanhong Wei-Liang, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, Weiwu Jiang, Lihua Wang, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Xanthi I Couroucli
Quercetin (QU) is one of the most common flavonoids that are present in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and beverages. This compound possesses potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants with pulmonary insufficiency. However, hyperoxia is one of the major risk factors for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is also termed chronic lung disease in premature infants. Currently, no preventive approaches have been reported against BPD...
February 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432217/prematurity-and-future-kidney-health-the-growing-risk-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Michelle C Starr, Sangeeta R Hingorani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the role prematurity plays in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to discuss potential reasons for this association including decreased nephron mass, as well as postnatal insults such as neonatal acute kidney injury (nAKI). RECENT FINDINGS: New observational studies in humans and experimental studies in animal models have strengthened the association between prematurity, low birth weight and CKD...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431872/interventions-to-prevent-hypothermia-at-birth-in-preterm-and-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#7
REVIEW
Emma M McCall, Fiona Alderdice, Henry L Halliday, Sunita Vohra, Linda Johnston
BACKGROUND: Newborn admission temperature is a strong predictor of outcomes across all gestations. Hypothermia immediately after birth remains a worldwide issue and, if prolonged, is associated with harm. Keeping preterm infants warm is difficult even when recommended routine thermal care guidelines are followed in the delivery room. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room, compared with routine thermal care or any other single/combination of intervention(s) also designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room...
February 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429559/epo-improved-neurologic-outcome-in-rat-pups-late-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Michelle E Schober, Daniela F Requena, Christopher K Rodesch
In adult rats, erythropoietin improved outcomes early and late after traumatic brain injury, associated with increased levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor. Using our model of pediatric traumatic brain injury, controlled cortical impact in 17-day old rats, we previously showed that erythropoietin increased hippocampal neuronal fraction in the first two days after injury. Erythropoietin also decreased activation of caspase3, an apoptotic enzyme modulated by Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, and improved Novel Object Recognition testing 14 days after injury...
February 8, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429468/-research-advances-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-neonates
#9
Xin Gan, Juan Li
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a catastrophic disease caused by a variety of factors in neonates, especially preterm infants. Severe NEC has a high fatality rate, and most survivors may face short- and long-term adverse prognosis. Risk factors for NEC include preterm birth, non-breastfeeding, microbial abnormalities in the digestive tract, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. High-resolution abdominal ultrasound helps with the early diagnosis of NEC. The preventive measures for NEC include protecting the intestinal mucosa through nutritional intervention, interfering with intestinal injury signals, changing intestinal microflora, and performing early minimal enteral nutrition...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429453/-correlation-between-magnetic-resonance-imaging-score-and-clinical-grading-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#10
Rui-Hua Ba, Jian Mao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score and clinical grading in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). METHODS: Clinical grading was performed for 61 neonates with HIE according to the HIE clinical grading standard. The modified MRI scoring system was used to determine the injury scores on different MRI sequences. The correlation between HIE imaging score and clinical severity was analyzed. RESULTS: The MRI score in neonates with moderate HIE was significantly lower than that in those with severe HIE (P<0...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428947/a-combination-of-the-aerosolized-ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-pioglitazone-and-a-synthetic-surfactant-protein-b-peptide-mimic-prevents-hyperoxia-induced-neonatal-lung-injury-in-rats
#11
Reiko Sakurai, Cindy Lee, Humphrey Shen, Alan J Waring, Frans J Walther, Virender K Rehan
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in perinatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants has not decreased. Postnatal surfactant therapy provides symptomatic relief from respiratory distress syndrome, but does not translate into a reduction in BPD. Therefore, the search for effective interventions to prevent BPD continues. OBJECTIVES: Since PPAR-γ agonists have been demonstrated to promote neonatal lung maturation and injury repair, we hypothesized that a formulation of a PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone (PGZ) and a synthetic lung surfactant (a surfactant protein B peptide mimic, B-YL) combined would stimulate lung maturation and block hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury more effectively than either modality alone...
February 9, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428742/short-communication-roles-of-outer-membrane-protein-w-ompw-on-survival-and-biofilm-formation-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-under-neomycin-sulfate-stress
#12
Yingwang Ye, Na Ling, Jina Gao, Maofeng Zhang, Xiyan Zhang, Liaowang Tong, Dexin Ou, Yaping Wang, Jumei Zhang, Qingping Wu
Cronobacter sakazakii is associated with severe infections including sepsis, neonatal meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Antibiotic resistance in Cronobacter species has been documented in recent years, but the genes involved in resistance in Cronobacter strains are poorly understood. In this study, we determined the role of outer membrane protein W (OmpW) on survival rates, morphologic changes, and biofilm formation between wild type (WT) and an OmpW mutant strain (ΔOmpW) under neomycin sulfate stress...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428721/gas5-knockdown-protects-against-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-neonatal-brain-injury
#13
Rui-Bin Zhao, Li-Hua Zhu, Jia-Ping Shu, Li-Xing Qiao, Zheng-Kun Xia
Hypoxic/ischemic brain damage (HIBD) leads to high neonatal mortality and severe neurologic morbidity. However, the molecular mechanism of HIBD in the neonatal infant is still elusive. Long non-coding RNAs are shown as important regulators of brain development and many neurological diseases. Here, we determined the role of long noncoding RNA-GAS5 in HIBD. GAS5 expression was significantly up-regulated in hypoxic/ischemic-injured neonatal brain and hippocampal neurons. GAS5 knockdown protected against hypoxic/ischemic-induced brain injury in vivo and primary hippocampal neuron injury in vitro...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428154/neonatal-infection-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-registry-based-cohort-study
#14
Anne-Sophie Smilga, Jarred Garfinkle, Pamela Ng, John Andersen, David Buckley, Darcy Fehlings, Adam Kirton, Ellen Wood, Esias van Rensburg, Michael Shevell, Maryam Oskoui
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to explore the association between neonatal infection and outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Canadian CP Registry. Neonatal infection was defined as meeting one of the following criteria: (1) septicemia, (2) septic shock, or (3) administration of antibiotics for ≥10 days. Phenotypic profiles of children with cerebral palsy with and without an antecedent neonatal infection were compared...
December 13, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426806/neonatal-epilepsies-clinical-management
#15
REVIEW
Marie-Coralie Cornet, Tristan T Sands, Maria Roberta Cilio
Whereas the majority of seizures in neonates are related to acute brain injury, a substantial minority are the first symptom of a neonatal-onset epilepsy, often linked to a pathogenic genetic variant. This defect may disrupt cortical development (e.g., lissencephaly, focal cortical dysplasia), lead to metabolic changes (e.g., pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, sulfite oxidase deficiency) or lead to cortical dysfunction without metabolic or macroscopic structural changes (e.g., channelopathies, STXBP1). Historically, studies on treatment response and long-term consequences of neonatal seizures have lumped all etiologies together...
January 31, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426320/supporting-play-exploration-and-early-developmental-intervention-versus-usual-care-to-enhance-development-outcomes-during-the-transition-from-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-to-home-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Stacey C Dusing, Tanya Tripathi, Emily C Marcinowski, Leroy R Thacker, Lisa F Brown, Karen D Hendricks-Muñoz
BACKGROUND: While therapy services may start in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) there is often a gap in therapy after discharge. Supporting Play Exploration and Early Development Intervention (SPEEDI) supports parents, helping them build capacity to provide developmentally supportive opportunities starting in the NICU and continuing at home. The purpose of this single blinded randomized pilot clinical trial was to evaluate the initial efficacy of SPEEDI to improve early reaching and exploratory problem solving behaviors...
February 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425795/postconditioning-with-repeated-mild-hypoxia-protects-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemic-rats-against-brain-damage-and-promotes-rehabilitation-of-brain-function
#17
Yanqun Chang, Qingqing Deng, Xiaomao Cheng, Xingang Luo, Jing Zhang, Xiaoyuan Tang
RATIONALE: Mild hypoxia conditioning induced by repeated episodes of transient ischemia is a clinically applicable method for protecting the brain against injury after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning on brain damage and long-term neural functional recovery after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage. METHODS: and Results Rats received different protocols of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424908/hyperoxia-induces-the-apoptosis-of-alveolar-epithelial-cells-and-changes-of-pulmonary-surfactant-proteins
#18
Y Jin, L-Q Peng, A-L Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the changes of surfactant protein C, D (SP-C, SP-D) and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lung injury of neonatal rats induced by hyperoxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided neonatal rats within 24 hours into two groups randomly: the air group (n = 50) and the hyperoxia group (n = 50). Rats in the air group and hyperoxia group were bred conventionally and in tanks with normal pressure and 90% concentration of oxygen, respectively...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422314/dental-pathology-of-the-grey-fox-urocyon-cinereoargenteus
#19
J V Evenhuis, I Zisman, P H Kass, F J M Verstraete
Museum specimens from 637 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. Of the 637 specimens, 569 were included for further examination. The study population included more males (n = 261, 45.9%) than females (n = 196, 34.4%) and animals of unknown sex (n = 112, 19.7%). Additionally, 481 (84.5%) adults, 67 (11.8%) young adults and 21 (3.7%) individuals of unknown age comprised the study population, with juveniles and neonates excluded. The number of teeth present for examination was 23,066 (96...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421958/treating-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-with-autologous-stem-cell-therapy
#20
Shyam Dewan, Samantha Schimmel, Cesar V Borlongan
Neonatal traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of developmental disorders. Autologous stem cell therapy may enhance neonatal brain plasticity towards repair of the injured neonatal brain. Areas Covered: The endogenous neonatal anti-inflammatory response can be enhanced by biological treatments. Stem cell therapy stands as a robust approach for sequestering the inflammation-induced cell death in the injured brain. Here, we discuss the use of umbilical cord blood cells and bone marrow stromal cells for acute and chronic treatment of experimental neonatal TBI...
February 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
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