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Neonatal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691876/waking-up-too-early-the-consequences-of-preterm-birth-on-sleep-development
#1
Laura Bennet, David W Walker, Rosemary S C Horne
Good quality sleep of sufficient duration is vital for optimal physiological function and our health. Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired neurocognitive function and emotional control, and increases the risk for cardiometabolic diseases, obesity and cancer. Sleep develops during fetal life with the emergence of a recognisable pattern of sleep states in the preterm fetus associated with the development, maturation, and connectivity within neural networks in the brain. Despite the physiological importance of sleep, surprisingly little is known about how sleep develops in individuals born preterm...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689742/microsurgical-repair-of-neonatal-iliac-artery-injuries-with-saphenous-vein-grafts
#2
Karri A Adamson, Matthew E Braza, John A LoGiudice, William W Dzwierzynski
Two neonates with congenital heart disease, one and thirty-one days old respectively, suffered inadvertent arterial injury from cardiac catheterization. Both insults resulted in unrecognized avulsion of the external iliac artery from its origin. The patients quickly decompensated, with their right lower extremities becoming critically ischemic. In both cases, segments of reversed greater saphenous vein were used as interposition grafts from the common iliac artery to the common femoral artery. Reperfusion of the right foot was immediate for the one-day-old...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689584/bedside-ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-needle-aspiration-of-intra-and-extra-axial-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-neonates
#3
Mehmet N Cizmeci, Liesbeth Thewissen, Alexandra Zecic, Peter A Woerdeman, Bart de Boer, Edward Baert, Paul Govaert, Jeroen Dudink, Floris Groenendaal, Maarten Lequin, Linda S de Vries
Intracranial hemorrhage is an important cause of brain injury in the neonatal population and bedside percutaneous needle aspiration has emerged as an alternative due to the major risks that can be caused by standard neurosurgical decompression. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of this minimally invasive bedside technique and conducted a retrospective analysis of all newborn infants with a large extra-axial hemorrhage associated with a parenchymal hemorrhage causing a midline shift, managed at three academic centers over a 15-year period...
April 24, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689578/peripartum-morbidity-after-cesarean-delivery-for-arrest-of-dilation-at-4-to-5-cm-compared-with-6-to-10-cm
#4
Joshua D Dahlke, Jeffrey D Sperling, Phinnara Has, Todd R Lovgren, Brendan D Connealy, Dwight J Rouse
OBJECTIVE:  Given that recent consensus guidelines established to decrease cesarean delivery (CD) rates use 6 cm to define the onset of the active phase of labor, our objective was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes after CD for the indication of arrest of dilation at 4 to 5 cm compared with ≥ 6 cm. STUDY DESIGN:  We performed a secondary analysis using data from the Maternal Fetal-Medicine Units Network Cesarean Registry. We included nulliparous women with term, singleton, vertex gestations who underwent primary CD for arrest of dilation...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682374/delayed-appearance-of-a-traumatic-fetal-intracranial-hemorrhage
#5
Kelly Yamasato, Nicole Kurata, Dena Towner
Background: Fetal intracranial injury is a potentially devastating sequelae of maternal trauma, but there is little guidance regarding fetal evaluation in this setting. Case: A 23-year-old woman at 27-week gestation was admitted after a high-speed motor vehicle accident. The initial obstetrical ultrasound was unremarkable, but persistently minimal fetal heart rate variability was observed. Ultrasound on day 3 after the accident showed an intracranial hyperechogenic lesion and subdural fluid collection...
2018: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681183/neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-emerging-therapeutic-strategies-based-on-pathophysiologic-phases-of-the-injury
#6
Qiuli Wang, Hongyan Lv, Lixin Lu, Pengshun Ren, Lianxiang Li
Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of neonatal death and disability. At present, there is no unified standard and specialized treatment method for neonatal HIE. In clinical practice, we have found that a gap remains between preclinical medical research and clinical application in treatment of neonatal HIE. To promote an organic combination of preclinical research and clinical application, we propose the different phases as intervention targets, based on the pathophysiologic changes in phases I, II, and III of neonatal HIE; moreover, we suggest transformative medicine as a principle that may improve the therapeutic effect by blocking the progression of the disease to an irreversible stage...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680746/monocyte-activation-and-inflammation-can-exacerbate-treg-th17-imbalance-in-infants-with-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#7
Yin Pang, Xiaoya Du, Xueli Xu, Mengjie Wang, Zhichang Li
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a potentially fatal disease that develops in the intestinal tract of newborn infants. An overactive immune system in the intestinal tract of NEC patients not only propagates inflammation and mediates tissue damage, but may also radiate the disease systemically and impose injury to distant organs. We previously identified impairment in the Treg compartment in NEC patients. Here, we hypothesized that monocytes, which could promote iTreg differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, were dysregulated in NEC infants...
April 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679373/cytokine-producing-b-cells-promote-immune-mediated-bile-duct-injury-in-murine-biliary-atresia
#8
Joseph Bednarek, Brianna Traxinger, Dania Brigham, Jonathan Roach, David Orlicky, Dong Wang, Roberta Pelanda, Cara L Mack
Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal T cell-mediated inflammatory, sclerosing cholangiopathy. In the Rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced neonatal mouse model of BA (murine BA), mice lacking B cells do not develop BA, and the lack of B cells is associated with loss of T cell and macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of B cell-mediated immune activation (antigen presentation versus cytokine production) in murine BA. RESULTS: Normal neonatal B cells in the liver are predominantly at pro-B and pre-B cellular development...
April 20, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679046/impact-of-antenatal-corticosteroids-in-preterm-neonates-based-on-maternal-body-mass-index
#9
Maheer Faden, Sarah D McDonald, Prakeshkumar S Shah, Amit Mukerji
OBJECTIVE: Impact of antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) in context of maternal body mass index (BMI) as it relates to neonatal outcomes remains unclear. We sought to evaluate effects of ACS on clinical outcomes of preterm infants based on maternal BMI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study among neonates 23-33 weeks' GA at a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit from 2011 to 2015. Outcomes of neonates exposed to any ACS and pre-pregnancy maternal BMI ≥ 25 (N = 491) were compared with maternal BMI < 25 (N = 484)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678206/biliverdin-reductase-a-attenuated-gmh-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-spleen-by-inhibiting-toll-like-receptor-4-through-enos-no-pathway
#10
Yiting Zhang, Yan Ding, Tai Lu, Yixin Zhang, Ningbo Xu, Devin W McBride, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is a common neurologic event with high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Spleen has been reported to play a critical role in inflammatory responses by regulating peripheral immune cells which contributes to secondary brain injury. METHODS: The current study investigated the mechanistic role of biliverdin reductase-A (BLVRA) in the splenic response and brain damage in neonates following a collagenase GMH model...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674965/development-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-inhibitors-for-cardioprotection
#11
Péter Bencsik, Krisztina Kupai, Anikó Görbe, Éva Kenyeres, Zoltán V Varga, János Pálóczi, Renáta Gáspár, László Kovács, Lutz Weber, Ferenc Takács, István Hajdú, Gabriella Fabó, Sándor Cseh, László Barna, Tamás Csont, Csaba Csonka, György Dormán, Péter Ferdinandy
The objective of our present study is to develop novel inhibitors for MMP-2 for acute cardioprotection. In a series of pilot studies, novel substituted carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized based on imidazole and thiazole scaffolds and then tested in a screeening cascade for MMP inhibition. We found that the MMP-inhibiting effects of imidazole and thiazole carboxylic acid-based compounds are superior in efficacy in comparison to the conventional hydroxamic acid derivatives of the same molecules. Based on these results, a 568-membered focused library of imidazole and thiazole compounds was generated in silico and then the library members were docked to the 3D model of MMP-2 followed by an in vitro medium throughput screening (MTS) based on a fluorescent assay employing MMP-2 catalytic domain...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674624/brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-repair-by-implantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-seeded-onto-polymer-scaffolds
#12
Jeong Eun Shin, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Haejin Lee, Il-Sun Kim, Bae Hwan Lee, Il-Shin Lee, Kook In Park
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) lead to extensive tissue loss and axonal degeneration. The combined application of the polymer scaffold and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has been reported to enhance neural repair, protection and regeneration through multiple modes of action following neural injury. This study investigated the reparative ability and therapeutic potentials of biological bridges composed of human fetal brain-derived NPCs seeded upon poly(glycolic acid)-based scaffold implanted into the infarction cavity of a neonatal HI brain injury or the hemisection cavity in an adult SCI...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672298/intermittent-hypoxia-inhibits-na-h-exchange-mediated-acid-extrusion-via-intracellular-na-accumulation-in-cardiomyocytes
#13
Huai-Ren Chang, Chih-Feng Lien, Jing-Ren Jeng, Jen-Che Hsieh, Chen-Wei Chang, Jian-Hong Lin, Kun-Ta Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been shown to exert preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects. It also has been reported that IH preserves intracellular pH (pHi) during ischemia and protects cardiomyocytes against ischemic reperfusion injury. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: In this study, we used proton indicator BCECF-AM to analyze the rate of pHi recovery from acidosis in the IH model of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were first treated with repetitive hypoxia-normoxia cycles for 1-4 days...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669946/pravastatin-therapy-during-preeclampsia-prevents-long-term-adverse-health-effects-in-mice
#14
Nicola Garrett, Joaquim Pombo, Michelle Umpierrez, James E Clark, Mark Simmons, Guillermina Girardi
Preeclampsia (PE), associates with long-term increased risk for cardiovascular disease in women, suggesting that PE is not an isolated disease of pregnancy. It is not known if increased risk for long-term diseases is due to PE-specific factors or to prepregnancy renal and cardiovascular risk factors. We used a mouse model in which a WT female with normal prepregnancy health develops PE to investigate if preeclampsia causes long-term cardiovascular consequences after pregnancy for mothers and offspring. Mothers exhibited endothelial dysfunction and hypertension after PE and had glomerular injury that not only persisted but deteriorated, leading to fibrosis...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669712/er-chaperone-grp78-protects-heart-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-akt-activation
#15
Xukun Bi, Guangyu Zhang, Xiaoding Wang, Chau Yt Nguyen, Herman I May, Xiaoting Li, Ali Al-Hashimi, Richard C Austin, Thomas G Gillette, Guo Sheng Fu, Zhao V Wang, Joseph A Hill
<u>Rationale:</u> Restoration of coronary artery blood flow is the most effective means of ameliorating myocardial damage triggered by ischemic heart disease. However, coronary reperfusion elicits an increment of additional injury to the myocardium. Accumulating evidence indicates that the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cardiomyocytes is activated by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Xbp1s, the most highly conserved branch of the UPR, is protective in response to cardiac I/R injury. GRP78, a master regulator of the UPR and an Xbp1s target, is up-regulated after I/R...
April 18, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668026/nicu-graduates-the-role-of-the-allied-health-team-in-follow-up
#16
Jane L Orton, Joy E Olsen, Katherine Ong, Rochelle Lester, Alicia J Spittle
Infants who graduate from the neonatal intensive care unit, including those infants born preterm and/or with brain injury, are at increased risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. The developmental allied health team, consisting of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology, is crucial in early evaluation of gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and language development. Surveillance of neurodevelopment in the first year of life is essential to ensure early detection of specific developmental delays and impairments, and to ensure timely referral for early intervention...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667173/efficacy-of-corticosteroids-in-prevention-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-neonates-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
T Jahnukainen, J Keski-Nisula, J Tainio, H Valkonen, T Pätilä, H Jalanko, P Suominen
BACKGROUND: Heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes an inflammatory response which may further induce acute kidney injury (AKI). In the present randomized controlled study we evaluated whether corticosteroids can prevent CPB related AKI in neonates undergoing heart surgery. METHODS: Forty neonates were randomized to receive 2 mg/kg methylprednisolone followed by hydrocortisone infusion 0.2 mg/kg/h perioperatively with tapering doses for 5 days, or placebo administered in a similar fashion...
April 17, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664414/enhanced-total-neurite-outgrowth-and-secondary-branching-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-elicited-by-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound
#18
Daniel Michael Ventre, Marissa Puzan, Emily Ashbolt, Abigail Koppes
OBJECTIVE: Despite the prevalence of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), challenges remain in restoring full functionality to those afflicted. For recovery to occur, axons must extend across the injury site to connect with distal targets, where injury gap size is a critical factor in the probability of restoration of function. Current clinical therapies often achieve limited neural regeneration, motivating the development of new therapeutic interventions such as biophysical stimulation. APPROACH: To investigate the potential for low intensity, pulsed ultrasonic simulation (LIPUS) to impact peripheral nerve regeneration, primary neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were examined in vitro in response to ultrasound (US)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664051/predictive-value-of-cranial-ultrasound-for-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-very-preterm-infants-with-brain-injury
#19
Xue-Hua Zhang, Shi-Jun Qiu, Wen-Juan Chen, Xi-Rong Gao, Ya Li, Jing Cao, Jing-Jing Zhang
Background: Compared with full-term infants, very preterm infants are more vulnerable to injury and long-term disability and are at high risk of death. The predictive value of ultrasound and imaging on the neurodevelopment is one of the hot topics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cranial ultrasound (cUS) variables and neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm infants. Methods: Totally 129 very preterm infants (gestational age ≤28 weeks) in neonatal intensive care unit of Hunan Children's Hospital between January 2012 and November 2014 were included in this retrospective study...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664021/a-tlr-akt-foxo3-immune-tolerance-like-pathway-disrupts-the-repair-capacity-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#20
Taasin Srivastava, Parham Diba, Justin M Dean, Fatima Banine, Daniel Shaver, Matthew Hagen, Xi Gong, Weiping Su, Ben Emery, Daniel L Marks, Edward N Harris, Bruce Baggenstoss, Paul H Weigel, Larry S Sherman, Stephen A Back
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) persistently disrupts myelin regeneration by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We identified a specific bioactive hyaluronan fragment (bHAf) that downregulates myelin gene expression and chronically blocks OPC maturation and myelination via a tolerance-like mechanism that dysregulates pro-myelination signaling via AKT. Desensitization of AKT occurs via TLR4 but not TLR2 or CD44. OPC differentiation was selectively blocked by bHAf in a maturation-dependent fashion at the late OPC (preOL) stage by a noncanonical TLR4/TRIF pathway that induced persistent activation of the FoxO3 transcription factor downstream of AKT...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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