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Neonatal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534970/correlation-of-four-potential-biomarkers-of-liver-fibrosis-with-liver-function-and-grade-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-a-neonatal-cholestatic-rat-model
#1
Ning Tang, Yaping Zhang, Zeyu Liu, Xuemei Ai, Qinghong Liang
The present study investigated the correlation between four serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis, liver function and pathological hepatic fibrosis grade in neonatal cholestatic rats. A total of 38 Sprague‑Dawley rats, aged 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG), control group (CG) and the blank control group (BCG). EG received intragastric administration of 1% α‑naphthylisothiocyanate, 75 mg/kg, to induce acute cholestasis liver injury, CG and BCG were set as control groups. Blood samples from all groups were collected 48 h following the procedure...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533743/neonatal-hypoxia-ischaemia-mechanisms-models-and-therapeutic-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Lancelot J Millar, Lei Shi, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár
Neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) is the most common cause of death and disability in human neonates, and is often associated with persistent motor, sensory, and cognitive impairment. Improved intensive care technology has increased survival without preventing neurological disorder, increasing morbidity throughout the adult population. Early preventative or neuroprotective interventions have the potential to rescue brain development in neonates, yet only one therapeutic intervention is currently licensed for use in developed countries...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531921/hesperetin-post-treatment-prevents-rat-cardiomyocytes-from-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-in-vitro-via-activating-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#3
Shangfei He, Xianbao Wang, Yongkang Zhong, Lu Tang, Ya Zhang, Yuanna Ling, Zhipeng Tan, Pingzhen Yang, Aihua Chen
Hesperidin (HES), a citrus fruit extract, has beneficial effects on various ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models. Here, we investigated the possible positive effect of hesperetin (HPT), an active metabolite of HES, and identified the potential molecular mechanisms involved in cardiomyocytes H/R-induced injury. To construct the cardiomyocyte model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to 3h of hypoxia followed by 3h of reoxygenation. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected...
May 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530209/reproducible-3d-printed-head-tanks-for-electrical-impedance-tomography-with-realistic-shape-and-conductivity-distribution
#4
James Avery, Kirill Aristovich, Barney Low, David Holder
OBJECTIVE: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has many promising applications in brain injury monitoring. To evaluate both instrumentation and reconstruction algorithms, experiments are first performed in head tanks. Existing methods, whilst accurate, produce a discontinuous conductivity, and are often made by hand, making it hard for other researchers to replicate. APPROACH: We have developed a method for constructing head tanks directly in a 3D printer. Conductivity was controlled through perforations in the skull surface, which allow for saline to pass through...
May 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526544/interleukin-18-gene-deletion-protects-against-sepsis-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-by-inhibiting-pp2a-activity
#5
Yoshitaka Okuhara, Shunichi Yokoe, Toshihiro Iwasaku, Akiyo Eguchi, Koichi Nishimura, Wen Li, Makiko Oboshi, Yoshiro Naito, Toshiaki Mano, Michio Asahi, Haruki Okamura, Tohru Masuyama, Shinichi Hirotani
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) neutralization protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injuries, including myocardial dysfunction. However, the mechanism is yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine whether IL-18 gene deletion prevents sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction and to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying IL-18-mediated cardiotoxicity by LPS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten-week-old male wild-type (WT) and IL-18 knockout (IL-18 KO) mice were intraperitoneally administered LPS...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524786/variation-in-management-of-in-hospital-newborn-falls-a-single-center-experience
#6
Doron J Kahn, Paul D Fisher, Dean A Hertzler
OBJECTIVE There are only 3 small case series in the literature that report on the management of in-hospital newborn falls (NFs), and recommendations are unclear. The authors performed a retrospective review to determine outcome and differences in management and to understand why management of NFs varies at their institution. METHODS All NFs occurring within the authors' institution over a 3.5-year period were reviewed. Post-fall management and outcomes of each incident were compared. RESULTS There were 24 NFs out of 40,349 deliveries (5...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523564/prenatal-and-early-postnatal-environmental-enrichment-reduce-acute-cell-death-and-prevent-neurodevelopment-and-memory-impairments-in-rats-submitted-to-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#7
L E Durán-Carabali, D M Arcego, F K Odorcyk, L Reichert, J L Cordeiro, E F Sanches, L D Freitas, C Dalmaz, A Pagnussat, C A Netto
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental strategy to attenuate the negative effects of different neurological conditions including neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of prenatal and early postnatal EE in animals submitted to neonatal HIE model at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or standard conditions (SC) during pregnancy and lactation periods. Pups of both sexes were assigned to one of four experimental groups, considering the early environmental conditions and the injury: SC-Sham, SC-HIE, EE-sham, and EE-HIE...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518104/neurodevelopmental-reflex-testing-in-neonatal-rat-pups
#8
Antoinette T Nguyen, Edward A Armstrong, Jerome Y Yager
Neurodevelopmental reflex testing is commonly used in clinical practice to assess the maturation of the nervous system. Neurodevelopmental reflexes are also referred to as primitive reflexes. They are sensitive and consistent with later outcomes. Abnormal reflexes are described as an absence, persistence, reappearance, or latency of reflexes, which are predictive indices of infants that are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, often display aberrant developmental reflexes, as would be observed in human infants...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518065/transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-model-of-neonatal-stroke-in-p10-rats
#9
Amara Larpthaveesarp, Fernando F Gonzalez
A number of animal models have been used to study hypoxic-ischemic injury, traumatic injury, global hypoxia, or permanent ischemia in both the immature and mature brain. Stroke occurs commonly in the perinatal period in humans, and transient ischemia-reperfusion is the most common form of stroke in neonates. The reperfusion phase is a critical component of injury progression, which occurs over a period of days to weeks, and of the endogenous response to injury. This postnatal day 10 (p10) rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) creates a unilateral, non-hemorrhagic focal ischemia-reperfusion injury that can be utilized to study the mechanisms of focal injury and repair in the full-term-equivalent brain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514938/characterization-and-standardization-of-cultured-cardiac-fibroblasts-for-ex-vivo-models-of-heart-fibrosis-and-heart-ischemia
#10
Yue Zhou, Arthur Mark Richards, Peipei Wang
A full understanding of cardiac fibroblast (cFB) biology is essential to study the adverse cardiac remodeling and recovery of myocardium infarction. However, compared to cardiac myocytes, cFB are less well-characterized. Important questions including the variability introduced by cell age (neonatal vs. adult), culture conditions (passage, plate coating and culture medium), and responses to stimuli (e.g. hypoxia and drug treatments) have not been well addressed and standardization of techniques is lacking. This variability invites inconsistency and the confounding of study conclusions...
May 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512386/oxidative-stress-biomarkers-establishment-of-reference-values-for-isoprostanes-aopp-and-npbi-in-cord-blood
#11
Mariangela Longini, Elisa Belvisi, Fabrizio Proietti, Francesco Bazzini, Giuseppe Buonocore, Serafina Perrone
Oxidative stress (OS) is a common pathogenic factor involved in the onset of several diseases in humans, from immunologic disorders to malignancy, being a serious public health problem. In perinatal period, OS has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy and neonatal diseases. Dangerous effects of OS are mediated by increased production of free radicals (FRs) following various mechanisms, such as hypoxia, ischemia reperfusion, hyperoxia, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, Fenton chemistry, and prostaglandin metabolism...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511469/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-newborns-with-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-level-3-neonatal-unit-in-western-india
#12
Satvik Chaitanya Bansal, Archana Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Amit R Kungwani, Dipen Vasudev Patel, Ankur Rajinder Sethi, Somashekhar Marutirao Nimbalkar
INTRODUCTION: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a serious condition in neonatal care. It complicates the management necessitating the restrictive use of medications. AIM: To evaluate clinical profile, identify associated and prog-nostic factors in newborns with AKI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a case control study done between January 2008 to January 2010. Total 1745 newborns were admitted, of which 74 babies had AKI. It was defined as serum creatinine >1...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511450/emergency-peripartum-hysterectomy-indications-and-outcome-in-a-tertiary-care-setting
#13
Anshuja Singla, Rajlaxmi Mundhra, Latika Phogat, Sumita Mehta, Shalini Rajaram
INTRODUCTION: Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomy (EPH) is an important lifesaving procedure, mostly reserved for conditions deemed to be serious and life threatening, and not amenable to conservative methods. In the present scenario, the advent of newer medical and conservative surgical methods for controlling obstetric haemorrhage has influenced the incidence, trend and the outcomes of the procedure. AIM: To evaluate the demographic profile, indications, operative details, maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal outcomes of women undergoing EPH...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511187/the-differential-effects-of-erythropoietin-exposure-to-oxidative-stress-on-microglia-and-astrocytes-in-vitro
#14
Praneeti Pathipati, Donna M Ferriero
The neonatal brain is especially susceptible to oxidative stress owing to its reduced antioxidant capacity. Following hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, for example, there is a prolonged elevation in levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the immature brain compared to the adult brain, resulting in lasting injury that can lead to life-long disability or morbidity. Erythropoietin (Epo) is one of few multifaceted treatment options that have been promising enough to trial in the clinic for both term and preterm brain injury...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510235/surfactants-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-infants-and-children-past-present-and-future
#15
REVIEW
Angela Amigoni, Andrea Pettenazzo, Valentina Stritoni, Maria Circelli
There is a lack of definitive data on the effective management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in infants and children. The development and validation of the Berlin definition (BD) for ARDS and the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) recommendations in children represented a major advance in optimizing research and treatment, mainly due to the introduction of a severe ARDS category. Proposed reasons for the lack of consistent results with surfactants in children and infants compared with neonates include different causes, type of lung damage (direct or indirect), timing and mode of administration as well as the type of surfactant used...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#16
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506763/neonatal-hyperoxia-disrupts-the-intestinal-barrier-and-impairs-intestinal-function-in-rats
#17
Hsiu-Chu Chou, Chung-Ming Chen
Animal studies have demonstrated that neonatal hyperoxia injures the distal small intestine and disrupts the intestinal barrier. This study evaluated the effects of brief hyperoxia exposure on intestinal function in newborn rats. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to room air or normobaric hyperoxia (85% O2) for 1week. The rats were euthanized on Postnatal Day 7, and their terminal ilea and sera were collected for histological analyses and intestinal permeability measurements, respectively. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was determined...
May 12, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505223/association-of-short-antenatal-corticosteroid-administration-to-birth-intervals-with-survival-and-morbidity-among-very-preterm-infants-results-from-the-epice-cohort
#18
Mikael Norman, Aurelie Piedvache, Klaus Børch, Lene Drasbek Huusom, Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Elizabeth A Howell, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Rolf F Maier, Ole Pryds, Liis Toome, Heili Varendi, Tom Weber, Emilija Wilson, Arno Van Heijst, Marina Cuttini, Jan Mazela, Henrique Barros, Patrick Van Reempts, Elizabeth S Draper, Jennifer Zeitlin
Importance: Administration-to-birth intervals of antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) vary. The significance of this variation is unclear. Specifically, to our knowledge, the shortest effective administration-to-birth interval is unknown. Objective: To explore the associations between ANS administration-to-birth interval and survival and morbidity among very preterm infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe (EPICE) study, a population-based prospective cohort study, gathered data from 19 regions in 11 European countries in 2011 and 2012 on 4594 singleton infants with gestational ages between 24 and 31 weeks, without severe anomalies and unexposed to repeated courses of ANS...
May 15, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504968/inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-is-involved-in-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-afgf-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischaemic-brain-injury
#19
Yingying Hu, Zhouguang Wang, Shulin Pan, Mingchu Fang, Huai Jiang, Yuqin Mao, Hao Zhang, Yiming Ji, Fabiao Zhang, Li Lin, Zhenlang Lin, Jian Xiao
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental models and human patients. In this study, we investigated whether aFGF intranasal-treatment protected against neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and evaluated the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress. The Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury was used in 7-day-old rats, which were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia. Intranasal aFGF or vehicle was administered immediately after hypoxic-ischaemic injury (100 ng/g) and then twice a day for 1 week to evaluate the long-term effects...
April 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503704/use-of-eeg-in-critically-ill-children-and-neonates-in-the-united-states-of-america
#20
Marina Gaínza-Lein, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Tobias Loddenkemper
The objective of the study was to estimate the proportion of patients who receive an electroencephalogram (EEG) among five common indications for EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: traumatic brain injury (TBI), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), cardiac arrest, cardiac surgery and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We performed a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) for the years 2010-2012. The KID is the largest pediatric inpatient database in the USA and it is based on discharge reports created by hospitals for billing purposes...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
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