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Neonatal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931577/liver-transplantation-in-polish-children-with-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-a-single-center-experience
#1
A Bakula, J Pawlowska, O Niewiadomska, I Jankowska, M Teisseyre, P Kaliciński, P Socha
BACKGROUND: α1-Antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is the most common genetic cause of liver injury in young children. Asymptomatic hepatitis is observed in most patients. However, the course of liver disease due to ATD is unpredictable, and some children develop liver cirrhosis. Liver transplantation (Ltx) dramatically improves their outcome and in some cases is required in the first years of life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the course of the disease in children with ATD treated with Ltx in a single center...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930699/estrogen-protects-the-female-heart-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-phosphorylation-by-mitochondrial-p38%C3%AE-at-threonine-79-and-serine-106
#2
Tao Luo, Han Liu, Jin Kyung Kim
A collective body of evidence indicates that estrogen protects the heart from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. We have previously delineated a novel mechanism of how 17β-estradiol (E2) protects cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) by identifying a functionally active mitochondrial pool of p38β and E2-driven upregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity via p38β, leading to the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929351/expression-of-the-cardiac-maintenance-and-survival-factor-fgf-16-gene-is-regulated-by-csx-nkx2-5-and-is-an-early-target-of-doxorubicin-cardiotoxicity
#3
Jie Wang, Yan Jin, Peter A Cattini
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 16 gene (Fgf-16) is preferentially expressed by neonatal cardiomyocytes after birth, with levels increasing into adulthood. Null mice and isolated heart studies suggest a role for FGF-16 in cardiac maintenance and survival, including increased resistance to doxorubicin (DOX)-induced injury. However, the effect of DOX on endogenous FGF-16 synthesis and specifically regulation of cardiac Fgf-16 expression has not been reported. To assess the effect of DOX on FGF-16 RNA levels and stability, as well as promoter activity and use sequence analysis, knockdown, and overexpression to investigate the role of cardiac transcription factor(s) implicated in the response...
December 8, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929137/inhibition-of-pkr-protects-against-h2o2-induced-injury-on-neonatal-cardiac-myocytes-by-attenuating-apoptosis-and-inflammation
#4
Yongyi Wang, Min Men, Bo Xie, Jianggui Shan, Chengxi Wang, Jidong Liu, Hui Zheng, Wengang Yang, Song Xue, Changfa Guo
Reactive oxygenation species (ROS) generated from reperfusion results in cardiac injury through apoptosis and inflammation, while PKR has the ability to promote apoptosis and inflammation. The aim of the study was to investigate whether PKR is involved in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced neonatal cardiac myocytes (NCM) injury. In our study, NCM, when exposed to H2O2, resulted in persistent activation of PKR due to NCM endogenous RNA. Inhibition of PKR by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) or siRNA protected against H2O2 induced apoptosis and injury...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928554/bleomycin-induced-neonatal-lung-injury-requires-the-autocrine-pulmonary-angiotensin-system
#5
Abdellatif Abdelwahab, Indiwari Gopallawa, Christopher C Piasecki, Ira H Gewolb, Bruce D Uhal
BACKGROUND: Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that apoptosis is regulated by a local angiotensin (ANG) system in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Autocrine generation of angiotensin II (ANGII) in response to endogenous or xenobiotic inducers is required for apoptosis in adult rat AECs and in AEC-derived human lung carcinoma cell line A549. Therefore, we hypothesized that a similar mechanism might also be involved in bleomycin (Bleo)-induced murine neonatal lung injury. METHODS: To investigate the local production of angiotensinogen (AGT) and ANGII in neonatal lung injury, lung explants were obtained from C57/BL6 wild type neonatal mice and were treated with Bleo in the presence or absence of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor...
September 2016: Jacobs J Pulmonol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926646/treatment-of-a-pregnant-patient-in-a-persistent-vegetative-state
#6
Matthew P Romagano, William E Scorza, Stephen E Lammers, Carole Dorr, John C Smulian
BACKGROUND: Brain injury leading to a persistent vegetative state during pregnancy involves difficult medical and ethical decisions. CASE: A 21-year-old multigravid woman entered a persistent vegetative state at 20 1/7 weeks of gestation after cardiac arrest with postanoxic brain injury from a suspected drug overdose. The clinical disciplines responsible for her case formed a collaborative care plan involving ventilator, nutrition, and medication support of the mother and regular fetal monitoring and ultrasound testing...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922501/an-overview-of-congenital-myopathies
#7
Jean K Mah, Jeffrey T Joseph
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article uses a case-based approach to highlight the clinical features as well as recent advances in molecular genetics, muscle imaging, and pathophysiology of the congenital myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Congenital myopathies refer to a heterogeneous group of genetic neuromuscular disorders characterized by early-onset muscle weakness, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Congenital myopathies are further classified into core myopathies, centronuclear myopathies, nemaline myopathies, and congenital fiber-type disproportion based on the key pathologic features found in muscle biopsies...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918382/conventional-versus-prolonged-infusion-of-meropenem-in-neonates-with-gram-negative-late-onset-sepsis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Islam Nour, Heba Elsayed Eldegla, Nehad Nasef, Basma Shouman, Hesham Abdel-Hady
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has been suggested to result in higher microbiologic efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy and safety of prolonged infusions versus conventional dosing of meropenem in neonates with Gram negative late onset sepsis (GN-LOS)...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917436/looking-ahead-where-to-next-for-animal-models-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#9
REVIEW
Claudio Nardiello, Ivana Mižíková, Rory E Morty
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of preterm birth, with appreciable morbidity and mortality in a neonatal intensive care setting. Much interest has been shown in the identification of pathogenic pathways that are amenable to pharmacological manipulation (1) to facilitate the development of novel therapeutic and medical management strategies and (2) to identify the basic mechanisms of late lung development, which remains poorly understood. A number of animal models have therefore been developed and continue to be refined with the aim of recapitulating pathological pulmonary hallmarks noted in lungs from neonates with BPD...
December 5, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916232/neuroinflammation-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#10
REVIEW
Julie A Wixey, Kirat K Chand, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses...
November 25, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916093/-protective-effect-of-interleukin-22-against-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#11
Li Yuan, Xiuxiang Liu, Ruiwei Gao, Jinshuai Ma, Suni Lu, Haihong Zhang
Objective To study the protective effect of interleukin-22 (IL-22) against the hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal SD rats. Methods The neonatal SD rats were randomized into control group, hyperoxia group and IL-22 (10 ng/g) treatment group. Each group was randomly divided into three subgroups of 1, 3, 7 days (n=9). Body mass in every group was detected; lung pathological changes were observed by HE staining; tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in lung tissues was tested by quantitative real-time PCR; and IL-1β in plasma was measured by ELISA...
December 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915463/the-our-hope-approach-for-ethics-and-communication-about-neonatal-neurological-injury
#12
REVIEW
Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Barbara Farlow, Steven Miller, Antoine Payot, Lisa Anne Rasmussen, Michael I Shevell, Donna Thomson, Pia Wintermark
Predicting neurological outcomes of neonates with acute brain injury is an essential component of shared decision-making, in order to guide the development of treatment goals and appropriate care plans. It can aid parents in imagining the child's future, and guide timely and ongoing treatment decisions, including shifting treatment goals and focusing on comfort care. However, numerous challenges have been reported with respect to evidence-based practices for prognostication such as biases about prognosis among clinicians...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915035/hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-children-and-adults
#13
REVIEW
Pratik Shah, Sofia A Rahman, Huseyin Demirbilek, Maria Güemes, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β cells are functionally programmed to release insulin in response to changes in plasma glucose concentration. Insulin secretion is precisely regulated so that, under normal physiological conditions, fasting plasma glucose concentrations are kept within a narrow range of 3·5-5·5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, insulin secretion becomes dysregulated (ie, uncoupled from glucose metabolism) so that insulin secretion persists in the presence of low plasma glucose concentrations. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia is the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913766/myocardial-cytochrome-oxidase-activity-increases-with-age-and-hypoxemia-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#14
Michael Onwugbufor, Richard J Levy, David Zurakowski, Richard A Jonas, Pranava Sinha
BACKGROUND: Myocardial tolerance to ischemia is influenced by age and preoperative cyanosis through unknown mechanisms and significantly affects postoperative outcomes. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcOx), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, may play a role in the susceptibility to ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury. Our study aimed at investigating changes in human myocardial CcOx activity based on age and preoperative oxygen saturation to understand its role in transition from neonatal to mature myocardium and hypoxic conditions...
December 1, 2016: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913427/intermittent-hypoxia-during-recovery-from-neonatal-hyperoxic-lung-injury-causes-long-term-impairment-of-alveolar-development-a-new-rat-model-of-bpd
#15
Anastasiya Mankouski, Crystal Kantores, Mathew J Wong, Julijana Ivanovska, Amish Jain, Eric J Benner, Stanley N Mason, A Keith Tanswell, Richard L Auten, Robert P Jankov
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung injury characterized by impaired alveologenesis that may persist into adulthood. Rat models of BPD using varying degrees of hyperoxia to produce injury either cause early mortality or spontaneously recover following removal of the inciting stimulus, thus limiting clinical relevance. We sought to refine an established rat model induced by exposure to 60% O2 from birth by following hyperoxia with intermittent hypoxia (IH). Rats exposed from birth to air or 60% O2 until day 14 were recovered in air with or without IH (FiO2 = 0...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911768/selective-lesion-of-the-hippocampus-increases-the-differentiation-of-immature-neurons-in-the-monkey-amygdala
#16
Loïc J Chareyron, David G Amaral, Pierre Lavenex
A large population of immature neurons is present in the ventromedial portion of the adult primate amygdala, a region that receives substantial direct projections from the hippocampal formation. Here, we show the effects of neonatal (n = 8) and adult (n = 6) hippocampal lesions on the populations of mature and immature neurons in the paralaminar, lateral, and basal nuclei of the adult monkey amygdala. Compared with unoperated controls (n = 7), the number of mature neurons was about 70% higher in the paralaminar nucleus of neonate- and adult-lesioned monkeys, and 40% higher in the lateral and basal nuclei of neonate-lesioned monkeys...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911395/preparation-of-primary-mixed-glial-cultures-from-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-tissue
#17
Jennifer T Malon, Ling Cao
It has been well-accepted that spinal cord glial responses contribute significantly to the development of neuropathic pain. Tremendous information regarding glial activities at the cellular and molecular levels has been obtained through in vitro cell culture systems. The in vitro systems utilized, mainly include primary glia derived from neonatal brain cortical tissue and immortalized cell lines. However, these systems may not reflect the characteristics of spinal cord glial cells in vivo. In order to further investigate the roles of spinal cord glial cells in the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain using a culture system that better reflects the in vivo condition, our laboratory has developed a method to establish primary spinal cord mixed glial cultures from adult mice...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#18
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904815/pneumorrhachis-resulting-in-transient-paresis-after-picc-line-insertion-into-the-ascending-lumbar-vein
#19
Russell Payne, Emily P Sieg, Arabinda Choudhary, Mark Iantosca
Obtaining intravascular access in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is not only critical but also technically challenging. Malposition of the catheter tip is a known and well-documented complication. Specifically, peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) line insertion into the ascending lumbar vein can lead to neurological dysfunction and, in some cases, even death. We present the first reported case of pneumorrhachis (PR) following PICC line insertion into the ascending lumbar vein. Our patient presented with lower extremity weakness and imaging confirmed the presence of air within the spinal canal...
October 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902983/perinatal-asphyxia-and-erythropoietin-and-vegf-serial-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-responses
#20
Deirdre U Sweetman, Chike Onwuneme, William R Watson, John F A Murphy, Eleanor J Molloy
BACKGROUND: Infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) of hypoxic-ischaemic origin are at risk of oxidative and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, which may induce abnormal inflammatory responses involving excessive cytokine production and release in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Systemic inflammation is found in infants with NE, and we therefore were interested in cytokines associated with hypoxia, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (Epo). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between Epo, VEGF levels, brain injury and outcome in a group of term infants exposed to perinatal asphyxia (PA) compared to controls...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
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