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Rhinoceros beetle

Haofei Jin, Takahiro Yonezawa, Yang Zhong, Hirohisa Kishino, Masami Hasegawa
The giant rhinoceros beetles (Dynastini, Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera) are distributed in tropical and temperate regions in Asia, America and Africa. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the giant rhinoceros beetles can be divided into three clades representing Asia, America and Africa. Although a correlation between their evolution and the continental drift during the Pangean breakup was suggested, there is no accurate divergence time estimation among the three clades based on molecular data...
August 23, 2016: Genes & Genetic Systems
R Zinna, H Gotoh, C S Brent, A Dolezal, A Kraus, T Niimi, D Emlen, L C Lavine
Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males...
August 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Yookyung Lee, Sooyeon Lim, Moon-Soo Rhee, Dong-Ho Chang, Byoung-Chan Kim
Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000.
March 2016: Genomics Data
Sooyeon Lim, Moon-Soo Rhee, Dong-Ho Chang, Byoung-Chan Kim
Erysipelothrix larvae LV19(T) was preliminary isolated from the larval gut of a rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus in Korea. Here, we present the whole genome sequence of E. larvae LV19(T) strain, which consisted of 2,511,486 base pairs with a GC content of 37.4% and one plasmid. Unlike other Erysipelothrix strains (SY 1027, Fujisawa and ATCC 19414), the arsenic-resistance genes were identified in LV19(T) strain.
April 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Stefano Veraldi, Daniele Fanoni, Gianluca Nazzaro
We report a case of rash caused by crushing of a male of Oryctes nasicornis (Linnaeus 1758) (Coleoptera, "http:// it. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Scarabaeidae" \o "Scarabaeidae" Scarabaeidae), popularly known as "European rhinoceros beetle", on the skin of an Italian tourist who developed the reaction during a trip to Turkey. The rash appeared one hour after the crushing of the insect on the skin. The patient was observed one day later, when she returned to Italy. To our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature...
February 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Byung-Ho Bang, Moon-Soo Rhee, Dong-Ho Chang, Doo-Sang Park, Byoung-Chan Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Wataru Kojima
Saprophagous (feeding on decaying matter) insects often use carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cue for finding food. Humus-feeding larvae of the giant rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus exhibit a clumped distribution in natural microhabitats, but the mechanisms driving the distribution were unknown. Herein, I examined whether larvae use CO2 as a cue for fermented humus and aggregate in the vicinity of the food. I found that (i) larvae of T. dichotomus are strongly attracted to CO2, (ii) larvae orient toward highly fermented humus when given a choice between highly and poorly fermented humus, (iii) the highly fermented humus emits more CO2 than the poorly fermented humus, and (iv) larvae grow larger when fed highly fermented humus rather than poorly fermented humus...
2015: PloS One
Sejung Hwang, Kyeongrin Bang, Jiae Lee, Saeyoull Cho
Hemocytes of the last larva of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle A. dichotoma (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were classified as granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. Among these cell types, only the granulocytes became immunologically activated with obvious morphological changes, displaying large amoeba-like, lobopodia-like, and fan-like structures. In addition, their cytoplasmic granules became larger and greatly increased in number. To explore whether these granules could be immunologically generated as phagosomes, total hemocytes were stained with LysoTracker...
2015: PloS One
Seokhyun Lee, Kwan-Ho Park, Sung-Hee Nam, Kyu-Won Kwak, Ji-Young Choi
Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) has been known to cause severe disease in coconut palm rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, in Southeastern Asia and is used as a biological control to reduce the pest population. Here, we report for the first time that the OrNV may have landed on Korea and may be the major pathogen for diseased larvae of Korean horn beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma. After peroral inoculation, over 60% of infected larvae perished in 6 wk. This viral disease spreads very fast in several locations throughout Korea...
2015: Journal of Insect Science
Byung-Ho Bang, Moon-Soo Rhee, Dong-Ho Chang, Doo-Sang Park, Byoung-Chan Kim
A novel, Gram-stain positive, facultative anaerobic, non-motile and straight to curve rod shaped bacterium, strain LV19(T) was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, which was collected from Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea. The colonies of the new isolate were convex, circular, cream white in color and 1-2 mm in diameter after 3 days incubation on Tryptic Soy Agar at 37 °C. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the new isolate was most closely related to Erysipelothrix inopinata MF-EP02(T), E...
February 2015: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
M'hammed Ehsine, Mohamed Sadok Belkadhi, Mohammed Chaieb
The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak...
2014: Journal of Insect Science
A P Ajay Kumar, M Gokuldas
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides play an important role in cellular communication in vertebrates. This is also true for insects in which many physiological, developmental and behavioral processes are affected by neuropeptides produced in neurosecretory cells of the retrocerebral complex. Small neuropeptides of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone family (AKH/RPCH) are one of the important groups of peptides that regulate physiological homeostasis. PURPOSE: The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the primary structure of adipokinetic neuropeptides in the rhinoceros beetle, O...
July 2011: Annals of Neurosciences
Erin L McCullough, Bret W Tobalske, Douglas J Emlen
The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form...
October 7, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yong-Cheng Ren, Yun Wang, Liang Chen, Tao Ke, Feng-Li Hui
Two strains representing Wickerhamiella allomyrinae f.a., sp. nov. were isolated from the gut of Allomyrina dichotoma (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) collected from the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Nanyan, Henan Province, China. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene revealed that this novel species was located in the Wickerhamiella clade (Saccharomycetes, Saccharomycetales), with three described species of the genus Candida, namely Candida musiphila, Candida spandovensis and Candida sergipensis, as the most closely related species...
November 2014: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Wataru Kojima, Yukio Ishikawa, Takuma Takanashi
Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship...
September 2014: Die Naturwissenschaften
Erin L McCullough
The horns of giant rhinoceros beetles are a classic example of the elaborate morphologies that can result from sexual selection. Theory predicts that sexual traits will evolve to be increasingly exaggerated until survival costs balance the reproductive benefits of further trait elaboration. In Trypoxylus dichotomus, long horns confer a competitive advantage to males, yet previous studies have found that they do not incur survival costs. It is therefore unlikely that horn size is limited by the theoretical cost-benefit equilibrium...
July 7, 2014: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
A Johns, H Gotoh, E L McCullough, D J Emlen, L C Lavine
The exaggerated weapons and ornaments of sexual selection are condition-dependent traits that often grow to exaggerated proportions. The horns of male rhinoceros beetles are extremely sensitive to the larval nutritional environment and are used by rival males in combat over access to females. In contrast to horns, other parts of the body, such as wings, eyes, and legs, scale proportionally with body size, whereas others, such as males' external genitalia, are invariant with body size, regardless of nutrition...
October 2014: Integrative and Comparative Biology
A K Chakravarthy, M Chandrashekharaiah, Subhash B Kandakoor, D N Nagaraj
Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6...
May 2014: Journal of Environmental Biology
Matthew Robert Moore, Mary Liz Jameson
The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data...
2013: Journal of Insect Science
Wataru Kojima, Shinji Sugiura, Hiroshi Makihara, Yukio Ishikawa, Takuma Takanashi
Male sexually-selected traits often impose an increased risk of predation on their bearers, causing male-biased predation. We investigated whether males of the sap-feeding Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus were more susceptible to predation than females by comparing the morphology of beetles caught in bait traps with the remains of beetles found on the ground. The males of this species are larger than the females and have a horn on the head. We found that predation pressure was greater for males than for females, and that larger individuals of both sexes were more vulnerable to predation...
March 2014: Zoological Science
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